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because the members of the E'ouse of Com

tory answer. At this sime the necessity fur mons are, or because they are not the repre- that answer is daily becoming more urgent; sentatives of the people; tecause they are or inasmuch, as the burthens which they are because they are not returned by indepen- told are necessary and únavoidable. dent electors, that they have suffered the privations to which they are obliged to subpublic mency to be thus shamefully squin- mit; and the prospects to which they minst dered an niisapplied? Misapplied, I add ; now look forward, are such that the stortest hecause we may reasonably be allowed to heart may well be appalled. The statement doubt wheiber some considerable part has of accounts now brought officially before the not been applied directly and indirectly to public eye; as it cannot be disproved, so it the purposes of corruption, and ihe purchase is in itself the most convincing, the most isof secrecy and indeiinity-Looking, then, refragable argument in favour of that mea. to the enormous evils which have crisen sure which the real friends of the constituion from ilie want of control, let iis ask, is have long seen, to be indispensible to the there iny possible mude but that one which safety of the country; of that measure which has been suggesterl; viz. the freedom of all our most able state men have at some el·ction? Is it not imispensille that the re- time of their poli'ical life supported, recompresentative should fiel a consciousiress that merded, and enforced. Their subsequent he is sent to act as the honest agent of his deliberation of that princi;le is itself the constituenis; and that on their good opinion strongest proof of the absolute necessity of of his coaduct, he must entirely depend the measure. It is needless to add, that I To what, then, is the opposite principle, viz. alade to a reform in the representation of ot' indifference to the good opinion of the the country; that one only measure, which consiituent to be attributed? Is it owing to Il assert it fearlessly, and in dehance of sothe idea prevailing, that a very great majo- phistry and misrepresentation) would secure rity of the nation hare no power of control the public from future malversations, in whitever over those who are styled the re- Prentually save it from total ruin and destrucpresentasives of the nation ? Is it owing to tion. It is the only effectual, constitutional the koorledge Uzat by tar the greater part of l preventative of abuse of every kind, and of those who ply their money in the shape of every degree, in the management of the pub. taxes of every clenonination which the in- lic aitairs. 'iiliout this other hundredi ng genuity of man (ail devise, hare no more millions will be squandered, (if. indeed, they power of inquiring into the management of can any longer be raised from the exhausted it, than a subject of the Grand Seignior, or a pockets of the country) other defaulters will native of Olabeite? When a Political In- ! blaze forth in insulting splendour.—Burcuirer* seeks the awfully inajestic ripre- ; thens, such as huna Dature cap scarcely presentative body of this great nation, en- support, will be heaped upon a sinking naplatically stiled The Commons of Grrat 17, to furnishi forth the ostentatious profil & Britain in Parlinment assembleil," " pression of public depredators. Frequently, < sumed to ernanate from and to be identi, Sii, have we been told in the high-flowa « fied with the great mass of the people; language of oratory, that " we must look « touched by ileir every grievance, and our dangers manfully in the face." We « sympathising in all their tral and ho-do, Sir. It has never yet occurred that BriPo nourable feelings; does he find such a tons could fear a foreign foe. But, were I

representative bully to exist? Does he not to allow myself to enlarge a little on that ex

find" from the most indisputchle authority pression, (so frequently trumpeted forth, on rs that a decided majority are returred, not every proposition of a pew tax) I should say er by the collected voice of įhose whóm thuy that there are dangers, to which we amist

appear to represent, but under the private 'look forward, more frightful and alarming,

patronage, or by the inmeilia e authority than myriads of foreign invaders, and hosts 'as of 154 individuais?"-Does then'the re

of open foes. We must encounter; nay, presentative believe (or rather doe livox) we must overcome (or inevitably perish as an hins li to be totally independent of the independent nation) that countless mul itude great m jority of the nation? And, does he, ' of frauds, abuses, and peculations; (under therefore, ridicule the idea of responsibility, , whatever form or une disguised) which e cept to those by whom he is rently rewned. must otherwise bring speedy destruction on These, Sir, are questions to which it be- the land. No nation governing itself by hovės the British public to obtain a satisfac. fair and free representation can ever be jost:

No nation ever yet recorded in the apnals of * Second letter to the high sheriff of the the world, has been able long to bear up un. county of Lincoln, by 1. Cartwright, Esg. der the debilitating consequences of corrup:


tion. The page of history i resents us a pic- Sin; but, by bestowing preferinent in this ture, avful in the extierue. Let but te manner, the parrons abuse a trust, rested in contributors to the tarmoris sums then, fortar dislerent purposes. Are you raised upon the nation, be identified with acquainted, Sir, with the amount of the the elecwrs. Let, by this means responsili- sin necessarily esp nded in t'ie regular edut lity be established. Then (but not till then) cation of a c'erg inn? He must exercise economy shall succeed to profilson ; the most rigiu economy, (and, at a time of nest man igement to fraudulent peculatiu. lite, when economy is but little thong!ıt of), --Then, Sir, having baffled at done this haj- to compleet his education for less than dra which would destroy 1:5, shu ve le £100! And this large expenditure arises envied to defend our native land, and our tivin the state of society; as, the habits of constitution. (the best existing in the world the ciergy, will necessarily alter, with the when wel aúninisterel.) Than bilay we hadiis of those around them. There are bid defiance to hosis of armies, led on by some exhibitions and scholarships at the tyrants, and themselves slaves !--- I re.naio, Universities, but of very small value, as Sir, &c.- -Custos.

most of thein have never been raised since

their institution, by the original founders, CLERGY NON-RESIDENCE.

and benefictors of the colleges. Let us, by -To say that I esteein yo'ır He- way of elucidating my intended argument, gister as far superior to every periodical pub. Suppose the case of a clergym, who has lication of the day, would be lui faintly to espended 21000 (probably all that he is express my admiration of it: nor would worth in the world) preparatory to his entera you, I believe, consider such an assertion, ing the chiurch ; this enables him to underas any very flattering compliment. I shall, take the cure of a parish in the neighbourhowever, venture to congratulate you on the

hood of his birth place : perhaps he also success that has atiended its.publication ; and opens a school; and, by erery exertion of to say, that I feel an honest pride in reflect- his industry, contrives to support his family ing that it has placed you in so independent in some degree of respectability; yet, he a situation. Pursue, Sir, the sanie course cannot sare, out of his little incune, a pitof undeviating rectitude, in your political tance, even sufficient, to piace out his conduct, and a grateful country will ever

children in any trade or profession. Much remember you with that esteem,


less, can he indulge the most distant hope', so justly" prize, beyond all the riches, and of Icaving any thing behind him, when he " all the honors of this world!" I enter- dies! He has now a small living given bin, tain so high an opinion of your liberality, at a great distance from bis place of abode. that I believe you will not value my esteen

He can, therefore, lay by, let us way, 450 the less, although I confess that I differ from a year, for the benefit of his family : he you on two subjects of very considerable now no longer sighs at the sprightly sallies importance: I mean the Slave Trade, and of his children: he does not, in solitude, the Residence of the Clergy. If a few ob. brood over the inevitable misery of their servations, on the residence and pluralities destiny: hope brightens his prospects: he of the clergy, shall be deemed worthy of a now fulfils his duty with pleasure and alacriplace in your Register, I shall be much ty: he lives contented in his humble sphere; obliged by your inserting them. When you and dies in peace with man, and full of exproposed a tax of 20 or £30 a year on every pectation from his God! Would you, Mr. clergyman that did not reside on bis benefice, Cobbett, töke 20 or 301. a yeir, from such I am suspicious, that you had not given the a man as this?mor compel him to reside? subject, so full a consideration, as it merits. And yet I have drawn 10 lincoininon ca:e; Was residence insisted upon with the severi- there are min11', even in the narrow circle ty that you seem to wish, I think that it of my acquaintance, who exactly answer to would be productive of many evil conse- this description! A person, possessed of quences? I am certain that you cannot de- two small livings, is often in the same presire to see the clergy less learned or worse dicament. Buí, you ask, how is the educated, than they are ar present: but a church of the Non-Resident Clergy man to severe prohibition of pluralities and non-re- be supplied with regular duty? To this I sidence, would, necessarily, have this effect. reply, that there are a great number of That, living is added to living; and pre- young men, who come to our Universities bend to prebend; and, that the most illile- absolutely and literally from the plough: rate, and useless of the profession, are se- they come to Cambridge, chiefly from lected as the objects of such munificent new the northern counties; and they are enabled aids, is undoubtedly, a serious and crying to live there by the refuse of the fellows

table, and by the exhibitions and scholar- more than from 4 to 5 bushels to the same ships, that I mentioned above : their rustici- quantity of beer : in this instance alone ty of manner never wears off, nor receives there is a loss to the revenue of from 4 10 9 the slightest polish ; and, a stipend of 701. | bushels; the same in proportion will be the a year in a country village, will procure loss in duty upon hops; the private brewer luxuries for them, to which they have never using no other article in his beer than malt been accustomed. But, I will ask any un- and hops, and a much larger quantity of the prejudiced man, if he imagines that the latter in proportion, than the common church would be improved, a religion bene- brewer; the injury done to the hop-growers fited, if all the clergy were composed of will also be severely felt, particularly in kuch men? And of such only would the Surrey, that country's growth being finer, church consist, were the system you propose and in much greater demand by the private adopted. Now permit me to offer a riniark, brewer than any other. It may perhaps be on the propriety of a resident curate, and auswered, that the common brewer will two services, in every parish. I certainly make up this deficiency to the revenue, by wish that some regulations were made re- the increuse of quantity he will sell in conspecting this; but to insist upon it invaria- sequence of this act : upon which a strong bly, would not be productive of any good. doubt arises. The tax may be productive In country villages, there are many of the for one year, as those persons who have people, (wives of labourers particularly and already their home-brewed beer, must confemale servants of farmilies), who can never mute for drinking it, or wbat is worse, attend the church in the morning: if you suffer an exciseman to enter their houses; insisted in this double duty they would never but it will not be so a secoild year ; their hear a sermon; whereas, when the service stock being exhausted, they will not reis alternately in the morning and afternoon, plenish it, but give up their last proud they have the saine opportunities of hearing boast of regaling themselves, and friends, sermons with others. It must be remem- with home-brewed old English strong beer. hered, that no clergyman is compellable by Indeed I have no doubt but thousauds of the statute, to preach more than one ser- families in the kingdom, will endeavour to mon in a day, and that in the morning. If adopt some beverage or other in lieu of the you would make an innovation in this or- beer they will otherwise be compelled to dinance, you should reflect on the injury, take of the common brewer, who, having that smali vicarages, in large towns, would no competition to mind, will deal out any sustain; where the afternoon, or evening article he pleases to his customers. It is lectureship is often an emolument of very matter of astonishment that the enormous serious consequence to the clergyman. I duty nipon malt has been paid with little or shall not dilate on the necessity of holding no grumbling; it being now very little short out superior rewards, as a stimulus to of 45. Od a bushel, and has been sold in the talent; nor on many other arguments, that last year at 13s. 6d. ; yet has the private · present themselves to my mind. I am fear- brewer strained a point not to relinquish ful, that I have already trespassed too long, this almost only pride lett to an Englishman, upon your time and patience.- -I am, Sir, which, if the present bill should


into a &c.-PILLECCLESIAS.- - June 11, 1806. law will totally exclude him from.-In fact,

every person that I have heard speak npon

the subject is indignant at it. The comforts -I was much pleased to observe, of the pensillt, aud the various description you had not left unnoticed, in your last of labourers will be entirely done away; for Register, the intended tax upon private be assured, those masters who were in the brewing ; the many evils of which you habit of allowing this little comfort to the justly appreciate, and, independent of that, exhausted and almost famished frames of I am of opinion, the end of this tas will be their labourers, will for the greater part completely defeated with respect to re- relinquish the practice ; and, instead of venue, the great object in view. In the seemg the poor peasant going cheerfully to first place, private brewing will in a great his labour at sun-rise with his wooden bottle · measure be done away, which will put an of home-brewed beer to refresh bim in his end to those malsters serving private fami- arduous toil till sun-set, water must be the lies, and the consumption of malt thereby substitute ; and in many places a difficulty greatly diminished; for, I must take leave

to procure even that ; this alone ought to to observe, that the private brewer uses from have some weight to prevent such an act $ to 12 bushels to the hogshead, whereas | passing. As it respects the retenue, I have the common brewer does not make use of been informed by a malster of this place,




whose whole concern is serving private fami- | people, and still more to the lower orders, lies, that the duty he pays in the maling that he will altogether abandon it.--I am, season, is froin 1,000 to 1,2001.; and I Sir, most respectfully, your very

obedient know several others who pay nearly the same humble Servant, W.D.-Close, Salisbury, sum, and serving the same description of June 4, 1806. persons. Such immense duties from persons apparently in a small line of business,

ASSESSED TAXES. is, as I before observed, owing to the much SIR ;---I am sensible of the financial greater consumption in proportion of the embarrassment of the times; times in which private brewer, to that of the common the arrogant and insolent pertinacity of our brewer, together with a much larger pro- late minister was driven from one proposed portion of hops : depend on it, this will be object of taxation, in which our present severely felt by the revenue even in the next Chancellor of the Exchequer has been ala malting season ; but carry the idea farther ; ready induced to abandon two; in which, when the present private stock is out and no as Mr. Fox says of the numerous taxes immore replenished; when families will have posed during the last twelve years, not one no reason to commute and will endeavour to has been unexceptionable; in which to find out some other beverage; when either adopt a vulgar expression it is evident that from disgust, or necessity, they will have we have got pretty nearly to the end of our disposed of their brewing utensils, and reiy financial tether, and I am equally sensible on it, that once done, they will never be that in such times, and under such circum"enabled to replace them, from the very great stances, it behores every well wisher to his advanced price of copper, cooper's work, country, not on slight grounds to object to &c. I say, to carry the idea on to these any proposed plan of raising revenue. I things, and the mischief to the revenue is should not, therefore, send you this expresincalculable; to say nothing of the very sion of my extreme dislike to the projected great injury to the landed interest. Barley augmentation of the Assessed Taxes, if I will be a mere drug; at present, the conmon were not in my conscience persuaded that if brewer (I may almost say) is the barometer carried into effect, it will produce the most of the market, and will be entirely so when mischievous effects to the country. When the competition ceases that now exists; my the triple assessment was abandoned for the information upon this head, I am confident Income Tax, Dr. Beeke in his “ Observa*may be depended on. Another description « tions on the Produce of the Income Tax," of persons ought not to be forgotten, I mean p. 149, published the following very senthe

cooper; whose bread will be taken from sible reflections. “ If the clear income of him. In a woril, there never was perhaps

a land owner, who has neither enlarged a tax involving in its train so much mischief, or diminished the possessions of his ancesa not only, to the comforts of the people in “ tors, is conipared with those of his tegeneral, but defeating the very end it was nants, or still nore with those of the lameant to answer, and when once effected, it “.bourers on his farms, it will be seen that will be too late by any alterations or repeal

rs the difference is very much less at present ing, ever to restore that branch of tbe re- rs than it was at the close of the jast cenvenue to its present great and beneficial tury; for though the money price of his standing. Indeed, sir, as you justly ob- roots is greater, yet it will not purchase so serve, it will go nearly to the breaking up " ninch now as the smaller income did a of housekeeping; completely destroying the “ hundred years ago. If only the value hospitality of the higher classes of society, - and income of labour in husbandry were and excluding the middling from their rekl compared with the value and income of and necessary comforts.-- since my writing lands, the disproportion between thein the above, I see my Lord Henry Peity " would be much less than the natural prointends abandoning the excise, and making gression that I have stated. But the ima the whole liable to assesment; that alter- mense influx of wealth from foreign native would have been otherwise generally sources, for many years past; and the al. resorted to had the former not been given most exclusive possession of that wealth up; I sincerely hope, when his lordship by those who rank high in the scale of reconsiders the many difficulties that will property, not only bolances the effect of

attend the enforcing this act; the almost vs ihose laws which charge the rich with certainty of its ultimately decreasing, in

" national burdens in an increasing proporstead of inereasing the revenue, added to: tion; but causes the difference between which its extreme unpopularity and the " the successive ranks of society to be in 'injury it will do to the middle class of the in this respect greater than it would other.

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wise he.--I have stated this a little posed; the same data, and the same train more at large than I should otherwise have of reasoning on which I rely in the predone, for the sake of a short digression " sent instance, convinced me that the for

on the different pressure of the locome mier descriprion of persons pay assessed " Tax,and by that of increased assessment. tazos cu egual inconies, in, at least, a tri-Proin necessary circumstances, direct plicate proportion 10 the latter; that the

taxes in general will be levied on the ex « increased assessment would, on an are

peuses which are visible ; or, to use a raze, amount to much more than oneis inodern metaphor, most tangible. It has " tenih of the incomes of the former, and *s also been a part of toit recent policy of “ not one thirtieth of those of the latter; " this country (and, within prudent limits, “ and, consequently, that the produce of “it is a very gno i poliry) to as:ess several “the tax being reduced by both these " of our dire et laxes in a ratio progre:sively causes, would full greatly below the ge

increasing: - But it is also true, that the neral expectation. This is alle id; congreater port of our direct taxes are levied firmed in many instances by comparisons

on oljerts more conducive to the accom- “ of the local produce of that tax, and of :“ mockations of a country lite, than to those " the present ten per cent. on income, and .6 of inhi litats of OWNS. A country

" I have little doubt, but that the general .life requies.(any domestic conveniences, erent will verily niy conjeciure; and 6 which in touns are either not at all want- " that on a comparison of all towns on the ed, cry lie easily ubtained, and with one part, and of the country on ile other, « less expense from persons distinct from many of the towns will pay more than s the family. It consequently, upon the last year in very nearly a triplicate pro

same scale of expenditure, requires more portion, while the country will scarcely servinis, larger habitaticiis, more win- pay niore than it did by the former as

dous, more horses, s'c. sc. 8°C.----It sessment; reduced as that was in a great "" follows, that at present the burden of as- many cases by deficiency of income. I :“ sessed taxes is not really borne in a simply an not conibating the propriety of the

increasing proportion to the means of sup- measure adopted last year, if considered porting thein, as it is alleged; but in a merely as preparatory and experimental ;

complicated proportion depending on the “ but I wish 10 show that any long con“ place of residence; bearing far more hea- tinued perseverance in the principle of it,

vily on the inhabitants of the country (even upon a much less extensive scale, " than those of towns; and, consequently, would ultimately be preductive of indis

on land-owners than other men of pro- cribable ir jury to the whole community." perty; and taking most from incomes, -It is easy, but perfectly needless, to prove which though nominally increasing by an more at large, and to exhibit with variety of augmentation of rent, yet really bear a illustration ilie three propositions thus com

decreasing proportion to the whole na- pressedly stated by Dr. Beeke. * 1st. That it -“ tional wealth; and that from circum- is of the highest importance that respectable “stances which onght not to be controuled, residents should be distused over the country.

even if it could be done.--In this view of 2.1. That the assessed taxes press much more " the question, the good policy of many of severely on residents in the country, than on

our virect taxes is very disputable. They those in towns. And, 3d That the assessed “ have a tendency to discourage the resi- tazes have a strong tendency to drive from “ deace in the country of those who nust the country all inhabitants of property but

pay them; and to diminish the invaluable niere farmers, To these three propositions " benetit of a general diffusion of meu of may be added a 4th; that this dispropor

re-pectability throughout the kingdom. tionate pressure and expolsive tendency is - They tail with double force on diminish- greatest in the case of those persons who “ing incoines, and scarcely tect in any possesong moderate incomes, are (agreeably ci

thing near an equitable p:oportica those to the reasons of Agar's wise prayer) the · which, from various causes, are increasing most valuable, and the most important to be " with unparalele i rapidity. With how retained in the country.----I speak of the “arch greater pressure then mast the clergy as well as of the laity. And how lit

triple a35estant have favkaon de inha“ bitants of the country, than on those of * iech excellent matter on this subject 4 town;? Anil, consequently, on landed is to be found in the Survey of the County ! and agriculuniit, rhan on monied and of Salp, (published by the Board of Agri

traling incorrer? lu this way I considera culture) by that most meritorious character “cü tuat antudillor Whea sirst it as pro

Mr. A chileacon Plymle;', now Corbett.


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