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because the "members of the House of Commons are, or because they are not the representatives of the people; Eecause they are or because they are not returned by independent electors, that they have suffered the public money to be thus shamefully squandered and misapplied? Misapplied, I add; because we may reasonably be allowed to doubt whether some considerable part has not been applied directly and indirectly to the purposes of corruption, and the purchase of secrecy and indemnity.-Looking, then, to the enormous evils which have arisen from the want of control, let us ask, is there any possible mode but that one which has been suggested; viz. the freedom of election? Is it not indispensible that the representative should feel a consciousness that he is sent to act as the honest agent of his constituents; and that on their good opinion of his conduct, he must entirely depend? To what, then, is the opposite principle, viz. of in difference to the good opinion of the constituent to be attributed? Is it owing to the idea prevailing, that a very great majo-phistry and misrepresentation) would secure rity of the nation have no power of control whatever over those who are styled the representatives of the nation? Is it owing to the knowledge that by far the greater part of those who pay their money in the shape of taxes of every denomination which the ingenuity of man can devise, have no more power of inquiring into the roanagement of it, than a subject of the Grand Seignior, or a

fory answer. At this time the necessity for that answer is daily becoming more urgent; inasmuch, as the burthens which they me told are necessary and unavoidable. The privations to which they are obliged to submit; and the prospects to which they must now look forward, are such that the stoutest heart may well be appalled. The statement of accounts now brought officially before the public eye; as it cannot be disproved, so it is in itself the most convincing, the most i refragable argument in favour of that mea sure which the real friends of the con-fiturion have long seen, to be indispensible to the safety of the country; of that measure which all our most able statesmen have at some time of their political life supported, recommended, and enforced. Their subsequent deliberation of that principle is itself the strongest proof of the absolute necessity of the measure. It is needless to add, that I allade to a reform in the representation of the country; that one only measure, which ( assert it fearlessly, and in defiance of so

the public from future malversations, and eventually save it from total ruin and destruction. It is the only effectual, constitutions! preventative of abuse of every kind, and ci every degree, in the management of the pr lic affairs. Without this other hundreds of millions will be squandered, (if. indeed, they can any longer be raised from the exhausted pockets of the country) other defaulters will native of Olaheite? When a Poltical In-blaze forth in insulting splendenr.Er quirer seeks the awfully majestic repre- thens, such as human nature con scarcey presentative body of this great nation, emsupport, will be heaped upon a sinking phatically stiled" The Commons of Great tion, to furnish forth the ostentatious pr sion of public depredators. Frequently, Sic, have we been told in the high-flow language of oratory, that




we must look


Britain in Parliament assembled," " presumed to emanate from and to be identi«fied with the great mass of the people; touched by their every grievance, and sympathising in all their natural and honourable feelings; does he find such a representative body to exist? Does he not "find" from the most indisputable authority that a decided majority are returned, not by the collected voice of those whom they 1 appear to represent, but under the private patronage, or by the immedia e authority


our dangers manfully in the face." We do, Sir. It has never yet occurred that Bri tons could fear a foreign foe. But, were I to allow myself to enlarge a litle on that es pression, (so frequently trumpeted forth, en every proposition of a new tax) I should say that there are dangers, to which we hit look forward, more frightful and alarming than myriads of foreign invaders, and hels of open foes. We must encounter; nay, we must overcome (or inevitably perish 25 13

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"of 154 individuais ?"-Does then the representative believe (or rather doe- he brow)

himself to be totally indepch lent of the independent nation) that countless mul ile great m. jority of the nation? And, does he, of frauds, abuses, and peculations; (under therefore, ridicule the idea of responsibility, whatever form or name disguised) which except to those by whom he is really returned. must otherwise bring speedy destruction on These, Sir, are questions to which it be- the land. No nation governing itself b hoves the British public to obtain a satisfac- fair and free representation can ever be it. No nation ever yet recorded in the annals of

county of Lincoln, by I. Cartwright, Esq.

* Second letter to the high sheriff of the the world, has been able long to bear up L

der the debilitating consequences of com


tion. The page of history i resents us a pic- Sin; but, by bestowing preferinent in this ture, avful in the extierue. Let but te manner, the parrons abuse a trust, rested in contributors to the tarmoris sums then, fortar dislerent purposes. Are you raised upon the nation, be identified with acquainted, Sir, with the amount of the the elecwrs. Let, by this means responsili- sin necessarily esp nded in t'ie regular edut lity be established. Then (but not till then) cation of a c'erg inn? He must exercise economy shall succeed to profilson ; the most rigiu economy, (and, at a time of nest man igement to fraudulent peculatiu. lite, when economy is but little thong!ıt of), --Then, Sir, having baffled at done this haj- to compleet his education for less than dra which would destroy 1:5, shu ve le £100! And this large expenditure arises envied to defend our native land, and our tivin the state of society; as, the habits of constitution. (the best existing in the world the ciergy, will necessarily alter, with the when wel aúninisterel.) Than bilay we hadiis of those around them. There are bid defiance to hosis of armies, led on by some exhibitions and scholarships at the tyrants, and themselves slaves !--- I re.naio, Universities, but of very small value, as Sir, &c.- -Custos.

most of thein have never been raised since

their institution, by the original founders, CLERGY NON-RESIDENCE.

and benefictors of the colleges. Let us, by -To say that I esteein yo'ır He- way of elucidating my intended argument, gister as far superior to every periodical pub. Suppose the case of a clergym, who has lication of the day, would be lui faintly to espended 21000 (probably all that he is express my admiration of it: nor would worth in the world) preparatory to his entera you, I believe, consider such an assertion, ing the chiurch ; this enables him to underas any very flattering compliment. I shall, take the cure of a parish in the neighbourhowever, venture to congratulate you on the

hood of his birth place : perhaps he also success that has atiended its.publication ; and opens a school; and, by erery exertion of to say, that I feel an honest pride in reflect- his industry, contrives to support his family ing that it has placed you in so independent in some degree of respectability; yet, he a situation. Pursue, Sir, the sanie course cannot sare, out of his little incune, a pitof undeviating rectitude, in your political tance, even sufficient, to piace out his conduct, and a grateful country will ever

children in any trade or profession. Much remember you with that esteem,


less, can he indulge the most distant hope', so justly" prize, beyond all the riches, and of Icaving any thing behind him, when he " all the honors of this world!" I enter- dies! He has now a small living given bin, tain so high an opinion of your liberality, at a great distance from bis place of abode. that I believe you will not value my esteen

He can, therefore, lay by, let us way, 450 the less, although I confess that I differ from a year, for the benefit of his family : he you on two subjects of very considerable now no longer sighs at the sprightly sallies importance: I mean the Slave Trade, and of his children: he does not, in solitude, the Residence of the Clergy. If a few ob. brood over the inevitable misery of their servations, on the residence and pluralities destiny: hope brightens his prospects: he of the clergy, shall be deemed worthy of a now fulfils his duty with pleasure and alacriplace in your Register, I shall be much ty: he lives contented in his humble sphere; obliged by your inserting them. When you and dies in peace with man, and full of exproposed a tax of 20 or £30 a year on every pectation from his God! Would you, Mr. clergyman that did not reside on bis benefice, Cobbett, töke 20 or 301. a yeir, from such I am suspicious, that you had not given the a man as this?mor compel him to reside? subject, so full a consideration, as it merits. And yet I have drawn 10 lincoininon ca:e; Was residence insisted upon with the severi- there are min11', even in the narrow circle ty that you seem to wish, I think that it of my acquaintance, who exactly answer to would be productive of many evil conse- this description! A person, possessed of quences? I am certain that you cannot de- two small livings, is often in the same presire to see the clergy less learned or worse dicament. Buí, you ask, how is the educated, than they are ar present: but a church of the Non-Resident Clergy man to severe prohibition of pluralities and non-re- be supplied with regular duty? To this I sidence, would, necessarily, have this effect. reply, that there are a great number of That, living is added to living; and pre- young men, who come to our Universities bend to prebend; and, that the most illile- absolutely and literally from the plough: rate, and useless of the profession, are se- they come to Cambridge, chiefly from lected as the objects of such munificent new the northern counties; and they are enabled aids, is undoubtedly, a serious and crying to live there by the refuse of the fellows

table, and by the exhibitions and scholarships, that I mentioned above: their rusticity of manner never wears off, nor receives the slightest polish; and, a stipend of 701. a year in a country village, will procure luxuries for them, to which they have never been accustomed. But, I will ask any unprejudiced man, if he imagines that the church would be improved, a religion benefited, if all the clergy were composed of such men? And of such only would the church consist, were the system you propose adopted. Now permit me to offer a remark, on the propriety of a resident curate, and two services, in every parish. I certainly wish that some regulations were made respecting this; but to insist upon it invariably, would not be productive of any good. In country villages, there are many of the people, (wives of labourers particularly and female servants of families), who can never attend the church in the morning: if you insisted in this double duty they would never hear a sermon; whereas, when the service is alternately in the morning and afternoon, they have the same opportunities of hearing sermons with others. It must be remembered, that no clergyman is compellable by the statute, to preach more than one sermon in a day, and that in the morning. If you would make an innovation in this ordinance, you should reflect on the injury, that small vicarages, in large towns, would sustain; where the afternoon, or evening lectureship is often an emolument of very serious consequence to the clergyman. I shall not dilate on the necessity of holding out superior rewards, as a stimulus to talent; nor on many other arguments, that - present themselves to my mind. I am fearful, that I have already trespassed too long, upon your time and patience. -I am, Sir, &c.-PHILECCLESIAS.- -June 11, 1806.


SIR-I was much pleased to observe, you had not left unnoticed, in your last Register, the intended tax upon private brewing; the many evils of which you justly appreciate, and, independent of that, I am of opinion, the end of this tax will be completely defeated with respect to revenue, the great object in view. In the first place, private brewing will in a great measure be done away, which will put an end to those malsters serving private families, and the consumption of malt thereby greatly diminished; for, I must take leave to observe, that the private brewer uses from

to 12 bushels to the hogshead, whereas the common brewer does not make use of

more than from 4 to 5 bushels to the same quantity of beer in this instance alone there is a loss to the revenue of from 4 to 8 bushels; the same in proportion will be the loss in duty upon hops; the private brewer using no other article in his beer than malt and hops, and a much larger quantity of the latter in proportion, than the common brewer; the injury done to the hop-owers will also be severely felt, particularly in Surrey, that country's growth being finer, and in much greater demand by the private brewer than any other. It may perhaps be answered, that the common brewer will make up this deficiency to the revenue, by the increase of quantity he will sell in consequence of this act upon which a strong doubt arises. The tax may be productive for one year, as those persons who have already their home-brewed beer, must.commute for drinking it, or what is worse, suffer an exciseman to enter their houses; but it will not be so a second year; their stock being exhausted, they will not replenish it, but give up their last proud boast of regaling themselves, and friends, with home-brewed old English strong beer. Indeed I have no doubt but thousands of families in the kingdom, will endeavour to adopt some beverage or other in lieu of the beer they will otherwise be compelled to take of the common brewer, who, having no competition to mind, will deal out any article he pleases to his customers. It is

matter of astonishment that the enormous duty upon malt has been paid with little or no grumbling; it being now very Fttle short of 4s. 6d a bushel, and has been sold in the last year at 13s. 6d. ; yet has the private brewer strained a point not to relinquish this almost only pride left to an Englishman, which, if the present bill should pass into a law will totally exclude him from.-In fact, every person that I have heard speak upon the subject is indignant at it. The comforts of the peasant, and the various description of labourers will be entirely done away; for be assured, those masters who were in the habit of allowing this little comfort to the exhausted and almost famished frames of their labourers, will for the greater part relinquish the practice; and, instead of seeing the poor peasant going cheerfully to his labour at sun-rise with his wooden bottle of home-brewed beer to refresh him in his arduous toil till sun-set, water must be the substitute; and in many places a difficulty to procure even that; this alone ought to have some weight to prevent such an act passing. As it respects the revenue, I have been informed by a malster of this place.

whose whole concern is serving private fami- | people, and still more to the lower orders, lies, that the duty he pays in the maling that he will altogether abandon it.--I am, season, is froin 1,000 to 1,2001.; and I Sir, most respectfully, your very

obedient know several others who pay nearly the same humble Servant, W.D.-Close, Salisbury, sum, and serving the same description of June 4, 1806. persons. Such immense duties from persons apparently in a small line of business,

ASSESSED TAXES. is, as I before observed, owing to the much SIR ;---I am sensible of the financial greater consumption in proportion of the embarrassment of the times; times in which private brewer, to that of the common the arrogant and insolent pertinacity of our brewer, together with a much larger pro- late minister was driven from one proposed portion of hops : depend on it, this will be object of taxation, in which our present severely felt by the revenue even in the next Chancellor of the Exchequer has been ala malting season ; but carry the idea farther ; ready induced to abandon two; in which, when the present private stock is out and no as Mr. Fox says of the numerous taxes immore replenished; when families will have posed during the last twelve years, not one no reason to commute and will endeavour to has been unexceptionable; in which to find out some other beverage; when either adopt a vulgar expression it is evident that from disgust, or necessity, they will have we have got pretty nearly to the end of our disposed of their brewing utensils, and reiy financial tether, and I am equally sensible on it, that once done, they will never be that in such times, and under such circum"enabled to replace them, from the very great stances, it behores every well wisher to his advanced price of copper, cooper's work, country, not on slight grounds to object to &c. I say, to carry the idea on to these any proposed plan of raising revenue. I things, and the mischief to the revenue is should not, therefore, send you this expresincalculable; to say nothing of the very sion of my extreme dislike to the projected great injury to the landed interest. Barley augmentation of the Assessed Taxes, if I will be a mere drug; at present, the conmon were not in my conscience persuaded that if brewer (I may almost say) is the barometer carried into effect, it will produce the most of the market, and will be entirely so when mischievous effects to the country. When the competition ceases that now exists; my the triple assessment was abandoned for the information upon this head, I am confident Income Tax, Dr. Beeke in his “ Observa*may be depended on. Another description « tions on the Produce of the Income Tax," of persons ought not to be forgotten, I mean p. 149, published the following very senthe

cooper; whose bread will be taken from sible reflections. “ If the clear income of him. In a woril, there never was perhaps

a land owner, who has neither enlarged a tax involving in its train so much mischief, or diminished the possessions of his ancesa not only, to the comforts of the people in “ tors, is conipared with those of his tegeneral, but defeating the very end it was nants, or still nore with those of the lameant to answer, and when once effected, it “.bourers on his farms, it will be seen that will be too late by any alterations or repeal

rs the difference is very much less at present ing, ever to restore that branch of tbe re- rs than it was at the close of the jast cenvenue to its present great and beneficial tury; for though the money price of his standing. Indeed, sir, as you justly ob- roots is greater, yet it will not purchase so serve, it will go nearly to the breaking up " ninch now as the smaller income did a of housekeeping; completely destroying the “ hundred years ago. If only the value hospitality of the higher classes of society, - and income of labour in husbandry were and excluding the middling from their rekl compared with the value and income of and necessary comforts.-- since my writing lands, the disproportion between thein the above, I see my Lord Henry Peity " would be much less than the natural prointends abandoning the excise, and making gression that I have stated. But the ima the whole liable to assesment; that alter- mense influx of wealth from foreign native would have been otherwise generally sources, for many years past; and the al. resorted to had the former not been given most exclusive possession of that wealth up; I sincerely hope, when his lordship by those who rank high in the scale of reconsiders the many difficulties that will property, not only bolances the effect of

attend the enforcing this act; the almost vs ihose laws which charge the rich with certainty of its ultimately decreasing, in

" national burdens in an increasing proporstead of inereasing the revenue, added to: tion; but causes the difference between which its extreme unpopularity and the " the successive ranks of society to be in 'injury it will do to the middle class of the in this respect greater than it would other.



wise be.I have stated this a little more at large than I should otherwise have done, for the sake of a short digression on the different pressure of the Income "Tax, and by that of increased assessment. "-From necessary circumstances, direct taxes in general will be levied on the ex penses which are visible; or, to use a "modern metaphor, most tangible. It has * also been a part of the recent policy of "this country (and, within prudent limits, "it is a very goo policy) to assess several “of our direct taxes in a ratio progressively increasing- -But it is also true, that the greater part of our direct taxes are levied on objects more conducive to the accom“modations of a country lie, than to those of inhabitants of towns. 66 A country life requites.many domestic conveniences, “ which in towns are either not at all want"ed, or may be easily obtained, and with "less expense from persons distinct from "the family. It consequently, upon the same scale of expenditure, requires more ." servants, larger habitations, more windows, more horses, &c. &c. Sc.--It "follows, that at present the burden of assessed taxes is not really borne in a simply increasing proportion to the means of sup-porting them, as it is alleged; but in a complicated proportion depending on the "place of residence; bearing far more heavily on the inhabitants of the country "than those of towns; and, consequently, "on land-owners than other men of pro




perty; and taking most from incomes, which though nominally increasing by an "augmentation of rent, yet really bear a

decreasing proportion to the whole na"tional wealth; and that from circum"stances which ought not to be controuled, " even if it could be done.-In this view of "the question, the good policy of many of


our direct taxes is very disputable. They have a tendency to discourage the resi "deace in the country of those who must

pay them; and to diminish the invaluable "benetit of a general diffusion of men of respectability throughout the kingdom. They fail with double force on diminishing incomes, and scarcely affect in any thing near an equitable proportion those “which, from various canses, are increasing "with unparalleled rapidity.- With how much greater pressure then must the triple assessment have fallen on the inhabilants of the country, than on those of town? And, consequently, on landed and agriculture, than on monied and trading income? In this way I considered that made when first it was prɔ

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posed; the same data, and the same train "of reasoning on which I rely in the present instance, convinced me that the formier description of persons pay assessed taxes on equal incomes, in, at least, a triplicate proportion to the latter; that the "increased assessment would, on an ave

rage, amount to much more than one"tenth of the incomes of the former, and "not one thirtieth of those of the latter; "and, consequently, that the produce of "the tax being reduced by both these


causes, would fall greatly below the ge"neral expectation. This is alieidy con"firmed in many instances by comparisons "of the local produce of that tax, and of "the present ten per cent. on income; and I have little doubt, but that the general event will verify my conjecture; and

that on a comparison of all towns on the one part, and of the country on the other, "many of the towns will pay more tha

last year in very nearly a triplicate proportion, while the country will scarcely pay more than it did by the former as"sessment; reduced as that was in a great


many cases by deficiency of income.—I "an not combating the propriety of the


measure adopted last year, if considered "merely as preparatory and experimental; "but I wish to show that any long con"tinued perseverance in the principle of it,

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even upon a much less extensive scale, "would ultimately be productive of indis"cribable injury to the whole community."

It is easy, but perfectly needless, to prove more at large, and to exhibit with variety of illustration the three propositions thus compressedly stated by Dr. Beeke. * 1st. That it is of the highest importance that respectable residents should be diffused over the country. 21. That the assessed taxes press much more severely on residents in the country, than on those in towns. And, 3d That the assessed taxes have a strong tendency to drive from the country all inhabitants of property but mere farmers. To these three propositions may be added a 4th; that this disproportionate pressure and expulsive tendency is greatest in the case of those persons who possessing moderate incomes, are (agreeably to the reasons of Agar's wise prayer) the most valuable, and the most important to be retained in the country--I speak of the clergy as well as of the laity. And how lit

* Mach excellent matter on this subject is to be found in the Survey of the County of Salep, (published by the Board of Agrieulture) by that most meritorious character Mr. Archdeacon Plymley, now Corbett.

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