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average. He was useful wherever he was placed.

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not a demonstrative man, and every one did not gain access into the inner circles of his life, but those who did enjoy his confidence, and who knew his heart, knew him to be genuine-a man of strong character and one who would lay his head on the block for a conviction. * He did not shine among his fellows with that glitter that is sometimes taken for brilliant mentality. He was retiring in manner and not forward in speech. He made no special effort at oratory. Even in conversation, his words were few and sometimes brusque, though not antagonistic. He had opinions of his own which he was not afraid to express whatever might be the views of those who surrounded him. Yet he was not offensive in his language. He was for many years a great worker. For fully half a century he labored incessantly in that which he firmly believed was the cause of human redemption. His first literary efforts were known through the Millennial Star. The brightness of that luminary received much of its lustre, for a considerable period, from his active mind and facile pen. In poetry and in prose, he reflected the light of truth for the benefit of his fellows, and his logical thoughts and spiritual sentiments were a comfort and a strength to many honest souls.

The following heretofore unpublished poem, and doubtless the last that he ever wrote, was written at the solicitation of the editors of the ERA, in 1899, and breathes that peaceful resignation to the gospel and faith in the Lord which were leading traits in the life of the author:

THE GOSPEL.

The gospel is the power of God to every soul's salvation,
No matter whether Jew or Greek or any other nation.
But there is something we must do ere we can be possessing
That great and glorious gospel gift, that all-embracing blessing.

When we reflect upon our sins, it brings us many a tremor,
But on repenting we're forgiven, through Jesus, our Redeemer.
The needful thing for us to do is full obedience render,
Then our trangressions fade away, and Christ is our Defender.

When we repent of all our sins and make full reformation,
Keeping God's laws henceforth, for us there is no condemnation.
To work the rule of righteousness, the gospel is the leaven,
That here the will of God may be done as it is in heaven.

When to our Heavenly Father's will we offer no resistance,
We're in the onward way to solve, the problem of existence.
If we would put and keep ourselves upon our best behavior,
We'd very soon be one indeed, in Jesus Christ, our Savior.

If we would try our very best to do what is most fitting,
We should not waste our precious time in doctrinal hair-splitting.
Sectarian technicalities would then have wholly vanished,
Strife, quarrels, envy, jealousies would be forever banished.

The selfish games of greed and grab would never more afflict us;
Nor would oppressive laws be made to needlessly restrict us.
The many worries of our time no longer would annoy us,
And every effort would be vain to ruin or destroy us.

From talking of our neighbors' faults, we should feel more like

shrink ing;

And how to better our own lives, we should be oft'ner thinking.
As we wish they would do to us, so we should do to others,
That is the true and only way for men to live like brothers.

That is the golden, gospel rule, though now we live below it;
That is the height for us to gain, and every one should know it.
If we would live a perfect life, (than this, naught could be plainer)
We must obey a perfect law, or hopes could not be vainer.

Yes; in the great millennium this must be our election;
To shape our lives by gospel laws and thus attain perfection.
Some say, "These are ideal views;" well, real is fruit of ideal,
Heaven is ideal realized, there ideal becomes real.

These ideal views, the Lord above

Is daily to us giving;

To make ideals real, is

The purpose of our living.

JOHN JAQUES.

AGRICULTURE AS A PROFESSION.

BY LEWIS A. MERRILL, PROFESSOR OF AGRONOMY, UTAH AGRI

CULTURAL COLLEGE.

We can

A profession, as defined by Webster, is the business which one professes to understand and to follow for subsistence. not, however, use the term in speaking of an occupation which is merely mechanical. If tilling the soil, producing crops and feeding and caring for our domestic animals, calls for nothing beyond mere hand labor, then we cannot dignify this occupation by calling it a profession; if, on the contrary, this labor calls for accurate and scientific knowledge in its pursuit, if it permits of careful study, and if its operations can be carried on in accordance with scientific principles, we must place it on a basis with those vocations with similar requirements.

Formerly the word profession was applied only to the vocations of law, medicine, and the ministry, but today those vocations which call forth men's mental activities, combining these with the skilled labor of the hands, take equal rank with the so-called "higher professions." One of the most hopeful signs of today, among all classes, is the close sympathy which is coming to exist between education and labor. Formerly the man who had spent several years in the study of Latin and Greek, who had delved into the mysteries of mathematics and philosophy, was called educated, but the education of today is not alone the training of the brain, but also of the eye, and of the hand.

In the work incident to pioneer life, few have time and inclination to become familiar with plant and animal life, and most peowhenever it offends the sight or interferes with comfort. Growing

up in ignorance of the most ordinary things with which we come in contact, is it any wonder that we gradually come to look upon tilling the soil, cultivating plants and feeding animals, as operations requiring no thought?

We have made in this paper three demands upon any occupation which shall be dignified by the name profession, and it is the purpose of this discussion to show that these requirements are all met in the occupation followed by the agriculturist.

1. Agriculture requires accurate and scientific knowledge in its pursuit.

Most people "have eyes to see, but see not, and ears to hear, but hear not." For instance, there are many intelligent young men in Utah, who have been looking at ash and elm trees all their lives, and yet they could not describe the bark, leaves or general appearance of these two kinds of trees so as to distinguish one from the other. They have heard the songs of a dozen or more different species of birds in the fields, as they worked month by month, yet they have little or no knowledge of most of themtheir color, markings, songs or habits.

Most young men raised on a farm have had experience with a powdery substance found growing on the wheat and oat plants, and known as "smut." They know that crops on which smut is found are very disagreeable to handle, and that wheat so affected makes a very poor quality of flour. How many, I wonder, know that the black dust consists of the spores of a tiny fungus plant, that this plant grows upon the wheat or oat plants, ripens its spores on the head, and is scattered among the grains of wheat or oats as they come from the threshing machine. A knowledge of the fact that the smut plant can gain a foothold only on very young oat or wheat plants is of some assistance in enabling us to combat the disease. The annual loss to the farmer of Utah from this disease amounts to several thousands of dollars, yet a substance has been found that will, without injuring the seed, kill all the smut spores clinging to the grain. It is certain that an accurate knowledge of the history and characteristics of the fungus plant would be of incalculable benefit to wheat growers.

A knowledge of the soil is also essential to the successful farmer. Carry a handful of soil filled with humus to the bacteri

ologist, and see if he can recognize one half of the living forms of this little kingdom of life; take it to the botanist, well trained in the lower orders of plants, and see how many there are of these living forms with which he is familiar. Present the soil to the chemist, and while he can analyze it and determine the kind and amount of plant food it contains, yet he is unable to tell you whether this plant food can be made use of by the plant or not.

When you think of it, is there any calling so broad, so multitudinous in its relations, so difficult, as that of agriculture? Count up the sciences which have not only a bearing upon but a most vital connection with agriculture: chemistry, botany, bacteriology, physiology, entomology, geology, soil physics, together with the vast and as yet scarcely formulated mysteries of plant and animal breeding (thermmatology). These are departments of knowledge which every successful farmer must use every day of his life. It is the work of a life-time to thoroughly master any one of these sciences, and yet, if such a thing were possible, the ideal farmer would be thoroughly familiar with each one of them. Chemistry deals with the nature of soils, the composition of plants and their relative feeding value at various stages, of growth, essential and non-essential elements of plants, the composition of fertilizers, and the best form in which to apply them. Not less important is the science of botany which aims to discover the laws of plant growth that lie at the foundation of successful crop production. Botany has produced new varieties of wheat and other cereals; has given us our seedless fruits, and revealed the nature and effect of our fungus diseases. Bacteriology, though comparatively a new science, has revealed the cause of some of the most serious diseases of plants and animals, and in many cases has been able to find means of treating them. Thus science has done away with a great many false ideas in regard to diseases of animals, and has shown the utter uselessness of many of the remedies formerly used for our domestic animals.

Those familiar with the condition of much of the fruit grown by our orchardists can realize the importance of a knowledge of the workings of insects. Only the entomologist is able to say how each insect may best be held in check.

The growing demands made upon the soil, simultaneously with

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