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organization, disuse of the outward ordinances (this point is liberty for all men and women to state their opinions, and to serve subject to some slight exception, principallyin Ohio), and women's on all committees and other appointments. The mode of conducting ministry, they do not differ from English Friends. The yearly called, acts as chairman or president: there are no formal resolu

these meetings is noteworthy. A secretary or "clerk," as he is meetings of Baltimore and Philadelphia have not adopted the tions; and there is no voting or applause. The clerk ascertains pastoral system; the latter contains a very strong conservative what he considers to be the judgment of the assembly, and records element, and, contrary to the practice of London and the other it in a minute. The permanent standing committee of the Society “orthodox " yearly meetings, it officially regards the meetings which took its rise in the days when the persecution of many Friends

is known as the "Meeting for Sufferings " (established in 1675). of the smaller body” (see above) as meetings of the Society demanded the Christian care and material help of those who were of Friends. In 1902 the “ orthodox” yearly meetings in the able to give it. It is composed of representatives (men and women) United States established a “Five Years' Meeting," a representa-sent by the quarterly meetings, and of all recorded Ministers and

Elders. Its work is not conhned to the interests of Friends; it is tive body meeting once every five years to consider matters

sensitive to the call of oppression and distress (e.g. a famine) in all affecting the welfare of all, and to further such philanthropic parts of the world, it frequently raises large sums of money to and religious work as may be undertaken in common, e.g. alleviate the same, and intervenes, often successfully, and mostly matters concerning foreign missions, temperance and peace, and without publicity, with those in authority who have the power to the welfare of negroes and Indians. Two yearly meetings remain

bring about an amelioration.

The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister outside the organization, that of Ohio on ultra-evangelical (the term “ office is not strictly applicable, sec above as to record. grounds, while that of Philadelphia has not taken the matter into ing"); (2) of elder, whose duty it is "to encourage and help young consideration. Canada joined at the first, and having withdrawn, ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see again joined in 1907.

;.(3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that See James Bowden, History of the Soci:ty of Friends in America recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church. In most

duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers (1850-1854); Allan C. and Richard H. Thomas, The History of Monthly Meetings the care of the poor is committed to the overseers. Friends in America (4th edition, 1905); Isaac Sharpless, History of These officers hold, from time to time, meetings separate from the Quaker Government in Pennsylvania (1898, 1899); R. P, Hallowell, general assemblies of the members, but the special organization for The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (1887), and The Pioneer Quakers (1887).

many years known as the Meeting of Ministers and Elders, recon.

stituted in 1876 as the Meeting on Ministry and Oversight, came to Organization and Discipline.—The duty of watching over one an end in 1906-1907. another for good was insisted on by the early Friends, and has This present form both of organization and of discipline has been been embodied in a system of discipline. Its objects embrace reached only by a process of development. As early as 1652–1654 (a) admonition to those who fail in the payment of their just marriages, poor relief, disorderly walkers," matters of arbitration, debts, or otherwise walk contrary to the standard of Quaker &c. The Quarterly or “General meetings of the different counties ethics, and the exclusion of obstinate or gross offenders from seem to have been the first unions of separate congregations. In the body, and, as incident to this, the hearing of appeals from

1666 Fox established Monthly Meetings; in 1727 elders were first individuals or meetings considering themselves aggrieved; of children of Quakers to be considered as members was fully

appointed; in 1752 overseers were added; and in 1737 the right (6) the care and maintenance of the poor and provision for the recognized. Concerning the 18th century in general, see above. Christian education of their children, for which purpose the of late years the stringency of the Quaker discipline has been Society has established boarding schools in different parts of the relaxed; the peculiarities of dress and language have been country; (c) the amicable settlement of “all differences about members is now possible at a Quaker meeting-house; and marriage outward things," either by the parties in controversy or by the elsewhere has ceased to involve exclusion from the body. Above submission of the dispute to arbitration, and the restraint of all all, many of its members have come to the conviction, which is proceedings at law between members except by leave; (d) the not new, but old, that the virtues which can be rewarded and the recording” of ministers (see above); (e) the cognizance of all vices which can be punished by external discipline are not as a rule

the virtues and the vices that make or mar the soul " (Hatch, steps preceding marriage according to Quaker forms; () the Bamplon Lectures, 81). registration of births, deaths and marriages and the admission A genuine vein of philanthropy has always existed in the Quaker of members; (g) the issuing of certificates or letters of approval body. In nothing has this been more conspicuous than in the granted to ministers travelling away from their homes, or to

matter of slavery. George Fox and William Penn
laboured to secure the religious teaching of slaves.

As members removing from one meeting to another; and (h) the carly as 1676 the assembly of Barbados passed " An Act

thropic management of the property belonging to the Society. The to prevent the people called Quakers from bringing. meetings for business further concern themselves with arrange-negroes to their meetings.". On the attitude of Friends in America ments for spreading the Quaker doctrine, and for carrying out 1783 the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition

to slavery, see the section" Quakerism in America " (above). In various religious, philanthropic and social activities not neces- of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the sarily confined to the Society of Friends.

long agitation which ensued the Society took a prominent part. The present organization of the Quaker church is essentially In 1798 Joseph Lancaster, himself a friend, opened his first school democratic; every person born of Quaker parents is a member, and, for the education of the poor; and the cause of unsectarian religious

together with those who have been admitted on their own education found in the Quakers steady support. They also took an Periodic

requesc, is entitled to take part in the business assemblies active part in Sir Samuel Romilly's efforts to ameliorate the penal "meet ings."

of any meeting of which he or she is a member. The code, in prison reform, with which the name of Elizabeth Fry (a

Society is organized as a series of subordinated meetings Friend) is especially connected, and in the efforts to ameliorate the which recall to the mind the Presbyterian model. The “ Preparative condition of lunatics in England (the Friends' Retreat at York, Meeting" usually consists of a single congregation; next in order founded in 1792, was the earliest exampie in England of kindly

Monthly Meeting," the executive body, usually embrac treatment of the insane). It is noteworthy that Quaker efforts for ing several Preparative Meetings called together, as its name indi. the education of the poor and philanthropy in general, though they cates, monthly (in some cases less often); then the “Quarterly have always been Christian in character, have not been undertaken Meeting," embracing several Monthly Meetings, and lastly the primarily for the purpose of bringing prosclytes within the body, " Yearly Meeting," embracing the whole of Great Britain (but not and have not done so to any great extent. Ireland). After several yearly or “ general ” mectings had been held By means of the Adult Schools, Friends have been able to exercise in different places at irreguiar intervals as need arose, the first of an a religious influence beyond the borders of their own Society. The uninterrupted series met in 1668. From that date until 1904 it was movement began in Birmingham in 1845, in an attempt

Educa held in London. In 1905 it met in Leeds, and in 1908 in Birmingham. to help the loungers at street corners; reading and

tios. Its official title is "London Yearly Meeting." It is the legislative writing were the chief inducements offered. The schools body of Friends in Great Britain. It considers questions of policy, are unsectarian in character and mainly democratic in government: and some of its sittings are conferences for the consideration of the aim is to draw out what is best in men and to induce them to act reports on religious, philanthropic, educational and social work for the help of their fellows. Whilst the work is essentially religious which is carried on. Its sessions occupy a week in May of cach year. in character, a well-equipped school also caters for the social Representatives are sent from each inferior to each superior meeting, intellectual and physical parts of a man's nature. Bible teaching is but they have no precedence over others, and all Friends may the central part of the school session: the lessons are mainly conattend any meeting and take part in any of which they are members. cerned with life's practical problems. The spirit of brotherliness Formerly the system was double, the men and women meeting which prevails is largely the secret of the success of the movement. separately for their own appointed business. Of late years the At the end of 1909 there were in connexion with the “ National meetings have been, for the most part, held jointly, with equal' Council of Adult-School Associations" 1818" schools " for men with



comes the


a membership of about 113,789; and 402 for women with a member- | Friends' Witness, The Friendly Messenger, The Friends' Fellowship ship of about 27,000. The movement, which is no longer exclusively Papers, The Friends' Quarterly Examiner, Journal of the Friends under the control of Friends, is rapidly becoming one of the chief Historical Society. Officially issued: The Book of Meetings and The means of bringing about a religious fellowship among a class which Friends' Year Book. See also works mentioned at the close of the organized churches have largely failed to reach. The effect of sections on Adult Schools and on Quakerism in America, Scotland the work upon the Society itself may be summarized thus: some and Ireland, and elsewhere in this article; also Fox, GEORGE. addition to membership; the creation of a sphere of usefulness for

(A. N. B.) the younger and more active members; a general stirring of interest ia social questions."

FRIES, ELIAS MAGNUS (1794–1878), Swedish botanist, A strong interest in Sunday schools for children preceded the

was born at Femsjö, Småland, on the 15th of August 1794. Adult School movement. The earliest schools which are still From his father, the pastor of the church at Femsjö, he early . existing were formed at Bristol, for boys in 1810 and for girls in the acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants. In 1811 bedwing year. Several isolated efforts were made earlier than this; he entered the university of Lund, where in 1814 he was elected it is evident that there was a school at Lothersdale near Skipton docent of botany and in 1824 professor. In 1834 he became their instruction in useful learning"; and another at Nottingham. professor of practical economy at Upsala, and in 1844 and 1848 Even earlier still were the Sunday and day schools in Rossendale, he represented the university of that city in the Rigsdag. On Lancashire, dating from 1793; At the end of 1909 there were in the death of Göran Wahlenberg (1780–1851) he was appointed schools with 2722 teachers and 25,215 scholars, very few of whom professor of botany at Upsala, where he died on the 8th of were the children of Friends. Not included in these figures are February 1878. Fries was admitted a member of the Swedish classes for children of members and attenders," which are usually Royal Academy in 1847, and a foreign member of the Royal held before or during a portion of the time of the morning meeting Society of London in 1875. for worship; in these distinctly denominational teaching is given. As an author on the Cryptogamia he was in the first rank. He Monthly organ, Teachers and Taught.

wrote Novitiae florae Suecicae (1814 and 1823); Observationes A provisional committee " of members of the Society of Friends mycologicae (1815): Flora Hollandica (1817-1818); Systema mycowas formed in 1865 to deal with offers of service in foreign lands. logicum (1821-1829); Systema orbis vegetabilis, not completed Foreign

In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission (1825); Elenchus fungorum (1828); Lichenographia Europaca Dissions Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in (1831); Epicrisis systematis mycologici (1838; 2nd ed., or Hymeno

India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), mycetes Europaei, 1874); Summa vegetabilium Scandinaviae (1846); China (1886), Ceylon (1896).“ In 1909 the number of missionaries Sveriges älliga och giftiga Svampar, with coloured plates (1860); (including wives) was 113; organized churches, 194; members and Monographia hymenomycetum Succicae (1863), with the Icones adherents, 21,085; schools, *135; pupils,, 7042; hospitals and hymenom ycctum, vol. i. (1867), and pt. i. vol. ii. (1877). dispensaries, 17; patients treated, 6865; subscriptions raised from Friends in Great Britain and Ireland, £26,689, besides £3245 received

PRIES,JAKOB FRIEDRICH (1773-1843), German philosopher, in the fields of work. Quarterly organ, Our Missions.

was born at Barby, Saxony, on the 23rd of August 1773. Having Statistics of Quakerism.-At the close of 1909 there were 18,686 studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Quakers (the number includes children) in Great Britain; and Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for

and habitual " attenders " not in membership, 8586; some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and number of congregations regularly, meeting, 320. Ireland-mem-elementary mathematics at Heidelberg. Though the progress bers, 2528; habitual attenders not in membership, 402.

The central offices and reference library of the Society of Friends of his psychological thought compelled him to abandon the are situate at Devonshire House, Bishopsgate Without, London. positive theology of the Moravians, he always retained an

Bibliography.-The writings of the early Friends are very numer. ous: the most noteworthy are the Journals of George Fox and of appreciation of its spiritual or symbolic significance. His philoTbornas Ellwood, both autobiographies, the Apology and other sophical position with regard to his contemporaries he had works of Robert Barclay, and the works of Penn and Penington. already made clear in the critical work Reinhold, Fichle und Early in the 18th century William Sewel, a Dutch Quaker, wrote a Schelling (1803; reprinted in 1824 as Polemische Schriften), history of the Society and published an English translation; modern and in the more systematic treatises System der Philosophie als (small) histories have been written by T. Edmund Harvey (The Rise of the Quakers) and by Mrs Emmott (The Story of Quakerism) evidente Wissenschaft (1804), Wissen, Glaube und Ahnung (1805, The Sufferings of the Quakers by Joseph Besse (1753) gives a detailed new ed. 1905). His most important treatise, the Neue oder account of the persecution of the early Friends in England and anthropologische Krilik der Vernunst (2nd ed., 1828–1831), was America. An excellent portraiture of early Quakerism is given in an attempt to give a new foundation of psychological analysis William Tanner's Lectures on Friends in Bristol and Somer selshire. The Book of Discipline in its successive printed editions from 1783 to the critical theory of Kant. In 1811 appeared his System to 1906 contains the working rules of the organization, and also a der Logik (cd. 1819 and 1837), a very instructive work, and in compilation of testimonies borne by the Society at different periods, 1814 Julius und Evagoras, a philosophical romance. In 1816 to important points of Christian truth, and often called forth by the he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy Sacieties of the Commonweallh (London, 1876) by Robert Barclay. (including mathematics and physics, and philosophy proper), a descendant of the Apologist, contains much curious information

and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism. aboat the Quakers. See also ". Quaker" in the index to Masson's In politics he was a strong Liberal and Unionist, and did much Life of Millon. Joseph Smith's Descriplive Catalogue of Friends' to inspire the organization of the Burschenschaft. In 1816 he Books (London, 1867) gives the information which its title promises; had published his views in a brochure, Vom deutschen Bund Laakerism. For an exposition of Quakerism on its spiritual side und deutscher Staatsverfassung, dedicated to "the youth of many of the poems by Whittier be referred to, also Quaker Germany," and his influence gave a powerful impetus to the Friends, its Faith and Practice, and other works by John Stephenson by the representatives of the German governments. Karl Sand, Row tree, A Dynamic Faith and other works by Rufus M. Jones; Authority and the Light Within and other works by Edw. Grubb, / the murderer of Kotzebue, was one of his pupils; and a letter and the series of "Swarthmore Lectures" as well as the histories of his, found on another student, warning the lad against parabove mentioned. Much valuable information will

be found in John ticipation in secret societies, was twisted by the suspicious Suplensor Rowntree: His Life and Work (1908). The history of the authorities into evidence of his guilt. He was condemned by the by John Wilhelm Rowntree, and in Present Day Papers edited by him. Mainz Commission; the grand-duke of Weimar was compelled The sorial life of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th is to deprive him of his professorship; and he was forbidden to portrayed in Records of a Quaker Family, the Richardsons of Cleveland, lecture on philosophy. The grand-duke, however, continued by Mrs Boyce, and The Diaries of Edward Pease, the Father of English to pay him his stipend, and in 1824 he was recalled to Jena Bailesys, edited by Sir A. E. Pease. Other works which may usefully be consulted are the Journals of John Woolman, Stephen Grellet and

as professor of mathematics and physics, receiving permission Elizabeth Fry; also The First Publishers of Truth, a reprint of con

also to lecture on philosophy in his own rooms to a select number trauporary accounts of the rise of Quakerism in various districts. of students. Finally, in 1838, the unrestricted right of lecturing The periodicals issued (not officially) in connexion with the Quaker was restored to him. He died on the 10th of August 1843. besty are The Friend (weekly), The British Friend (monthly), The

The most important of the many works written during his Jena "See A History of the Adult School Movement by J. W. Rowntree professorate are the Handbuch der praktischen Philosophie (1817and H. B. Binns.' The organ of the movement is one and All, 1832), the Handbuch der psychischen Anthropologie (1820-1821, Dublished monthly. See also The Adult School Year Book.

2nd ed. 1837–1839), Die mathematische Naturphilosophie (1822),


System der Metaphysik (1824), Die Geschichte der Philosophie (1837- | Frisian horse is well known. On the clay lands agriculture is 1840)Fries's point of view in philosophy may be described as a

also extensively practised. In the high-fen district peat-digging modified Kantianism, an attempt to reconcile the criticism of Kant and Jacobi's philosophy of belief. With Kant he regarded Kritik, is the chief occupation. The effect of this industry, however, or the critical investigation of the faculty of knowledge, as the is to lay bare a subsoil of diluvial sand which offers little induce. essential preliminary to philosophy:. But he differed from Kant ment for subsequent cultivation. Despite the general productiveboth as regards the foundation for this criticism and as regards the ness of the soil, however, the social condition of Friesland has had disclosed the a priori element as the necessary complement of remained in a backward state and poverty is rife in many districts. the isolated a posteriori facts of experience. But it did not seem to The ownership of property being largely in the hands of absentee Frics that Kant had with sufficient accuracy examined the mode in landlords, the peasantry have little interest in the land, the which we arrive at knowledge of this a priori element. According profits from which go to enrich other provinces. Moreover, to him we only know these a priori principles through inner or psychical cxperience; they are not then to be regarded as tran

the nature of the fertility of the meadow-lands is such as to scendental factors of all experience, but as the necessary, constant require little manual labour, and other industrial means of elements discovered by us in our inner experience. Accordingly subsistence have hardly yet come into existence. This state of Fries, like the Scotch school, places psychology or analysis of con- affairs has given rise to a social-democratic outcry on account sciousness at the foundation of philosophy, and called his criticism

of which Friesland is sometimes regarded as the “ Ireland of Fries differed from Kant is the view taken as to the relation between Holland.” The water system of the province comprises a sex of knowledge an anthropological critique. A second point in which immediate and mediate cognitions. According to Fries, the under- small rivers (now largely canalized) in the high lands in the east, certitude is the only source of knowledge. Reason contains principles north and west. The principal lakes are Tjeuke Meer, Sloter standing is purely the faculty of proof; it is in itself void ; immediate and the vast network of canals, waterways and lakes

of the whole which we cannot demonstrate, but which can be deduced, and are the proper objects of belief. In this view of reason Fries' approxi- Meer, De Fluessen and Sneeker Meer. The tides being lowest mates to Jacobi rather than to Kant. His most original idea is the on the north coast of the province, the scheme of the Waterstaat, graduation of knowledge into knowing, belief and presentiment. the government department (dating from 1879), provides for We know phenomena, how the existence of things appears to us in the largest removal of superfluous surface water into the Lau. nature; we believe in the true nature, the eternal essence of things (the good, the true, the beautiful); by means of presentiment

werszee. But owing to the long distance which the water must (Ahnung) the intermediary between knowledge and belief, we travel from certain parts of the province, and the continual recognize the supra-sensible in the sensible, the being in the pheno- recession of the Lauwerszee, the drainage problem is a peculiarly Sec E. L. Henke, J. F. Fries (1867); C. Grapengiesser, J. F. Fries,

difficult one, and floods are sometimes inevitable. ein Gedenkblatt and Kant's Kritik der Vernunft" und deren For!

The population of the province is evenly distributed in small bildung durch J. F. Fries (1882); H. Strasosky, J. F. Fries als villages. The principal market centres are Leeuwarden, the Kritiker der Kantischen Erkenntnistheorie (1891): articles in Ersch chief towns, Sneek, Bolsward, Franeker (99.0.), Dokkum (4053) and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopädie and Allgemeine deutsche and Heerenveen (5011). With the exception of Franeker and Biographie: J. E. Erdmann, Hist. of Philos. (Eng. trans., London, Heerenveen all these towns originally arose on the inlet of the 1890), vol. ii. $ 305. FRIES, JOHN (c. 1764-1825), American insurgent leader, was

Middle Sea. The seaport towns are more or less decayed; born in Pennsylvania of “ Dutch” (German) descent about they include Stavoren (820), Hindeloopen (1030), Workum 1764. As an itinerant auctioneer he became well acquainted |(3428), Harlingen (9.v.) and Makkum (2456).

For history see FRISIANS. with the Germans in the S.E. part of Pennsylvania. In July 1798, during the troubles between the United States and France, the Lat. Phrygium, sc. opus, Phrygian or embroidered work),

FRIEZE. 1. (Through the Fr. frise, and Ital. fregio, from Congress levied a direct tax (on dwelling-houses, lands and

a term given in architecture to the central division of the enslaves) of $2,000,000, of which Pennsylvania was called upon to contribute $237,000. There were very few slaves in the state, horizontal feature, introduced for decorative purposes and

tablature of an order (see ORDER), but also applied to any oblong and the tax was accordingly assessed upon dwelling-houses and land, the value of the houses being determined by the number enriched with carving. The Doric frieze had a structural origin and size of the windows. The inquisitorial nature of the pro: purely decorative and probably did not exist in the earliest

as the triglyphs suggest vertical support. The Ionic frieze was ceedings aroused strong opposition among the Germans, and many of them refused to pay. Fries, assuming leadership, examples, if we may judge by the copies found in the Lycian organized an armed band of about sixiy

men, who marched tombs carved in the rock. There is no frieze in the Caryatide about the country intimidating the assessors and encouraging ion may have been necessitated in consequence of more height

portico of the Erechtheum, but in the Ionic temples its introducthe people to resist. At last the governor called out the militia (March 1799) and the leaders were arrested. Fries and being required in the entablature to carry the beams supporting

the lacunaria over the peristyle. In the frieze of the Erechtheum two others were twice tried for treason (the second time before

the figures (about 2 ft. high) were carved in white marble and Samuel Chase) and were sentenced to be hanged, but they were pardoned by President Adams in April 1800, and a general The frieze of the Choragic monument of Lysicrates (10 in.. high)

affixed by clamps to a background of black Eleusinian marble. amnesty was issued on 21st May. The affair is variously known

was carved with figures representing the story of Dionysus and as the "Fries Rebellion," the "Hot-Water Rebellion”. hot water was used to drive assessors from houses—, and the the pirates. The most remarkable frieze ever sculptured was “ Home Tax Rebellion.” Fries died in Philadelphia in 1825.

that on the outside of the wall of the cella of the Parthenon See T. Carpenter, Two Trials of John Fries ... Taken in Short- representing the procession of the celebrants of the Panathenaic hand (Philadelphia, 1800); the second volume of McMaster's History Festival. It was 40 in. in height and 525 ít. long, being carried of the United States (New York, 1883); and W. W. H. Davis, The round the whole building under the peristyle. Nearly the whole Fries Rebellion (Doylestown, Pa., 1899).

of the western frieze exists in situ; of the remainder, about hall FRIESLAND, or VRIESLAND, a province of Holland, bounded is in the British Museum, and as much as remains is either in S.W., W. and N. by the Zuider Zee and the North Sea, E. by Athens or in other museums. In some of the Roman temples, Groningen and Drente, and S.E. by Overysel. It also includes as in the temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the temple the islands of Ameland and Schiermonnikoog (see Frisian of the Sun, the frieze is elaborately carved and in later work is ISLANDS). Area, 1281 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 340, 262. The soil made convex, to which the term “pulvinated ” is given. of Friesland falls naturally into three divisions consisting of 2. (Probably connected with " frizz," to curl; there is no sea-clay in the north and north-west, of low-fen between the historical reason to connect the word with Friesland), a thick, south-west and north-east, and of a comparatively small area rough woollen cloth, of very lasting quality, and with a heavy of high-sen in the south-east. The clay and low-fen furnish a nap, forming small lufts or curls. It is largely manufactured in luxuriant meadow-land for the principal industries of the province Ireland. --cattle-rearing and cheese-and butter-making. Horse-breeding FRIGATE (Fr. frégate, Span. and Port. fragala; the etymology has also been practised for centuries, and the breed of black of the word is obscure; it has been derived from the Late Lat. fabricata, and the use of the Fr. bâtiment, for a vessel as well as a lous suddenness with which they can change their rapid course building is compared; another suggestion derives the word from as their victim tries to escape from their attack. Before gales the Gr. á paktos, unfenced or unguarded), originally a small frigate-birds are said often to fly low, and their appearance swist, undecked vessel, propelled by oars or sails, in use on the near or over land, except at their breeding-time, is supposed to Mediterranean. The word is thus used of the large open boats, portend a hurricane. Generally seen singly or in pairs, except without guns, used for war purposes by the Portuguese in the when the prospect of prey induces them to congregate, they East Indies during the 16th and 17th centuries. The French breed in large companies, and O. Salvin has graphically described first applied the term to a particular type of ships of war during (Ibis, 1864, p. 375) one of their settlements off the coast of the second quarter of the 18th century. The Seven Years' British Honduras, which he visited in May 1862. Here they War (1756-1763) marked the definite adoption of the “frigate" chose the highest mangrove-trees on which to build their frail as a standard class of vessel, coming next to ships of the line, nests, and seemed to prefer the leeward side. The single egg and used for cruising and scouting purposes. They were three- laid in each nest has a white and chalky shell very like that of a masted, fully rigged, fast vessels, with the main armament cormorant's. The nestlings are clothed in pure white down, carried on a single deck, and additional guns on the poop and and so thickly as to resemble puff-balls. When fledged, the forecastle. The number of guns varied from 24 to 50, but beak, head, neck and belly are white, the legs and feet bluishbetween 30 and 40 guns was the usual amount carried. “Frigate” white, but the body is dark above. The adult females retain the continued to be used as the name for this type of ship, even white beneath, but the adult males lose it, and in both sexes at after the introduction of steam and of ironclad vessels, but the maturity the upper plumage is of a very dark chocolate brown, dass is now represented by that known as “ cruiser.”

nearly black, with a bright metallic gloss, while the feet in the FRIGATE-BIRD, the name commonly given by English females are pink, and black in the males-the last also acquiring sailors, on account of the swiftness of its flight, its habit of a bright scarlet pouch, capable of inflation, and being perceptible cruising about near other species and of daringly pursuing them, when on the wing. The habits of F. minor seem wholly to to a large sea-bird-the Fregala aquila of most ornithologists resemble those of P. aquila. According to J. M. Bechstein, an the Fregatte of French and the Rabihorcado of Spanish mariners. example of this last species was obtained at the mouth of the It was placed by Linnaeus in the genus Pelecanus, and its Weser in January 1792.

(A. N.) assignment to the family Pelecanidae had hardly ever been FRIGG, the wife of the god Odin (Woden) in northern mythodoubted till Professor St George Mivart declared (Trans. Zool. logy. She was known also to other Teutonic peoples both on Soc. I. p. 364) that, as regards the postcranial part of its axial the continent (O. H. Ger. Friia, Langobardic Frea) and in Engskeleton, he could not detect sufficiently good characters to land, where her name still survives in Friday (O.E. Frigedag). unite it with that family in the group named by Professor J. F. She is often wrongly identified with Freyia. (See TEUTONIC Brandt Slegonopodes. There seems to be no ground for disputing PEOPLES, ad fin.) this decision so far as separating the genus Fregata from the FRIGIDARIUM, the Latin term (from frigidus, cold) applied Peleconidge goes, but systematists will probably pause before to the open area of the Roman thermae, in which there was they proceed to abolish the Steganopodes, and the result will generally a cold swimming bath, and sometimes to the bath most likely be that the frigate-birds will be considered to form (see Baths). From the description given by Aelius Spartianus a distinct family (Pregalidae) in that group. In one very remark- (A.D. 297) it would seem that portions of the frigidarium were able way the osteology of Fregata differs from that of all other covered over by a ceiling formed of interlaced bars of gilt bronze, birds known. The furcula coalesces firmly at its symphysis and this statement has been to a certain extent substantiated with the carina of the sternum, and also with the coracoids at by the discovery of many tons of T-shaped iron found in the the upper extremity of each of its rami, the anterior end of each excavations under the paving of the frigidarium of the thermae coracoid coalescing also with the proximal end of the scapula. of Caracalla. Dr J. H. Middleton in The Remains of Ancient Thus the only articulations in the whole sternal apparatus are Rome (1892) points out that in the part of the enclosure walls where the coracoids meet the sternum, and the consequence is are deep sinkings to receive the ends of the great girders. He 1 bony framework which would be perfectly rigid did not the suggests that the panels of the lattice-work ceiling were filled in flexibility of the rami of the furcula permit a limited amount of with concrete made of light pumice stone. motion. That this mechanism is closely related to the faculty FRIIS, JOHAN (1494-1570), Danish statesman, was born in which the bird possesses of soaring for a considerable time in the 1494, and was educated at Odense and at Copenhagen, completing air with scarcely a perceptible movement of the wings can his studies abroad. Few among the ancient Danish nobility hardly be doubted.

occupy so prominent a place in Danish history as Johan Friis, Two species of Fregala are considered to exist, though they who exercised a decisive influence in the government of the difer in little but size and geographical distribution. The larger, realm during the reign of three kings. He was one of the first F.aquila, has a wide range all round the world within the tropics of the magnates to adhere to the Reformation and its promoter and at times passes their limits. The smaller, F. minor, appears King Frederick I. (1523-1533), his apostasy being so richly to be confined to the eastern seas, from Madagascar to the rewarded out of the spoils of the plundered Church that his heirs Moluccas, and southward to Australia, being particularly abun- had to restore property of the value of 1,000,000 kroner. Friis dant in Torres Strait,-the other species, however, being found succeeded Claus Gjoodsen as imperial chancellor in 1532, and there as well. Having a spread of wing equal to a swan's and held that dignity till his death. During the ensuing interregnum a very small body, the buoyancy of these birds is very great he powerfully contributed, at the head of the nobles of Funen It is a beautiful sight to watch one or more of them floating and Jutland, to the election of Christian III. (1533-1559), but overhead against the deep blue sky, the long forked tail alternately in the course of the “ Count's War” he was taken prisoner by opening and shutting like a pair of scissors, and the head, which Count Christopher, the Catholic candidate for the throne, and is of course kept to windward, inclined from side to side, while forced to do him homage. Subsequently by judicious bribery the wings are to all appearance fixedly extended, though the he contrived to escape to Germany, and from thence rejoined breeze may be constantly varying in strength and direction. Christian III. He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded Equally fine is the contrast afforded by these birds when engaged peace with Lübeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently in fshing, or, as seems more often to happen, in robbing other took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction birds, especially boobies, as they are fishing. Then the speed necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between of their flight is indeed seen to advantage, as well as the marvel- the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for

1" Man-of-war-bird " is also sometimes applied to it, and is 2 Hence another of the names~" hurricane-bird "-by which this perhaps the older name; but it is less distinctive, some of the larger species is occasionally known. Albatrosses bring so called, and, in books at least, has generally Captain Taylor, however, found their nests as well on low bushes passed out of use.

of the same tree in the Bay of Fonseca (Ibis, 1859, pp. 150-152).


supremacy during the earlier years of Christian III. This he was | Frisching, from the last of which the name Frisches Hall probably able to do, as a moderate Lutheran, whose calmness and common sense contrasted advantageously with the unbridled violence FRISCHLIN, PHILIPP NIKODEMUS (1547-1590), German of his contemporaries. As the first chancellor of the recon- philologist and poet, was born on the 22nd of September 1547 structed university of Copenhagen, Friis took the keenest at Balingen in Württemberg, where his father was parish interest in spiritual and scientific matters, and was the first donor minister. He was educated at the university oi Tübingen, of a legacy to the institution. He also enjoyed the society of where in 1568 he was promoted to the chair of poetry and learned men, especially of “ those who could talk with him history. In 1575 for his comedy of Rebecca, which he read at concerning ancient monuments and their history." He encour- Regensburg before the emperor Maximilian II., he was rewarded aged Hans Svaning to complete Saxo's history of Denmark, with the laureateship, and in 1577 he was made a count palatine and Anders Vedel to translate Saxo into Danish. His generosity (comes palalinus) or Pfalzgral. In 1582 his unguarded language to poor students was well known; but he could afford to be and reckless life made it necessary that he should Icave Tübingen, liberal, as his share of spoliated Church property had made him and he accepted a mastership at Laibach in Carniola, which he one of the wealthiest men in Denmark. Under King Frederick II. held for about two years. Shortly after his return to the univer(1559-1588), who understood but little of state affairs, Friis sity in 1584, he was threatened with a criminal prosecution on a was well-nigh omnipotent. He was largely responsible for the charge of immoral conduct, and the threat led to his withdrawal Scandinavian Seven Years' War (1562-70), which did so much to Frankfort-on-Main in 1587. For eighteen months he taught to exacerbate the relations between Denmark and Sweden. in the Brunswick gymnasium, and he appears also to have resided Friis died on the 5th of December 1570, a few days before the occasionally at Strassburg, Marburg and Mainz. From the peace of Stettin, which put an end to the exhausting and un-last-named city he wrote certain libellous letters, which led to his necessary struggle.

being arrested in March 1590. He was imprisoned in the fortress PRIMLEY, an urban district in the Chertsey parliamentary of Hohenurach, near Reutlingen, where, on the night of the 29th division of Surrey, England, 33 m. W.S.W. from London by of November 1590, he was killed by a fall in attempting to let the London & South-Western railway, and 1 m. N. of Farn- himself down from the window of his cell. borough in Hampshire. Pop. (1901) 8409. Its healthy climate, Frischlin's prolific and versatile genius produced a great variety its position in the sandy heath-district of the west of Surrey, of works, which entitle him to some rank both among poets and and its proximity to Aldershot Camp have contributed to its among scholars. In his Latin verse he often successíully imitated growth as a residential township. To the east the moorland vivacity; and some of his versions and commentaries, particularly

the classical models; his comedics are not without freshness and rises in the picturesque elevation of Chobham Ridges; and those on the Georgics and Bucolics of Virgil, though now well-nigh 3 m. N.E. is Bagshot, another village growing into a residential forgotten, were important contributions to the scholarship of his town, on the heath of the same name extending into Berkshire. time. There is no collected edition of his works, but his Opera Bisley Camp, to which in 1890 the meetings of the National počtica were published twelve times between 1535 and 1636. Among

those most widely known may be mentioned the llebraeis (1590), å Rifle Association were removed from Wimbledon, is 4 m. E. Latin epic based on the Scripturc history of the Jews; the Elegiaca Coniferous trees and rhododendrons are characteristic products (1601), his collected lyric poetry, in twenty-two books; the Opera of the soil, and large nurseries are devoted to their cultivation. scenica (1604) consisting of six comedies and two tragedies (among PRIMONT, JOHANN MARIA PHILIPP, Count of Palota, matica Latina (1585); the versions of Callimachus and Aristo

the former, Julius Caesar redivivus, completed 1584); the Gran PRINCE OF ANTRODOCCO (1759-1831), Austrian general, entered phanes; and the commentaries on Persius and Virgil. See the the Austrian cavalry as a trooper in 1776, won his commission monograph of D. F. Strauss (Leben und Schriften des Dichters und in the War of the Bavarian Succession, and took part in the Philologen Frischlin, 1856). Turkish wars and in the early campaigns against the French FRISI, PAOLO (1728-1784), Italian mathematician and Revolutionary armies, in which he frequently earned distinction. astronomer, was born at Milan on the 13th of April 1728. He At Frankenthal in 1796 he won the cross of Maria Theresa. In was educated at the Barnabite monastery and afterwards at the campaign of 1800 he distinguished himself greatly as a Padua. When twenty-one years of age he composed a trcatise cavalry leader at Marengo (14th of June), and in the next year on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon became major-general. In the war of 1805 he was again employed acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the in Italy and won further renown by his gallantry at the battle professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale. His íriend. of Caldiero. In 1809 he again saw active service in Italy in the ship with Radicati, a man of liberal opinions, occasioned Frisi's rank of lieutenant field marshal, and in 1812 led the cavalry of removal by his clerical superiors to Novara, where he was comSchwarzenberg's corps in the Russian campaign. He served in pelled to do duty as a preacher. In 1753 he was elected a correthe campaigns of 1813-14 in high command, and rendered sponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and shortly conspicuous service at Brienne-La Rothière and at Arcis-sur- afterwards he became professor of philosophy in the Barnabite Aube. In 1815 he was commander-in-chief of the Austrians in College of St Alexander at Milan. An acrimonious attack by a Italy, and his army penetrated France as far as Lyons, which young Jesuit, about this time, upon his dissertation on ihe was entered on the uth of July. With the army of occupation figure of the earth laid the foundation of his animosity against he remained in France for some years, and in 1819 he commanded the Jesuits, with whose enemies, including J. d'Alembert, at Venice. In 1821 he led the Austrian army which was employed J. A. N. Condorcet and other Encyclopedists, he later closcly against the Neapolitan rebels, and by the 24th of March he had associated himself. In 1756 he was appointed by Leopold, victoriously entered Naples. His reward from King Ferdinand grand-duke of Tuscany, to the professorship of mathematics of Naples was the title of prince of Antrodocco and a handsome in the university of Pisa, a post which he held for eight years. sum of money, and from his own master the rank of general of In 1757 he became an associate of the Imperial Academy of cavalry. After this he commanded in North Italy, and was St Petersburg, and a foreign member of the Royal Society of called upon to deal with many outbreaks of the Italian patriots. London, and in 1758 a member of the Academy of Berlin, in He became president of the Aulic council in 1831, but died a few 1766 of that of Stockholm, and in 1770 of the Academies of months later,

Copenhagen and of Bern. From several European crowned FRISCHES HAFF, a lagoon on the Baltic coast of Germany, heads he received, at various times, marks of special distinction, within the provinces East and West Prussia, between Danzig and the empress Maria Theresa granted him a yearly pension and Königsberg. It is 52 m. in length, from 4 to 12 m. broad, of 100 sequins (£50). In 1764 he was created professor of 332 sq. m. in area, and is separated from the Baltic by a narrow mathematics in the palatine schools at Milan, and obtained spit or bank of land. This barrier was torn open by a storm in from Pope Pius VI. release from ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and 1510, and the channel thus formed, now dredged out to a depth authority to become a secular priest. In 1766 he visited France of 22 ft., affords a navigable passage for vessels. Into the Hafi and England, and in 1768 Vienna. In 1777 he became director low the Nogat, the Elbing, the Passarge, the Pregel and the l of a school of architecture at Milan. His knowledge of hydraulics

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