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caused him to be frequently consulted with respect to the manage-| by British troops from August to December 1799. The village ment oi canals and other watercourses in various parts of Europe. of Oude Schild has a harbour. The island of Terschelling once It was through his means that lightning-conductors were first formed a separate lordship, but was sold to the states of Holland. introduced into Italy for the protection of buildings. He died The principal village of West-Terschelling has a harbour. As on the 22nd of November 1784.

early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship His publications include :- Disquisitio mathematica in causam of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately! påvsicam figurce et magnitudinis terrae (Milan: 1751): Saggio della of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the 1755): Dissertatio de molu diurno terrae (Pisa, 1758); Disseriationes Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting Berige (2 vols. 4to, Lucca, 1759, 1761); Del modo di regolare i fiumi between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same 6 i torrenti (Lucca, 1762); Cosmographia physica, el mathematica declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and (Milan, 1774, 1775, 2 vols. 4to, his chief work); Dell' archilettura, the United Netherlands. The castle of the Camminghas in the statica e idraulica (Milan, 1777); and other treatises.

See Verri, Memorie ::: del signor dom Paolo Frisi (Milan, 1787), village of Ballum remained standing till 1810, and finally dis4to; Fabbroni. "Elogj d' alustri Italiani," Atti di Milano, vol. ii.; appeared in 1829 after four centuries. This island is joined to J.C. Poggendorff,

Biograph. litterar. Handwörterbuch, vol. i. the mainland of Friesland by a stone dike constructed in 1873 FRISIAN ISLANDS, a chain of islands, lying from 3 to 20 m. for the purpose of promoting the deposit of mud. The island of from the mainland, and stretching from the Zuider Zee E. and Schiermonnikoog has a village and a lighthouse. Rottum was N. as far as Jutland, along the coasts of Holland and Germany: once the property of the ancient abbey at Rottum, 8 m. N. They are divided into three groups:-(1) The West Frisian, (2) of Groningen, of which there are slight remains. the East Frisian, and (3) the North Frisian.

With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia. former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland They comprise Borkum (124 sq. m.), with two lightby shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria houses and connected by steamer with Emden and redoss or the Romans. Notwithstanding the protection afforded Leer; Memmert; Juist (24 sq. m.), with two lifeboat by sard-dunes and earthen embankments backed by stones stations, and connected by steamer with Norddeich and Greetand timber, the Frisian Islands are slowly but surely crumbling siel; Norderney (5} sq. m.); Baltrum, with a lifeboat station; away under the persistent attacks of storm and flood, and the Langeoog (8 sq. m.), connected by: steamer with the adjacent old Frisian proverb de nich will diken mut wiken" (" who will islands, and with Bensersiel on the mainland; Spiekeroog not build dikes must go away") still holds good. Many of the (4 sq. m.), with a tramway for conveyance to the bathing beach, Frisian legends and folk-songs deal with the submerged villages and connected by steamer with Carolinenziel; and Wangeroog and hamlets, which lie buried beneath the treacherous waters (2 sq. m.), with a lighthouse and lifeboat station. All these of the Wadden. Heinrich Heine made use of these legends in his islands are visited for sea-bathing. In the beginning of the Nordseebilder, composed during a visit to Norderney in 1825. 18th century Wangeroog comprised eight times its present area. The Prussian and Dutch governments annually expend large Borkum and Juist are two surviving fragments of the original sums ior the protection of the islands, and in some cases the erosion island of Borkum (computed at 380 sq. m.), known to Drusus as on the seaward side is counterbalanced by the accretion of land Fabaria, and to Pliny as Burchana, which was rent asunder by on the inner side, fine sandy beaches being formed well suited the sea in 1170. Neuwerk and Scharhörn, situated off the mouth for sea-bathing, which attracts many visitors in summer. The

of the Elbe, are islands belonging the state of Hamburg, inbabitants of these islands support themselves by seafaring, Neuwerk, containing some marshland protected by dikes, has two pilotage, grazing of cattle and sheep, fishing and a little agri- lighthouses and a lifeboat station. At low water it can be reached culture, chicfly potato-growing.

from Duhnen by carriage. The islands, though well lighted, are dangerous to navigation,

About the year 1250 the area of the North Frisian Islands was and a glance at a wreck chart will show the entire chain to be estimated at 1065 sq. m.; by 1850 this had diminished to only dersely dotted. One of the most remarkable disasters was the

105 sq. m. This group embraces the islands of Nordloss of H.M.S. " La Lutine,” 32 guns, which was wrecked off strand (174 sq. m.), which up to 1634 formed one Vlieland in October 1799, only one hand being saved, who larger island with the adjoining Pohnshallig and ded before reaching England." La Lutine,” which had been Nordstrandisch-Moor; Pellworm (161 sq. m.), protected by a captured from the French by Admiral Duncan, was carrying circle of dikes and connected by steamer with Husum on the a large quantity of bullion and specie, which was underwritten mainland; Amrum (104 sq. m.); Föhr (32 sq. m.); Sylt (38 at Lloyd's. The Dutch government claimed the wreck and ftalled one-third of the salvage to bullion-fishers. Occasional sq. m.); Röm (16 sq. m.), with several villages, the principal of

which is Kirkeby; Fanö (21 sq. m.); and Heligoland (1 sq. m.). tecoveries were made of small quantities which led to repeated with the exception of Fanö, which is Danish, all these islands disputes and discussions, until eventually the king of the Nether- belong to Prussia. In the North Frisian group there are also lands ceded to Great Britain, for Lloyd's, half the remainder scveral smaller islands called Halligen. These rise generally only of the steck. A Dutch salvage company, which began operations

a few feet above the level of the sea, and are crowned by a single in August 1857, recovered 199,893 in the course of two years,

house standing on an artificial mound and protected by a but it was estimated that some £1,175,000 are still unaccounted

surrounding dike or embankment. lor. The ship's rudder, which was recovered in 1859, has been

BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Staring, De Bodem van Nederland (1856); fashioned into a chair and a table, now in the possession of Blink, Nederland en zijne Bewoners (1892); P. H. Witkamp, L'oyd's.

Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek van Nederland (1895): P. W. J. The West Frisian Islands belong to the kingdom of the Nether- Teding van Berkhout, De Landaanwinning op de Friesche Wadden lands, and embrace Texel or Tessel (71 sq. m.), Vlieland (19 sq.

(1869); J. de Vries and T. Focken, Ostfriesland (1881); Dr D. F.

Buitenrust Hettema, Fryske ByHeleek (Utrecht, 1895); Dr Eugen m.), Terschelling (41 sq. m.), Ameland (23 sq. m.), Traeger, Die Halligen der Nordsee (Stuttgart, 1892); also Globus, Schiermonnikoog (19 sq.m.), as well as the much smaller vol. Ixxviii. (1900). No. 15; P. Axelsen, in Deul. Rundschau fur

islands of Boschplaat and Rottum, which are practi- Geog: u. Statistik (1898); Christian Jensen, Vom Dunenstrand der cally uninhabited. The northern end of Texel is called Eierland, Nordsce und vom Wattenmeer (Schleswig, 1901), which contains a of " island of eggs,” in reference to the large number of sea-birds” | bibliography: Osterloh, Wangeroog und scin Seebad (Emden, 1884);

Zwickert, Führer durch das Nordseebad Wangeroog (Oldenburg, ters which are found there. It was joined to Texel by a sand-dike 1894); Nellner, Die Nordseeinsel Spickeroog (Emden, 1884); 15:629-1630, and is now undistinguishable from the main island. Tongers, Die Nordseeinsel Langeoog (2nd ed., Norden, 1892): Meier, Texei was already separated from the mainland in the 8th century, Die Nordseeinsel Borkum (10th ed., Emden, 1894): Herguet, Die

Insel Borkum, &c. (Emden, 1886); Scherz, Die Nordseeinsel Juist but remained a Frisian province and countship, which once

(2nd ed., Norden, 1893); von Bertouch, Vor 40 Jahren: Natur und extended as far as Alkmaar in North Holland, until it came into Kultur auf der Insel Nordstrand (Weimar, 1891); W. G. Black, the possession of the counts of Holland. The island was occupied | Heligoland and the Islands of the North Sea (Glasgow, 1888).



FRISIANS (Lat. Prisii; in Med. Lat. Frisones, Prisiones, I was attacked and captured, and the church destroyed. The Fresones; in their own tongue Frêsa, Frêsen), a people of first missionary to meet with any success among the Frisians was Teutonic (Low-German) stock, who in the first century of our the Englishman Wilfrid of York, who, being driven by a storm cra were found by the Romans in occupation of the coast lands upon the coast, was hospitably received by the king, Adgild or stretching from the mouth of the Scheldt to that of the Ems. Adgisl, and was allowed to preach Christianity in the land. They were nearly related both by speech and blood to the Saxons Adgild appears to have admitted the overlordship of the Frankish and Angles, and other Low German tribes, who lived to the east king, Dagobert II. (675). Under his successor, however, Radbod of the Ems and in Holstein and Schleswig. The first historical (Frisian Redbâd), an attempt was made to extirpate Chrisnotices of the Frisians are found in the Annals of Tacitus. They tianity and to free the Frisians from the Frankish subjection. were rendered (or a portion of them) tributary by Drusus, and He was, however, beaten by Pippin of Heristal in the battle of became socii of the Roman people. In A.D. 28 the exactions of Dorstadt (689), and was compelled to cede West Frisia (Frisia a Roman official drove them to revolt, and their subjection was cilcrior) from the Scheldt to the Zuider Zee to the conqueror. On henceforth nominal. They submitted again to Cn. Domitius Pippin's death Radbod again attacked the Franks and advanced Corbulo in the year 47, but shortly afterwards the emperor as far as Cologne, where he defeated Charles Martel, Pippin's Claudius ordered the withdrawal of all Roman troops to the left natural son. Eventually, however, Charles prevailed and combank of the Rhine. In 58 they attempted unsuccessfully to pelled the Frisians to submit. Radbod died in 719, but for some appropriate certain districts between the Rhine and the Yssel, years his successors struggled against the Frankish power. A and in 70 they took part in the campaign of Claudius Civilis. final defeat was, however, inflicted upon them by Charles Martel From this time onwards their name practically disappears. As in 734, which secured the supremacy of the Franks in the north, regards their geographical position Ptolemy states that they though it was not until the days of Charles the Great (785) that inhabited the coast above the Bructeri as far as the Ems, while the subjection of the Frisians was completed. Meanwhile Tacitus speaks of them as adjacent to the Rhine. But there is Christianity had been making its conquests in the land, mainly some reason for believing that the part of Holland which lies to through the lifelong labours and preaching of the Englishman the west of the Zuider Zee was at first inhabited by a different | Willibrord, who came to Frisia in 692 and made Utrecht his people, the Canninesates, a sister tribe to the Batavi. A trace headquarters. He was consecrated (695) at Rome archbishop of of this people is perhaps preserved in the name Kennemerland the Frisians, and on his return founded a number of bishoprics or Kinnehem, formerly applied to the same district. Possibly, in the northern Netherlands, and continued his labours untherefore, Tacitus's statement holds good only for the period remittingly until his death in 739. It is an interesting fact that subsequent to the revolt of Civilis, when we hear of the Cannine- both Wilfrid and Willibrord appear to have found no difficulty fates for the last time.

from the first in preaching to the Frisians in their native dialect, In connexion with the movements of the migration period the which was so nearly allied to their own Anglo-Saxon tongue. Frisians are hardly ever mentioned, though some of them are The sec of Utrecht founded by Willibrord has remained the chief said to have surrendered to the Roman prince Constantius about sec of the Northern Netherlands from his day to our own. Friesthe year 293. On the other hand we hear very frequently of land was likewise the scene of a portion of the missionary labours Saxons in the coast regions of the Netherlands. Since the Saxons of a greater than Willibrord, the famous Boniface, the Apostle (Old Saxons) of later times were an inland people, one can of the Germans, also an Englishman. It was at Dokkum in hardly help suspecting either that the two nations have been Friesland that he met a martyr's death (754). confused or, what is more probable, that a considerable mixture Charles the Great granted the Frisians important privileges of population, whether by conquest or otherwise, had taken under a code known as the Lex Frisionum, based upon the place. Procopius (Goth. iv, 20) speaks of the Frisians as one of ancient laws of the country. They received the title of freemen the nations which inhabited Britain in his day, but we have no and were allowed to choose their own podestal or imperial evidence from other sources to bear out his statement. In governor. In the Lex Frisionum three districts are clearly Anglo-Saxon poetry mention is frequently made of a Frisian distinguished: West Frisia from the Zwin to the Flie; Middle king'named Finn, the son of Folcwalda, who came into conflict Frisia from the Flie to the Lauwers; East Frisia from the with a certain Hnaef, a vassal of the Danish king Healfdene, Lauwers to the Weser. At the partition treaty of Verdun (843) about the middle of the 5th century. Hnaef was killed, but his Frisia became part of Lotharingia or Lorraine; at the treaty of followers subsequently slew Finn in revenge. The incident is Mersen (870) it was divided between the kingdoms of the East obscure in many respects, but it is perhaps worth noting that Franks (Austrasia) and the West Franks (Westrasia); in 880 Hnaef's chief follower, Hengest, may quite possibly be identical the whole country was united to Austrasia; in 911 it fell under with the founder of the Kentish dynasty. About the year 520 the dominion of Charles the Simple, king of the West Franks, the Frisians are said to have joined the Frankish prince Theod- but the districts of East Frisia asserted their independence and berht in destroying a piratical expedition which had sailed up for a long time governed themselves after a very simple demothe Rhine under Chocilaicus (Hygelac), king of the Götar. cratic fashion. The history of West Frisia gradually loses itself Towards the close of the century they begin to figure much more in that of the countship of Holland and the see of Utrecht (see prominently in Frankish writings. There is no doubt that by HOLLAND and UTRECHT). this time their territories had been greatly extended in both The influence of the Frisians during the interval between the directions. Probably some Frisians took part with the Angles invasion of Britain and the loss of their independence must have and Saxons in their sea-roving expeditions, and assisted their been greater than is generally recognized. They were a seaneighbours in their invasions and subsequent conquest of England íaring people and engaged largely in trade, especially perhaps and the Scottish lowlands.

the slave trade, their chief emporium being Wyk te Duurstede. The rise of the power of the Franks and the advance of their During the period in question there is considerable archacodominion northwards brought on a collision with the Frisians, who logical evidence for intercourse between the west coast of Norway in the 7th century were still in possession of the whole of the sca- and the regions south of the North Sea, and it is worth noting coast, and apparently ruled over the greater part of modern that this seems to have come to an end early in the 9th century. Flanders. Under the protection of the Frankish king Dagobert Probably it is no mere accident that the first appearance, or (622-638), the Christian missionaries Amandus (St Amand) rather reappearance, of Scandinavian pirates in the west took and Eligius (St Eloi) attempted the conversion of these Flemish place shortly after the overthrow of the Frisians. Since Radbod's Frisians, and their efforts were attended with a certain measure dominions extended from Duerstede to Heligoland his power of success; but farther north the building of a church by Dago- must have been by no means inconsiderable. bers at Trajectum (Utrecht) at once aroused the fierce hostility Besides the Frisians discussed above there is a people called of the heathen tribesmen of thc Zuider Zee. The“ free "Frisians North Frisians, who inhabit the west coast of Schleswig. At could not endure this Frankish outpost on their borders. Utrecht | present a Frisian dialect is spoken only between Tondern and Husum, but formerly it extended farther both to the north and nationality, which was marked by the preservation of a different south. In historical times these North Frisians were subjects dialect and of a separate stadtholder. Count William Lewis of the Danish kingdom and not connected in any way with the of Nassau-Siegen, nephew and son-in-law of William the Silent, Frisians of the empire. They are first mentioned by Saxo was chosen stadtholder, and through all the vicissitudes of the Grammaticus in connexion with the exile of Knud V. Saxo 17th and 18th centuries the stadtholdership was held by one of recognized that they were of Frisian origin, but did not know his descendants. Frederick Henry of Orange was stadtholder when they had first settled in this region. Various opinions are of six provinces, but not of Friesland, and even during the stadtstill held with regard to the question; but it seems not unlikely holderless periods which followed the deaths of William II. and that the original settlers were Frisians who had been expelled William III. of Orange the Frisians remained stanch to the by the Franks in the 8th century. Whether the North Frisian family of Nassau-Siegen. Finally, by the revolution of 1748, language is entirely of Frisian origin is somewhat doubtful owing William of Nassau-Siegen, stadtholder of Friesland (who, by to the close relationship which Frisian bears to English. The in- default of heirs male of the elder line, had become William IV., habitants of the neighbouring islands, Sylt, Amrum and Föhr,prince of Orange), was made hereditary stadtholder of all the who speak a kindred dialect, have apparently never regarded provinces. His grandson in 1815 took the title of William I., themselves as Frisians, and it is the view of many scholars that king of the Netherlands. The male line of the “Frisian" they are the direct descendants of the ancient Saxons.

Nassaus came to an end with the death of King William III. in In 1248 William of Holland, having become emperor, restored 1890. to the Frisians in his countship their ancient liberties in reward

BIBLIOGRAPHY-See Tacitus, Ann. iv. 72 f., xi. 19 f., xiii. 54; for the assistance they had rendered him in the siege of Aachen; Hist, iv. 15 f.; Germ.

34; Ptolemy, Geogr. ii. 11, $ 11; Dio Cassius but in 1254 they revolted, and William lost his life in the contest liv. 32; Eumenius, Paneg. iv. 9; the Anglo-Saxon poems, Finn, which ensued. After many struggles West Friesland became German Annals; Gesta regum Francorum; Eddius, Vita Wilfridi,

Beowulf and Widsith; Fredegarii Chronici continuatio and various completely subdued, and was henceforth virtually absorbed in cap. 25 f.; Bede, Hist. Eccles. iv. 22, v. 9 f.; Alcuin, Vita Willethe county of Holland. But the Frieslanders east of the Zuider brordi; I. Undset, Aarbger for nordisk Oldkyndighed (1880), p. 89. ff. Zee obstinately resisted repeated attempts to bring them into (cf. E. Mogk in Paul's Grundriss d. germ. Philologie ii. p. 623. H.); subjection. In the course of the 14th century the country was

Ubbo Emmius, Rerum Frisicarum historia (Leiden, 1616); Pirius in a state of anarchy; petty lordships sprang into existence, the Beschryvinge end Chronyck van des Heerlickheydt van Frieslandi

Winsemius, Chronique van Vriesland (Franoker, 1822); C. Scotanus, interests of the common weal were forgotten

or disregarded, and (1655); Groot Placaat en Charter-boek van Friesland (ed. Baron C. F. the people began to be split up into factions, and these were zu Schwarzenberg) (5 vols., Leeuwarden, 1768-1793); T. D. Wiarda, continually carrying on petty warfare with one another. Thus Ost-frieschische Gesch. (vols. i.-ix., Aurich, 1791). (vol. x., Bremen, the Fetkoopers (Fatmongers) of Oostergoo had endless feuds 8:7); J; Dirks, Geschiedkundig onderzoek van den Koophandel der

Friezen (Utrecht, 1846); 0. Klopp, Gesch. Ostfrieslands (3 vols., with the Schieringers (Eelfishers) of Westergoo.

Hanover, 1854-1858); Hooft van Iddekinge, Friesland en de This state of affairs favoured the attempts of the counts of Friezen in de Middeleeuwen (Leiden, 1881); A. Telting, Het OudHolland to push their conquests eastward, but the main body of friesche Stadrecht (The Hague, 1882); P. J. Blok, Friesland im

Mittelalter (Leer, 1891). the Frisians was still independent when the countship of Holland passed into the hands of Philip the Good of Burgundy. Philip FRITH (or FRYTH), JOHN (c. 1503-1533), English Reformer laid claim to the whole country, but the people appealed to the and Protestant martyr, was born at Westerham, Kent. He was protection of the empire, and Frederick III., in August 1457, educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, where Gardiner, recognized their direct dependence on the empire and called on afterwards bishop of Winchester, was his tutor. At the invitaPhilip to bring forward formal proof of his rights. Philip's tion of Cardinal Wolsey, after taking his degree he migrated successor, Charles the Bold, summoned an assembly of notables (December 1525) to the newly founded college of St Frideswide at Enkhuizen in 1469, in order to secure their homage; but the or Cardinal College (now Christ Church), Oxford. The sympaconíerence was without result, and the duke's attention was soon thetic interest which he showed in the Reformation movement absorbed by other and more important affairs. The marriage in Germany caused him to be suspected as a heretic, and led to his of Maximilian of Austria with the heiress of Burgundy was to be imprisonment for some months. Subscquently he appears to productive of a change in the fortunes of that part of Frisia have resided chiefly at the newly founded Protestant university which lies between the Vlie and the Lauvers. In 1498 Maxi- of Marburg, where he became acquainted with several scholars Tillian reversed the policy of his father Frederick III., and and reformers of note, especially Patrick Hamilton (9.0.). detached this territory, known afterwards as the province of Frith's first publication was a translation of Hamilton's Places, Friesland, from the empire. He gave it as a fief to Albert of made shortly after the martyrdom of its author; and soon Saxony, who thoroughly crushed out all resistance. In 1523 it afterwards the Revelation of Antichrist, a translation from the fell with all the rest of the provinces of the Netherlands under Germa appeared, along with A Pistle to the Christen Reader, the strong rule of the emperor Charles, the grandson of Maxi- by “Richard Bright well” (supposed to be Frith), and An milian and Mary of Burgundy.

Antithesis wherein are compared togeder Christes Actes and our That part of Frisia which lies to the east of the Lauwers had Holye Father the Popes, dated “at Malborow in the lande of a divided history. The portion which lies between the Lauwers Hesse,” 12th July 1529. His Disputacyon of Purgatorye, a and the Ems after some struggles for independence had, like the treatise in three books, against Rastell, Sir T. More and Fisher rest of the country, to submit itself to Charles. It became | (bishop of Rochester) respectively, was published at the same ultimately the province of the town and district of Groningen place in 1531. While at Marburg, Frith also assisted Tyndale, Stadt en Landen) (see GRONINGEN). The easternmost part whose acquaintance he had made at Oxford (or perhaps in between the Ems and the Weser, which had since 1454 been a London) in his literary labours. In 1532 he ventured back to county, was ruled by the descendants of Edzard Cirksena, and England, apparently on some business in connexion with the was attached to the empire. The last of the Cirksenas, Count prior of Reading. Warrants for his arrest were almost immeCharles Edward, died in 1744 and in default of heirs male the diately issued at the instance of Sir T. More, then lord chancellor. king of Prussia took possession of the county.

Frith ultimately fell into the hands of the authorities at Milton The province of Friesland was one of the seven provinces Shore in Essex, as he was on the point of making his escape to which by the treaty known as the Union of Utrecht bound Flanders. The rigour of his imprisonment in the Tower was themselves together to resist the tyranny of Spain. From 1579 somewhat abated when Sir T. Audley succeeded to the chanto 1795 Friesland remained one of the constituent parts of the cellorship, and it was understood that both Cromwell and Cranmer Tepublic of the United Provinces, but it always jealously insisted were disposed to show great leniency. But the treacherous Os its sovereign rights, especially against the encroachments of circulation of a manuscript "lytle treatise on the sacraments, the predominant province of Holland. It maintained throughout which Frith had written for the information of a friend, and the whole of the republican period a certain distinctiveness of l without any view to publication, served further to excite the

hostility of his enemies. In consequence of a sermon preached | 1886. Frith also painted a considerable number of portraits before him against the " sacramentaries,” the king ordered that of well-known people. In 1889 he became an honorary retired Frith should be examined; he was afterwards tried and found academician. His “ Derby Day” is in the National Gallery of guilty of having denied, with regard to the doctrines of purgatory British Art. In his youth, in common with the men by whom and of transubstantiation, that they were necessary articles of he was surrounded, he had leanings towards romance, and he faith. On the 23rd of June 1533 he was handed over to the scored many successes as a painter of imaginative subjects. secular arm, and at Smithfield on the 4th of July following he In these he proved himself to be possessed of exceptional qualities was burnt at the stake. During his captivity he wrote, besides as a colourist and manipulator, qualities that promised to earn several letters of interest, a reply to More's letter against for him a secure place among the best executants of the British Frith's “ lytle treatise "; also two tracts entitled A Mirror or School. But in his middle period he chose a fresh direction. Glass to know thyself, and A Mirror or Looking-glass wherein you Fascinated by the welcome which the public gave to his first may behold the Sacrament of Baplism.

attempts to illustrate the lisc of his own times, he undertook a Frith is an interesting and so far important figure in English considerable series of large canvases, in which he commented ecclesiastical history as having been the first to maintain and on the manners and morals of society as he found it. He became defend that doctrine regarding the sacrament of Christ's body a pictorial preacher, a painter who moralized about the everyday and blood, which ultimately came to be incorporated in the incidents of modern existence; and he sacrificed some of his English communion office. Twenty-three years after Frith's technical variety. There remained, however, a remarkable death as a martyr to the doctrine of that office, that " Christ's sense of characterization, and an acute appreciation of dramatic natural body and blood are in Heaven, not here," Cranmer, who effect. Frith died on the 2nd of November 1909. had been one of his juages, went to the stake for the same belief. Frith published his Autobiography and Reminiscences in 1887, and Within three years more, it had become the publicly professed Furlher Reminiscences in 1889. faith of the entire English nation.

FRITILLARY (Fritillaria: from Lat. fritillus, a chess-board, See A. à Wood, Athenae Oxonienses (ed. P. Bliss, 1813), 1. P: 74; 1 of hardy bulbous plants of the natural order Liliaceae, containing

so called from the chequered markings on the petals), a genus v. pp. 1-16 (also Index); G. Burnet, Hist

. of the Reformation of the about 50 species widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Church of England (ed, N. Pocock, 1865), i. P: 273; L. Richmond, The genus is represented in Britain by the fritillary or snake's The Fathers of the English Church, i. (1807); Life and Martyrdom of head, which occurs in moist meadows in the southern half of John Frith (London, 1824), published by the Church of England England, especially in Oxfordshire. A much larger plant is Tract Society; Deborah Alcock, Six Heroić Men (1906).

the crown imperial (P. imperialis), a native of western Asia FRITH, WILLIAM POWELL (1819-1909), English painter, and well known in gardens. This grows to a height of about was born at Aldfield, in Yorkshire, on the 9th of January 1819. 3 ft., the lower part of the stoutish stem being furnished with His parents moved in 1826 to Harrogate, where his father became leaves, while near the top is developed a crown of large pendant landlord of the Dragon Inn, and it was then that the boy began flowers surmounted by a tuft of bright green leaves like those his general education at a school at Knaresborough. Later he of the lower part of the stem, only smaller. The flowers are went for about two years to a school at St Margaret's, near bell-shaped, yellow or red, and in some of the forms double. The Dover, where he was placed specially under the direction of the plant grows freely in good garden soil, preferring a deep welldrawing-master, as a step towards his preparation for the pro- drained loam, and is all the better for a top-dressing of manure fession which his father had decided on as the one that he wished as it approaches the flowering stage. Strong clumps of five or him to adopt. In 1835 he was entered as a student in the well- six roots of one kind have a very fine effect. It is a very suitable known art school kept by Henry Sass in Bloomsbury, from which subject for the back row in mixed flower borders, or for recesses he passed after two years to the Royal Academy schools. His in the front part of shrubbery borders. It flowers in April or first independent experience was gained in 1839, when he went early in May. There are a few named varicties, but the most about for some months in Lincolnshire executing several com- generally grown are the single and double yellow, and the single missions for portraits; but he soon began to attempt composi- and double red, the single red having also two variegated varieties, tions, and in 1840 his first picture, “ Malvolio, cross-gartered with the leaves striped respectively with white and yellow. before the Countess Olivia," appeared at the Royal Academy. “ Fritillary" is also the name of a kind of butterfly. During the next few years he produced several notable paintings, FRITZLAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of among them “ Squire Thornhill relating his town adventures to Hesse-Cassel, on the left bank of the Eder, 16 m. S.W. from Cassel, the Vicar's family,” and “ The Village Pastor," which established on the railway Wabern-Wildungen. Pop. (1905) 3448. It is a his reputation as one of the most promising of the younger men prettily situated old-fashioned place with an Evangelical and two of that time. This last work was exhibited in 1845, and in the Roman Catholic churches, one of the latter, that of St Peter, a autumn of that year he was elected an Associate of the Royal striking medieval edifice. As early as 732 Boniface, the apostle of Academy. His promotion to the rank of Academician followed Germany, established the church of St Peter and a small in 1853, when he was chosen to fill the vacancy caused by Benedictine monastery at Frideslar, “the quiet home" Turner's death. The chief pictures painted by him during his “ abode of peace.” Before long the school connected with the tenure of Associateship were: “ An English Merry-making monastery became famous, and among its earlier scholars it in the Olden Time," “ Old Woman accused of Witchcraft, numbered Sturm, abbot of Fulda, and Megingod, second bishop “The Coming of Age," “ Sancho and Don Quixote," " Hogarth of Würzburg. When Boniface found himself unable to continue before the Governor of Calais,” and the "Scene from Goldsmith's the supervision of the society himself, he entrusted the office to * Good-natured Man,' !” which was commissioned in 1850 by Wigbert of Glastonbury, who thus became the first abbot of Mr Sheepshanks, and bequeathed by him to the South Kensington Fritzlar. In 774 the little settlement was taken and burnt by Museum. Then came a succession of large compositions which the Saxons; but it evidently soon recovered from the blow. gained for the artist an extraordinary popularity. “Life at For a short time after 786 it was the seat of the bishopric of the Seaside," better known as “Ramsgate Sands," was exhibited Buraburg, which had been founded by Boniface in 741. At the in 1854, and was bought by Queen Victoria; “ The Derby Day," diet of Fritzlar in 919 Henry I. was elected German king. In in 1858; “ Claude Duval,” in 1860; “ The Railway Station," the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal in 1862; “ The Marriage of the Prince of Wales," painted for rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Queen Victoria, in 1865; "The Last Sunday of Charles II.,” | Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by in 1867; “ The Salon d'Or," in 1871; “The Road to Ruin," | William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by a series, in 1878; a similar series, “ The Race for Wealth,” | General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied shown at a gallery in King Street, St James's, in 1880; " The by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies. Private View," in 1883; and “ John Knox at Holyrood,” in. As a principality Fritzlar continued subject to the archbishopric


of Mainz till 1802, when it was incorporated with Hesse. From reputation for accuracy and for taste. In 1500 he married the 1807 to 1814 it belonged to the kingdom of Westphalia; and daughter of the bookseller Wolfgang Lachner, who entered into in 1866 passed with Hesse Cassel to Prussia.

partnership with him. He was on terms of friendship with FRIULI (in the local dialect, Furlanei), a district at the head Erasmus (9.0.), who not only had his own works printed by him, of the Adriatic Sea, at present divided between Italy and Austria, but superintended Frobenius's editions of St Jerome, St Cyprian, the Italian portion being included in the province of Udine and Tertullian, Hilary of Poitiers and St Ambrose. His Neues the district of Portogruaro, and the Austrian comprising the Testament in Greek (1516) was used by Luther for his translation. province of Görz and Gradiska, and the so-called Idrian district. Frobenius employed Hans Holbein to illuminate his texts. In the north and east Friuli includes portions of the Julian and It was part of his plan to print editions of the Greek Fathers. Carnic Alps, while the south is an alluvial plain richly watered He did not, however, live to carry out this project, but it was by the Isonzo, the Tagliamento, and many lesser streams which, very creditably executed by his son Jerome and his son-in-law although of small volume during the dry season, come down in Nikolaus Episcopius. Frobenius died in October 1527. His enormous floods after rain or thaw. The inhabitants, known work in Basel made that city in the 16th century the leading as Furlanians, are mainly Italians, but they speak a dialect of centre of the German book trade. An extant letter of Erasmus, their own which contains Celtic elements. The area of the written in the year of Frobenius's death, gives an epitome country is about 3300 sq. m.; it contains about 700,000 in- of his life and an estimate of his character; and in it Erasmus habitants.

mentions that his grief for the death of his friend was far more Friuli derives its name from the Roman town of Forum poignant than that which he had felt for the loss of his own Julii, or Forojulium, the modern Cividale, which is said by brother, adding that “all the apostles of science ought to wear Paulus Diaconus to have been founded by Julius Caesar. In the mourning." The epistle concludes with an epitaph in Greek and century B.C. the district was subjugated by the Romans, and Latin. and became part of Gallia Transpadana. During the Roman FROBISHER, SIR MARTIN (c. 1535-1594), English navigator period, besides Forum Julii, its principal towns were Concordia, and explorer, fourth child of Bernard Frobisher of Altofts in Aquileia and Vedinium. On the conquest of the country by the parish of Normanton, Yorkshire, was born some time between the Lombards during the 6th century it was made one of their 1530 and 1540. The family came originally from North Wales. thirty-six duchies, the capital being Forum Julii or, as they At an early age he was sent to a school in London and placed called it, Civitas Austriae. It is needless to repeat the list of under the care of a kinsman, Sir John York, who in 1544 placed dukes of the Lombard line, from Gisulf (d. 611) to Hrothgaud, him on board a ship belonging to a small fleet of merchantmen who fell a victim to his opposition to Charlemagne about 776; sailing to Guinea. By 1565 he is referred to as Captain Martin their names and exploits may be read in the Historia Lango- Frobisher, and in 1571-1572 as being in the public service at bardorum of Paulus Diaconus, and they were mainly occupied sea off the coast of Ireland. He married in 1559. As early as in struggles with the Avars and other barbarian peoples, and in 1560 or 1561 Frobisher had formed a resolution to undertake a resisting the pretensions of the Lombard kings. The discovery, voyage in search of a North-West Passage to Cathay and India. however, of Gisulf's grave at Cividale, in 1874, is an interest - The discovery of such a route was the motive of most of the ing proof of the historian's authenticity. Charlemagne filled Arctic voyages undertaken at that period and for long after, Hrothgaud's place with one of his own followers, and the frontier but Frobisher's special merit was in being the first to give to position of Friuli gave the new line of counts, dukes or margraves this enterprise a national character. For fifteen years he solicited (for they are variously designated) the opportunity of acquiring in vain the necessary means to carry his project into execution, importance by exploits against the Bulgarians, Slovenians and but in 1576, mainly by help of the earl of Warwick, he was put other hostile peoples to the east. After the death of Charle- in command of an expedition consisting of two tiny barks, the magne Friuli shared in general in the fortunes of northern Italy. Gabriel ” and “Michael," of about 20 to 25 tons each, and a La the 11th century the ducal rights over the greater part of pinnace of 10 tons, with an aggregate crew of 35. Friuli were bestowed by the emperor Henry IV. on the patriarch He weighed anchor at Blackwall, and, after having received of Aquileia; but towards the close of the 14th century the nobles a good word from Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich, set sail on the called in the assistance of Venice, which, after defeating the 7th of June, by way of the Shetland Islands. Stormy weather archbishop, afforded a new illustration of Aesop's well-known was encountered in which the pinnace was lost, and some time sable, by securing possession of the country for itself. The afterwards the “ Michael ” deserted; but stoutly continuing eastern part of Friuli was held by the counts of Görz till 1500, the voyage alone, on the 28th of July the “Gabriel ” sighted when on the failure of their line it was appropriated by the the coast of Labrador in lat. 62° 2' N. Some days later the German king, Maximilian I., and remained in the possession of mouth of Frobisher Bay was reached, and a farther advance the house of Austria until the Napoleonic wars. By the peace northwards being prevented by ice and contrary winds, Frobisher of Campo Formio in 1797 the Venetian district also came to determined to sail westward up this passage (which he conceived Austria, and on the formation of the Napoleonic kingdom of to be a strait) to see“ whether he mighte carrie himself through Italy in 1805 the department of Passariano was made to include the same into some open sea on the backe syde." Butcher's the whole of Venetian and part of Austrian Friuli, and in 1809 Island was reached on the 18th of August, and some natives the rest was added to the Illyrian provinces. The title of duke being met with here, intercourse was carried on with them for of Friuli was borne by Marshal Duroc. In 1815 the whole some days, the result being that five of Frobisher's men were country was recovered by the emperor of Austria, who himself decoyed and captured, and never more seen. After vainly asumed the ducal title and coat of arms; and it was not till trying to get back his men, Frobisher turned homewards, and 1866 that the Venetian portion was again ceded to Italy by the reached London on the oth of October. peace of Prague. The capital of the country is Udine, and its Among the things which had been hastily brought away arms are a crowned cagle on a field azure.

by the men was some “ black earth," and just as it seemed See Manzano, Annali del Friuli (Udine, 1858–1879); and Com- as if nothing more was to come of this expedition, it was pendio di storia friulana (Udine, 1876); Antonini, Il Friuli orientale noised abroad that the apparently valueless“ black earth”. Milan, 1865); von Zahn, Friaulische Studien (Vienna, 1878); Pirona, Vocabolario friulino (Venice, 1869); and L. Fracassetti, La was really a lump of gold ore. It is difficult to say how Statistics etnografica del Friuli (Udine, 1903).

(T. As.) this rumour arose, and whether there was any truth in it, PROBEN (FROBENIUS), JOANNES (c. 1460-1527), German or whether Frobisher was a party to a deception, in order printer and scholar, was born at Hammelburg in Bavaria to obtain means to carry out the great idea of his life. about the year 1460. After completing his university career The story, at any rate, was so far successful; the greatest at Basel, where he made the acquaintance of the famous printer enthusiasm was manifested by the court and the commercial Johannes Auerbach (1443-1513), he established a printing house and speculating world of the time; and next year a much more in that city about 1491, and this soon attained a European I important expedition than the former was fitted out, the queen

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