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; there are also lines from Fribourg to Morat and to Estavayer, | striking appearance. One of the most conspicuous buildings in while from Romont (on the main line) a line runs to Bulle, and the town is the college of St Michael, while in front of the 16th in

1904 was extended to Gessenay or Saanen near the head of the century town hall is an ancient lime tree stated (but this is very Sarine or Saane valley. The population of the canton amounted doubtful) to have been planted on the day of the victory of Morat in 1900 to 127,951 souls, of whom 108,440 were Romanists, (June 22, 1476). In the Lycée is the Cantonal Museum of Fine 19,305 Protestants, and 167 Jews. The canton is on the linguistic Arts, wherein, besides many interesting objects, is the collection frontier in Switzerland, the line of division running nearly due of paintings and statuary bequeathed to the town in 1879 by Dorth and south through it, and even right through its capital. Duchess Adela Colonna (a member of the d’Affry family of In 1900 there were 78,353 French-speaking inhabitants, and Fribourg), by whom many were executed under the name of 38,738 German-speaking, the latter being found chiefly in the

Marcello." The deep ravine of the Sarine is crossed by a very Dorth-western (Morat region) and north-eastern (Singine valley) fine suspension bridge, constructed 1832-1834 by M. Chaley, portions, as well as in the upper valley of the Jogne or Jaun in of Lyons, which is 167 ft. above the Sarine, has a span of 808 it., the south-east. Besides the capital, Fribourg (9.v.), the only and consists of 6 huge cables composed of 3294 strands. A towns of any importance are Bulle (3330 inhabitants), Châtel loftier suspension bridge is thrown over the Gotteron stream St Denis (2509 inhabitants), Morat (9.0.) or Murten (2263 in- just before it joins the Sarine: it is 590 ft. long and 246 ft. in babitants), Romont (2110 inhabitants), and Estavayer le Lac height, and was built in 1840. About 3 m. north of the town or Staffis am See (1636 inhabitants).

is the great railway viaduct or girder bridge of Grandfey, conThe canton is pre-eminenily a pastoral and agricultural structed in 1862 (1092 ft. in length, 249 ft. high) at a cost of region, tobacco, cheese and timber being its chief products. 21 million francs. Immediately above the town a vast dam Iis industries are comparatively few: straw-plaiting, watch-|(591 ft. long) was constructed across the Sarine by the engineer making (Semsales), paper-making (Marly), lime-kilns, and, above Ritter in 1870-1872, the fall thus obtained yielding a waterall

, the huge Cailler chocolate factory at Broc. It forms part power of 2600 to 4000 horse-power, and forming a sheet of water of the diocese of Lausanne and Geneva, the bishop living since known as the Lac de Pérolles. A motive force of 600 horse1663 at Fribourg. It is a stronghold of the Romanists, and still power, secured by turbines in the stream, is conveyed to the contains many monasteries and nunneries, such as the Carthusian plateau of Pérolles by " telodynamic” cables of 2510 ft. in monks at Valsainte, and the Cistercian nuns at La Fille Dieu length, for whose passage a tunnel has been pierced in the rock. and at Maigrauge. The canton is divided into 7 administrative On the Pérolles plateau is the International Catholic University districts, and contains 283 communes. It sends 2 members founded in 1889. (named by the cantonal legislature) to the Federal Sländerath, History.-In 1978 the foundation of the town (meant to hold and 6 members to the Federal Nationalrath. The cantonal in check the turbulent nobles of the neighbourhood) was comconstitution has scarcely been altered since 1857, and is remark- pleted by Berchthold IV., duke of Zähringen, whose father Conrad able as containing none of the modern devices (referendum, had founded Freiburg in Breisgau in 1120, and whose son, initiative, proportional representation) save the right of "initia- Berchthold V., was to found Bern in 1191. The spot was chosen tive" enjoyed by 6ooo citizens to claim the revision of the for purposes of military defence, and was situated in the Uechtcantonal constitution. The executive council of 7 members is land or waste land between Alamannian and Burgundian named for 5 years by the cantonal legislature, which consists territory. He granted it many privileges, modelled on the oi members (holding office for 5 years) elected in the proportion charters of Cologne and of Freiburg in Breisgau, though the oldest of one to every 1200 (or fraction over 800) of the population. existing charter of the town dates from 1249. On the extinction

(W. A. B. C.) of the male line of the Zähringen dynasty, in 1218, their lands FRIBOURG (Ger. Freiburg), the capital of the Swiss canton passed to. Anna, the sister of the last duke and wife of Count of that name. It is built almost entirely on the left bank of the Ulrich of Kyburg. That house kept Fribourg till it too became Sarine, the oldest bit (the Bourg) of the town being just above extinct, in 1264, in the male line. Anna, the heiress, married the river bank, flanked by the Neuveville and Auge quarters, about 1273 Eberhard, count of Habsburg-Laufenburg, who sold these last (with the Planche quarter on the right bank of the Fribourg in 1277 for 3000 marks to his cousin Rudolf, the head river) forming the Ville Basse. On the steeply rising ground of the house of Habsburg as well as emperor. The town had to le the west of the Bourg is the Quartier des Places, beyond fight many a hard battle for its existence against Bern and the which, to the west and south-west, is the still newer Pérolles count of Savoy, especially between 1448 and 1452. Abandoned quarter, where are the railway station and the new University; by the Habsburgs, and desirous of escaping from the increasing all these (with the Bourg) constituting the Ville Haute. In power of Bern, Fribourg in 1452 finally submitted to the count 1900 the population of the town was 15,794, of whom 13,270 of Savoy, to whom it had become indebted for vast sums of money. Here Romanists and 109 Jews, while 9701 were French-speaking, Yet, despite all its difficulties, it was in the first half of the 15th and 5595 German-speaking, these last being mainly in the Ville century that Fribourg exported much leather and cloth to France, Basse. Its linguistic history is curious. Founded as a German Italy and Venice, as many as 10,000 to 20,000 bales of cloth being town, the French tongue became the official language during the stamped with the seal of the town. When Yolande, dowager greater part of the 14th and 15th centuries, but when it joined duchess of Savoy, entered into an alliance with Charles the Bold, the Swiss Confederation in 1481 the German influence came to duke of Burgundy, Fribourg joined Bern, and helped to gain the the fore, and German was the official language from 1483 to 1798, victories of Grandson and of Morat (1476). becoming thus associated with the rule of the patricians. From In 1477 the town was finally freed from the rule of Savoy, 1708 to 1814, and again from 1830 onwards, French prevailed, while in 1481 (with Soleure) it became a member of the Swiss as at present, though the new University is a centre of German Confederation, largely, it is said, through the influence of the influence.

holy man, Bruder Klaus (Niklaus von der Flüe). In 1475 Fribourg is on the main line of railway from Bern (20 m.) to the town had taken Illens and Arconciel from Savoy, and in Lausantc (41 m.). The principal building in the town is the 1536 won from Vaud much territory, including Romont, Rue, collegiate church of St Nicholas, of which the nave dates from the Châtel St Denis, Estavayer, St Aubin (by these two conquests its 13th-14th centuries, while the choir was rebuilt in the 17th dominion reached the Lake of Neuchâtel), as well as Vuissens and century. It is a fine building, remarkable in itself, as well as Surpierre, which still form outlying portions (physically within for its lofty, late 15th century, bell-tower (249 ft. high), with a the canton of Vaud) of its territory, while in 1537 it took Bulle bise peal of bells; its famous organ was built between 1824 and from the bishop of Lausanne. In 1502-1504 the lordship of 1894 by Aloys Mooser (a native of the town), has 7800 pipes, Bellegarde or Jaun was bought, while in 1555 it acquired (jointly and is played daily in summer for the edification of tourists. with Bern) the lands of the last count of the Gruyère, and thus The numerous monasteries in and around the town, its old- obtained the rich district of that name. From 1475 it ruled fashioned aspect, its steep and narrow streets, give it a most (with Bern) the bailiwicks of Morat, Grandson, Orbc and Echallens, just taken from Savoy, but in 1798 Morat was incor- | A upon B, or to move the body B itself, according to the frictional porated with (finally annexed in 1814) the canton of Fribourg, conditions. In the absence of friction it would simply cause A the other bailiwicks being then given to the canton of Léman to slide on B, so that we may call it an effort tending to make (later of Vaud). In the 16th century the original democratic A slide on B. The friction is the resistance offered by the surface government gradually gave place to the oligarchy of the patrician of B to any such motion. But the value of this resistance is not families. Though this government caused much discontent in any way a function of the effort itself,-it depends chiefly it continued till it was overthrown on the French occupation of upon the pressure normal to the surfaces and the nature of the 1798.

surfaces. It may therefore be either less or greater than the From 1803 (Act of Mediation) to 1814, Fribourg was one of effort. If less, A slides over B, the rate of motion being deterthe six cantons of the Swiss Confederation. But, on the fall of mined by the excess of the effort over the resistance (friction). the new régime, in 1814, the old patrician rule was partly restored, But if the latter be greater no sliding can occur, i.e. A cannot, as 108 of the 144 seats in the cantonal legislature were assigned to under the action of the supposed force, move upon B. The efort members of the patrician families. In 1831 the Radicals gained between the surfaces exists, however, exactly as before, and the power and secured the adoption of a more liberal constitution. it must now tend to cause the motion of B. But the body B is In 1846 Fribourg (where the Conservatives had regained power fixed, or, in other words, we suppose its resistance to motiva in 1837) joined the Sonderbund and, in 1847, saw the Federal greater than any effort which can tend to move it,-bence Do troops before its walls, and had to surrender to them. The motion takes place. It must be specially noticed, however, Radicals now came back to power, and again revised the cantonal that it is not the friction between A and B that has prevented constitution in a liberal sense. The Catholic and Conservative motion, this only prevented A moving on B,-it is the force party made several attempts to recover their supremacy, but which keeps B stationary, whatever that may be, which has their chiefs were driven into exile. In 1856 the Conservatives finally prevented any motion taking place. This can be easily regained the upper hand at the general cantonal election, secured seen. Suppose B not to be fixed, but to be capable of moving the adoption in 1857 of a nev cantonal constitution, and have against some third body C (which might, e.g., contain cylindrical ever since maintained their rule, which some dub “ clerical,” bearings, if B were a drum with its shaft), itself fixed, and while others describe it as “anti-radical."

further, suppose the frictional resistance between B and C to AUTHORITIES.- Archives de la Société d'histoire du Canlon de be the only resistance to B's motion. Then if this be less than F., from 1850; F. Buomberger, Bevölkerungs- u. Vermögensstatistik the effort of A upon B, as it of course may be, this effort will cause in d. Stadt d. Landschaft F. um die Mitte d. 15ten Jahrhunderts (Bern, the motion of B. Thus friction causes motion, for had there 148! (Fribourg, 1889); A, Dellion,

Dictionnaire historique et been no frictional resistance between the surfaces of A and of B, statistique des paroisses catholiques du C. de F. (12 vols., Fribourg, the latter body would have remained stationary, and A only artistique (fine plates), from 1890; E. Heyck, Geschichte der Herzoge between A and B is a necessary condition of B receiving any 1884-1903); Freiburger Geschichtsblätter, from 18947,

Fribourg would have moved. In the case supposed, therefore, the friction von Zähringen (Freiburg i. Br., 1891); F. Kuenlin, Der K. Freiburg (St Gall and Bern, 1834); Memorial de F. (6 vols., 1854-1859); motion from the external force applied to A. Recueil diplomatique du Cant. de F. (original documents) (8 vols., Without entering here on the mathematical treatment of älteren Siadtrechtes von Freiburg im Vechtland (Bern, 1908); J. Zemp, out which have been arrived at as the results of experiment. Fribourg, 1839-1877), F. E. Welti, Beiträge zur Geschichte des the subject of friction, some general conclusions may be pointed L'Art de la ville de Fribourg au moyen åge (Fribourg,, 1905): The "laws” first enunciated by C. A. Coulomb (1781), and after(Basel and Geneva, 1895), vol. ii., pp. 72 seq.; Les Alpes fribour wards confirmed by A. J. Morin (1830-1834), have been found to geoises (Lausanne, 1908).

(W.A. B.C.) hold good within very wide limits. These are: (1) that the fricFRICTION (from Lat. fricare, to rub), in physical and mechani- tion is proportional to the normal pressure between the surfaces cal science, the term given to the resistance which every material of contact, and therefore independent of the area of those surfaces, surface presents to the sliding of any other such surface upon it. and (2) that it is independent of the velocity with which the This resistance is due to the roughness of the surfaces; the surfaces slide one on the other. For many practical purposes minute projections upon each enter more or less into the minute these statements are sufficiently accurate, and they do in fact depressions on the other, and when motion occurs these rough- sensibly represent the results of experiment for the pressures nesses must either be worn off, or continually lifted out of the and at the velocities most commonly occurring. Assuming the hollows into which they have fallen, or both, the resistance to correctness of these, friction is generally measured in terms motion being in either case quite perceptible and measurable. simply of the total pressure between the surfaces, by multiplying

Friction is preferably spoken of as “ resistance” rather than it by a “coefficient of friction " depending on the material of “ force," for a reason exactly the same as that which induces the surfaces and their state as to smoothness and lubrication us to treat stress rather as molecular resistance (to change of But beyond certain limits the “ laws” stated are certainly form) than as force, and which may be stated thus: although incorrect, and are to be regarded as mere practical rules, friction can be utilized as a moving force at will, and is continually extensive application certainly, but without any pretension to so used, yet it cannot be a primary moving force; it can transmit be looked at as really general laws. Both at very high and very or modify motion already existing, but cannot in the first instance low pressures the coefficient of friction is affected by the intensity cause it. For this some external force, not friction, is required. of pressure, and, just as with velocity, it can only be regarded The analogy with stress appears complete; the motion of the as independent of the intensity and proportional simply to the “ driving link ” of a machine is communicated to all the other total load within more or less definite limits. parts, modified or unchanged as the case may be, by the stresses Coulomb pointed out long ago that the resistance of a body in those parts; but the actual setting in motion of the driving to be set in motion was in many cases much greater than the link itself cannot come about by stress, but must have for its resistance which it offered to continued motion; and since his production force obtained directly from the expenditure of some time writers have always distinguished the “friction of rest," form of energy. It is important, however, that the use of the or static friction, from the “ friction of motion," or kinetic term “ resistance " should not be allowed to mislead. Friction friction. He showed also that the value of the former depended resists the motion of one surface upon another, but it may and often both upon the intensity of the pressure and upon the frequently does confer the motion of the one upon the other, and length of time during which contact had lasted, both of which in this way causes, instead of resists, the motion of the latter. facts quite agree with what we should expect from our know

This may be made more clear, perhaps, by an illustration. ledge of the physical nature, already mentioned, of the causes Suppose we have a leather strap A passing over a fixed cylindrical of friction. It seems not unreasonable to expect that the drum B, and let a pulling force or effort be applied to the strap. 4 influence of time upon friction should show itself in a comparison

The force applied to A can act on B only at the surfaces of contact of very slow with very rapid motion, as well as in a comparison between them. There it becomes an effort tending either to move of starting (i.e. motion after a long time of rest) with continued motion. That the friction at the higher velocities occurring in / alogy and organic chemistry. In the former he was one of the engineering practice is much less than at common velocities leading workers, in collaboration from 1879 to 1887 with Emile has been shown by several modern experiments, such as those Edmond Sarasin (1843-1890), at the formation of minerals by of Sir Douglas. Galton (see Report Brit. Assoc., 1878, and Proc. artificial means; particularly in the wet way with the aid of heat Inst. Meck. Eng., 1878, 1879) on the friction between brake-blocks and pressure, and be succeeded in reproducing a large number and wbeels, and between wheels and rails. But no increase in of the natural compounds. In 1893, as the result of an attempt the coefficient of friction had been detected at slow speeds, to make diamond by the action of sulphur on highly carburetted until the experiments of Prof. Fleeming Jenkin (Phil. Trans., cast iron at 450°-500° C. be obtained a black powder too small in 1877, pt. 2) showed conclusively that at extremely low velocities quantity to be analysed but hard enough to scratch corundum. (the lowest measured was about .0002 ft. per second) there is a He also devoted much attention to the pyroelectric phenomena sensible increase of frictional resistance in many cases, most of crystals, which served as the theme of one of the two memoirs botably in those in which there is the most marked difference be presented for the degree of D.Sc. in 1869, and to the deterbetween the friction of rest and that of motion. These experi- mination of crystallographic constants. In organic chemistry, Dents distinctly point to the conclusion, although without his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided absolutely proving it, that in such cases the coefficient of kinetic bim with the subject of his other doctoral thesis. In 1862 he friction gradually increases as the velocity becomes extremely prepared secondary propyl alcohol, and in 1863, with James small, and passes without discontinuity into that of static Mason Crafts (b. 1839), for many years a professor at the Massafriction,

(A. B. W. K.; W. E, D.) chusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, he obtained various FRIDAY (A.S. frige-dag, fr. frige, gen. of frigu, love, or the organometallic compounds of silicon. A few years later further goddess of love-the Norse Frigg,--the dæg, day; cf. Icelandic work, with Albert Ladenburg, on the same element yielded frjédagt, O.H. Ger. friatag, frigalag, mod. Ger. Freitag), silicochloroform and led to a demonstration of the close analogy the sixth day of the week, corresponding to the Roman Dies existing between the behaviour in combination of silicon and eneris, the French Vendredi and Italian Venerdi. The ill-luck carbon. In 1871, with R. D. da Silva (b. 1837) he syntbesized associated with the day undoubtedly arose from its connexion glycerin, starting from propylene. In 1877, with Crafts, he with the Crucifixion; for the ancient Scandinavian peoples made the first publication of the fruitful and widely used method regarded it as the luckiest day of the week. By the Western for synthesizing benzene homologues now generally known as and Eastern Churches the Fridays throughout the year, except the“ Friedel and Crafts reaction.” It was based on an accidental wben Christmas falls on that day, have ever been observed as observation of the action of metallic aluminium on amyl chloride, days of fast in memory of the Passion. The special day on and consists in bringing together a hydrocarbon and an organic which the Passion of Christ is annually commemorated is chloride in presence of aluminium chloride, when the residues known as Good Friday (9.0.). According to Mahommedan of the two compounds unite to form a more complex body. tradition, Friday, which is the Moslem Sabbath, was the day on Friedel was associated with Wurtz in editing the latter's Dictionwhich Adam was created, entered Paradise and was expelled, naire de chimie, and undertook the supervision of the supplements and it was the day of bis repentance, the day of bis death, and issued after 1884. He was the chief founder of the Revue générale will be the Day of Resurrection.

de chimie in 1899. His publications include a Notice sur la vie FRIEDBERG, the name of two towns in Germany.

et les travaux de Wurtz (1885), Cours de chimie organique (1887) 1. A small town in Upper Bavaria, with an old castle, known and Cours de minéralogie (1893). He acted as president of the mainly as the scene of Moreau's victory of the 24th of August International Congress held at Geneva in 1892 for revising the 1796 over the Austrians.

nomenclature of the fatty acid series. 2. FRIEDBERG IN DER WETTERAU, in the grand duchy of See a memorial lecture by J. M. Crafts, printed in the Journal of Hesse-Darmstadt, on an eminence above the Usa, 14 m. N. of the London Chemical Society for 1900. Frankfort-on-Main, on the railway to Cassel and at the junction FRIEDLAND, a town of Bohemia, Austria, 103 m. N.E. of of a line to Hanau. Pop. (1905) 7702. It is a picturesque Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 6229. Besides the old town, which town, still surrounded by old walls and towers, and contains many is still surrounded by walls, it contains three suburbs. The medieval buildings, of which the beautiful Gothic town church principal industry is the manufacture of woollen and linen cloth. (Evangelical) and the old castle are especially noteworthy. Friedland is chiefly remarkable for its old castle, which occupies The grand-ducal palace has a beautiful garden. The schools an imposing situation on a small hill commanding the town. include technical and agricultural academies and a teachers' A round watch-tower is said to have been built on its site as seminary. It has manufactures of sugar, gloves and leather, early as 1014; and the present castle dates from the 13th century. and breweries. Friedberg is of Roman origin, but is first men- It was several times besieged in the Thirty Years' and Seven tioned as a town in the 11th century. In 1211 it became a free Years' Wars. In 1622 it was purchased by Wallenstein, who imperial city, but in 1349 was pledged to the counts of Schwarz- took from it his title of duke of Friedland. After his death it burg

, and subsequently often changed hands, eventually in was given to Count Mathias Gallas by Ferdinand II., and since 1803 passing to Hesse-Darmstadt.

1757 it has belonged to the Count Clam Gallas. It was magnifiSee Dieffenbach, Geschichte der Stadt und Burg Friedberg (Darms., cently restored in 1868-1869. 1657).

FRIEDLAND, the name of seven towns in Germany. The FRIEDEL, CHARLES (1832-1899), French chemist and miner- most important now is that in the grand duchy of Mecklenburgalogist, was born at Strassburg on the 12th of March 1832. Strelitz, on the Mühlenteich, 35 m. N.E. of Strelitz by the After graduating at Strassburg University he spent a year in railway to Neu-Brandenburg. Pop. 7000. It possesses a fine the counting-house of his father, a banker and merchant, and Gothic church and a gymnasium, and has manufactures of then in 1851 went to live in Paris with his maternal grandfather, woollen and linen

cloth, leather and tobacco. Friedland was Georges Louis Duvernoy (1777-1855), professor of natural founded in 1244 by the margraves John and Otto III. of bistory and, from 1850, of comparative anatomy, at the Collège Brandenburg. de France

. In 1854 be entered C. A. Wurtz's laboratory, and FRIEDLAND, a town of Prussia, on the Alle, 27 m. S.E. of in 1856, at the instance of H. H. de Sénarmont (1808-1862), was Königsberg (pop. 3000), famous as the scene of the battle

pointed conservator of the mineralogical collections at the fought between the French under Napoleon and the Russians Ecole des Mines. In 1871 he began to lecture in place of A. L. commanded by General Bennigsen, on the 14th of June 1807 0. L. Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in (see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). The Russians had on the 13th 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on driven the French cavalry outposts from Friedland to the westthe deatb of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for ward, and Bennigsen's main body began to occupy the town in the chair of organic chemistry. He died at Montauban on the the night. The army of Napoleon was set in motion for Friedland, asth of April 1899. Friedel achieved distinction both in miner- I but it was still dispersed on its various march soutes, and the

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first stage of the engagement was thus, as usual, a pure “en- to a standstill; Bennigsen's reserve cavalry charged with great counter-battle.” The corps of Marshal Lannes as general effect and drove him back in disorder. As at Eylau, the approach advanced guard " was first engaged, in the Sortlack Wood and of night seemed to preclude a decisive success, but in June and in front of Posthenen (2.30-3 A.M. on the 14th). Both sides now on firm ground the old mobility of the French reasserted used their cavalry freely to cover the formation of lines of battle, its value. The infantry division of Dupont advanced rapidly and a race between the rival squadrons for the possession of from Posthenen, the cavalry divisions drove back the Russian Heinrichsdorf resulted in favour of the French under Grouchy. squadrons into the now congested masses of foot on the river Lannes in the meantime was fighting hard to hold Bennigsen, bank, and finally the artillery general Sénarmont advanced a for Napoleon feared that the Russians meant to evade him again. mass of guns to case-shot range. It was the first example of Actually, by 6 A.M. Bennigsen had nearly 50,000 men across the the terrible artillery preparations of modern warfare, and the river and forming up west of Friedland. His infantry, in two Russian defence collapsed in a few minutes. Ney's exhausted lines, with artillery, extended between the Heinrichsdorf-Friedland infantry were able to pursue the broken regiments of Bennigsen's road and the upper bends of the river. Beyond the right of the left into the streets of Friedland. Lannes and Mortier had all infantry, cavalry and Cossacks extended the line to the wood this time held the Russian centre and right on its ground, and N.E. of Heinrichsdorf, and small bodies of Cossacks penetrated their artillery bad inflicted severe losses. When Friedland itself even to Schwonau. The left wing also had some cavalry and, was seen to be on fire, the two marshals launched their infantry beyond the Ale, batteries were brought into action to cover it. attack. Fresh French troops approached the battlefield. A beavy and indecisive fire-fight raged in the Sortlack Wood Dupont distinguished himself for the second time by fording between the Russian skirmishers and some of Lannes's troops. the mill-stream and assailing the left flank of the Russian centre. The head of Mortier's (French and Polish) corps appeared at This offered a stubborn resistance, but the French steadily

forced the line backwards, and the battle was soon over. The

losses incurred by the Russians in retreating over the river al English Miles

Friedland were very heavy, many soldiers being drowned. Russians....

Farther north the still unbroken troops of the right wing drey off by the Allenburg road; the French cavalry of the left wing,

though ordered to pursue, remaining, for some reason, inactive. Schwonau


The losses of the victors were reckoned at 12,100 out of 86,000, or 14%, those of the Russians at 10,000 out of 46,000, or 21% (Berndt, Zahl im Kriege).

PRIEDMANN, MEIR (1831-1908), Hungarian Jewish scholar. His editions of the Midrash are the standard texts. His chief

editions were the Sifre (1864), the Mekhilla (1870), Pesigla Georgenau

Rabbalhi (1880). At the time of his death he was editing the Wood

Sifra. Friedmann, while inspired with regard for tradition, dealt Kloschenen

with the Rabbinic texts on modern scientific methods, and redBothkeim

dered conspicuous service to the critical investigation of the Wood

Midrash and to the history of early homilies.

(I. A.) Fiedland

FRIEDRICH, JOHANN (1836- ), German theologian, was born at Poxdorf in Upper Franconia on the 5th of May 1836, and was educated at Bamberg and at Munich, where in 1865 be was appointed professor extraordinary of theology. In 1869 he

went to the Vatican Council as secretary to Cardinal Hohenlohe, Allenau and took an active part in opposing the dogma of papal infalli

bility, notably by supplying the opposition bishops with histori

cal and theological material. He left Rome before the council Sortlack

closed. “No German ecclesiastic of his age appears to have won for bimself so unusual a repute as a theologian and to have held

so important a position, as the trusted counsellor of the leading Heinrichsdorf and the Cossacks were driven out of Schwonau. German cardinal at the Vatican Council. The path was fairly Lannes held his own, and by noon, when Napoleon arrived, open before him to the highest advancement in the Church of 40,000 French troops were on the scene of action. His orders Rome, yet be deliberately sacrificed all such hopes and placed were brief: Ney's corps was to take the line between Posthenen himself in the van of a hard and doubtful struggle" (The Guardian, and the Sortlack Wood, Lannes closing on his left, to form the 1872, p. 1004). Sentence of excommunication was passed on centre, Mortier at Heinrichsdorf the left wing. Victor and the Friedrich in April 1871, but he refused to acknowledge it and Guard were placed in reserve behind Posthenen. Cavalry was upheld by the Bavarian government. He continued to masses were collected at Heinrichsdorf. The main attack was perform ecclesiastical functions and maintained bis academic to be delivered against the Russian left, which Napoleon saw at position, becoming ordinary professor in 1872. In 1882 he was once to be cramped in the narrow tongue of land between the transferred to the philosophical faculty as professor of history. river and the Posthenen mill-stream. Three cavalry divisions By this time he had to some extent withdrawn from the adwere added to the general reserve. The course of the previous vanced position which he at first occupied in organizing the Old operations had been such that both armies had still Jarge de-Catholic Church, for he was not in agreement with its abolition tachments out towards Königsberg. The afternoon was spent by of enforced celibacy. the emperor in forming up the newly arrived masses, the deploy- Friedrich was a prolific writer; among his chief works are: ment being covered by an artillery bombardment. At 5 o'clock Johann Wessel (1862); Die Lehre des Johann Hus (1862): Kirchenall was ready, and Ney, preceded by a heavy artillery fire, Concils geführt (1871): Zur Verteidigung meines Tagebuchs (1872): rapidly carried the Sortlack Wood. The attack was pushed on

Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte des 18len Jahrh. (1876); Geschichte des toward the Alle. One of Ney's divisions (Marchand) drove part Vatikan. Konzils (1877-1886): Beiträge sur Gesch. des Jesuitenordens of the Russian left into the river at Sortlack. A furious charge (1881); Das Papsicum (1892); 1. o. Döllinger (1899-1901). of cavalry against Marchand's left was repulsed by the dragoon FRIEDRICHRODA, a summer resort in the duchy of Saxedivision of Latour-Maubourg. Soon the Russians were huddled Coburg-Gotha, Germany, at the north foot of the Thuringian together in the bends of the Alle, an easy target for the guns of Forest, 13 m. by rail S.W. from Gotha. Pop. 4500. It is surNey and of the reserve. Ney's atlack indeed came eventually I rounded by fir-clad bills and possesses numerous handsome

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villa residences, a Kurhaus, sanatorium, &c. In the immediate Friendly Societies Act 1908 the sum was £50), and for insurance neighbourhood is the beautiful ducal hunting seat of Reinhards- of a gross sum to £300 (previous to the act of 1908 the sum was brunn, built out of the ruins of the famous Benedictine monastery £200). They may be described in a more popular and condensed founded in 1085.

form of words as the mutual insurance societies of the poorer FRIEDRICHSDORF, a town of Germany, in the Prussian classes, by which they seek to aid each other in the emergencies province of Hesse-Nassau, on the southern slope of the Taunus arising from sickness and death and other causes of distress. A range, 3 m. N.E. from Homburg. Pop. 1300. It has a French phrase in the first act for the encouragement and relief of friendly Reformed church, a modern school, dyeworks, weaving mills, societies, passed in 1793, designating them “societies of good tanneries and tobacco manufactures. Friedrichsdorf was founded fellowship,” indicates another useful phase of their operations. in 1687 by Huguenot refugees and the inhabitants still speak The origin of the friendly society is, probably in all countries, Freach. There is a monument to Philipp Reis (1834–1874), the burial club. It has been the policy of every religion, if indeed who in 1860 frst constructed the telephone while a science it is not a common instinct of humanity, to surround the disposal master at the school.

of a dead body with circumstances of pomp and expenditure, FRIEDRICHSHAFEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom often beyond the means of the surviving relatives. The appeal of Württemberg, on the east shore of the Lake of Constance, at for help to friends and neighbours which necessarily follows is the junction of railways to Bretten and Lindau. Pop. 4600. soon organized into a system of mutual aid, that falls in naturally It consists of the former imperial town of Buchhorn and the with the religious ceremonies by which honour is done to the nocasiery and village of Hofen. The principal building is the dead. Thus in China there are burial societies, termed " long-life palace, formerly the residence of the provosts of Hofen, and loan companies," in almost all the towns and villages. Among now the summer residence of the royal family. To the palace the Greeks the čpavol combined the religious with the provident is attached the Evangelical parish church. The town has a element (see CHARITY AND CHARITIES). From the Greeks the hydropathic establishment and is a favourite tourist resort. Romans derived their fraternities of a similar kind. The Teutons Here are also the natural history and antiquarian collections of in like manner had their gilds. Whether the English friendly the Lake Constance Association. Buchhorn is mentioned (as society owes its origin in the higher degree to the Roman or the Buachihorn or Puchihorn) in documents of 837 and was the Teutonic influence can hardly be determined. The utility of seat of a powerful countship. The line of counts died out in providing by combination for the ritual expenditure upon burial 1989, and the place fell first to the Welfs and in 1191 to the having been ascertained, the next step—to render mutual assist. Hobenstaufen. In 1275 it was made a free imperial city by ance in circumstances of distress generally-was an easy one, King Rudolph I. In 1802 it lost this status and was assigned and we find it taken by the Greek épavou and by the English to Bavaria, and in 1810 to Württemberg. The monastery of gilds. Another modification--that the societies should consist not Holen was founded in 1050 as a convent of Benedictine nuns, so much of neighbours as of persons having the same occupation but was changed in 1420 into a provostship of monks. It was -soon ariscs; and this is the germ of our trade unions and suppressed in 1802 and in 1805 came to Württemberg. King our city companies in their original constitution. The interest, Frederick I., who caused the harbour to be made, amalgamated however, that these inquiries possess is mainly antiquarian. Buchhorn and Hof en under the new name of Friedrichshafen. The legal definition of a friendly society quoted above points to

FRIEDRICHSRUH, a village the Prussian province of an organization more complex than those of the ancient fraterniSchleswig-Holstein, 15 m. S.E. of Hamburg, with a station on ties and gilds, and proceeding upon different principles. It the main line of railway to Berlin. It gives its name to the may be that the one has grown out of the other. The common famous country seat of the Bismarck family. The house is a element of a provision for a contingent event by a joint contribuplain unpretentious structure, but the park and estate, forming tion is in both; but the friendly society alone has attempted a portion of the famous Sachsenwald, are attractive. Close by, to define with precision what is the risk against which it intends on a knoll, the Schneckenberg, stands the mausoleum in to provide, and what should be the contributions of the members which the remains of Prince Otto von Bismarck were entombed to meet that risk. on the 16th of March 1899.

United Kingdom.- It would be curious to endeavour to trace FRIENDLY: SOCIETIES. These organizations, according to how, after the suppression of the religious gilds in the 16th the comprehensive definition of the Friendly Societies Act 1896, century, and the substitution of an organized system of relief which regulates such societies in Great Britain and Ireland, by the poor law of Elizabeth for the more voluntary and casual are" societies for the purpose of providing by voluntary subscrip- means of relief that previously existed, the modern system of tions of the members thereof, with or without the aid of donations, friendly societies grew up. The modern friendly society, particufor the relief or maintenance of the members, their husbands, larly in rural districts, clings with fondness to its annual feast vives, children, fathers, mothers, brothers or sisters, nephews and procession to church, its procession of all the brethren on Of nieces, or wards being orphans, during sickness or other the occasion of the funeral of one of them, and other incidents infirmity, whether bodily or mental,

in old age, or in widowhood, which are almost obviously survivals of the customs of medieval or for the relief or maintenance of the orphan children of members gilds. The last recorded gild was in existence in 1628, and there during minority; for insuring money to be paid on the birth of are records of friendly societies as early as 1634 and 1639. The a member's child, or on the death of a member, or for the funeral connecting links, however, cannot be traced. With the exception expenses of the husband, wife, or child of a member, or of the of a society in the port of Borrowstounness on the Firth of Forth, widow of a deceased member, or, as respects persons of the no existing friendly society is known to be able to trace back its Jewish persuasion, for the payment of a sum of money during history beyond a date late in the 17th century, and no records the period of confined mourning; for the relief or maintenance remain of any that might have existed in the latter half of the di tbe members when on travel in search of employment or when | 16th century or the greater part of the 17th. One founded in in distressed circumstances, or in case of shipwreck, or loss 1666 was extant in 1850, but it has since ceased to exist. This or damage of or to boats or nets; for the endowment of members is not so surprising as it might appear. Documents which exist of Dominees of members at any age; for the insurance against in manuscript only are much less likely to have been preserved fre to any amount not exceeding £15 of the tools or implements since the invention of printing than they were before; and such of the trade or calling of the members "--and are limited in would be the simple rules and records of any society that might their contracts for assurance of annuities to £52 (previous to the have existed during this interval-if, indeed, many of them The word " friend" (0.E. freond, Ger. Freund, Dutch Vriend) is kept records at all. On the whole, it seems probable therefore derived from an old Teutonic verb meaning to love. While used that the friendly society is a lineal descendant of the ancient get italy as the opposite to enemy, it is specially the term which Carrer any degree, but particularly a high degree of personal gild-the idea never having wholly died out, but having been podwill affection or regard, from which the element of sexual love kept up from generation to generation in a succession of small is absent.

and scattered societies.

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