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constitution) for increasing the number, and they at present calus. About this time a body of Schöffen (scabini, jurats), number sixty-four, elected for six years. Every two years fourteen in number, was formed to assist in the control of a third of the number retire, but they are eligible for re-election. municipal affairs, and with their appointment the first step was These sixty-four representatives elect twenty town-councillors, taken towards civic representative government. Soon, however, ten of whom receive a salary and ten do not. The chief burgo- the activity of the Schöffen became specifically confined to the master (Oberbürgermeister) is nominated by the emperor for determination of legal disputes, and in their place a new body twelve years, and the second burgomaster must receive the (Collegium) of counsellors-Rolmannen-also fourteen in number, emperor's approval.

was appointed for the general administration of local matters. Since 1885 the city has been supplied with water of excellent In 1311, the two burgomasters, now chiefs of the municipality, quality from the Stadtwald, Goldstein and Hinkelstein, and take the place of the royal Schultheiss. In the 13th century, the favourable sanitary condition of the town is seen in the low the Frankfort Fair, which is first mentioned in 1950, and the death rate.

origin of which must have been long anterior to that date, is Population. The population of Frankfort has steadily referred to as being largely frequented. No fewer than 10 new increased since the beginning of the 19th century; it amounted churches were erected in the years from 1220 10 1270. It was in 1817 to 41,458; (1840) 55,269; (1864) 77,372; (1871) about the same period, probably in 1240, that the Jews first 59,265, (1875) 103,136; (1890) 179,985; and (1905), including settled in the town. In the contest which Louis the Bavarian the incorporated suburban districts, 334,951, of whom 175,909 maintained with the papacy Frankfort sided with the emperor, were Protestants, 88,457 Roman Catholics and 21,974 Jews. and it was consequently placed under an interdict for 20 years

History.-Excavations around the cathedral have incontest from 1329 to 1349. On Louis' death it refused to accept the papal ably proved that Frankfort-on-Main (Trajectum ad Moenum) conditions of pardon, and only yielded to Charles IV., the papal was a settlement in Roman times and was probably founded nominee, when Günther of Schwarzburg thought it more prudent in the ist century of the Christian era. It may thus be accounted to abdicate in his favour. Charles granted the city a full amnesty, one of the earliest German—the so-called "Roman "-towns. and confirmed its liberties and privileges. Numerous places in the valley of the Main are mentioned in By the famous Golden Bull of 1356 Frankfort was declared chronicles anterior to the time that Frankfort is first noticed. the seat of the imperial elections, and it still preserves an official Disregarding popular tradition, which connects the origin of the contemporaneous copy of the original document as the most town with a legend that Charlemagne, when retreating before precious of the eight imperial bulls in its possession. From the the Saxons, was safely conducted across the river by a doe, it date of the bull to the close of the Empire Frankfort retained the may be asserted that the first genuine historical notice of the position of “Wahlstadt,” and only five of the two-and-lwenty town occurs in 793, when Einhard, Charlemagne's biographer, monarchs who ruled during that period were elected elsewhere. tells us that he spent the winter in the villa Frankonovurd. In 1388–1389 Frankfort assisted the South German towns Next year there is mention more than once of a royal palace in their wars with the princes and nobles (the Städtekrieg), here, and the early importance of the place is indicated by the and in a consequent battle with the troops of the Palatinate, fact that in this year it was chosen as the seat of the ecclesiastical the town banner was lost and carried to Kronberg, where it was council by which image-worship was condemned. The name long preserved as a trophy. On peace being concluded in 1391, Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charle- the town had to pay 12,562 florins, and this brought it into magne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early great financial difficulties. In the course of the next so years chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the debt was contracted to the amount of 126,772 florins. The diet most populous least of the numerous villages of the Main at Worms in 1495 chose Frankfort as the seat of the newly district. During the Carolingian period it was the seat of no instituted imperial chamber, or Reichskammergericht," and fewer than 16 imperial councils or colloquies. The town was it was not till 1527 that the chamber was removed to Spires. probably at first built on an island in the river. It was originally At the Reformation Frankfort heartily joined the Protestant governed by the royal officer or actor dominicus, and down even party, and in consequence it was hardly treated both by the to the close of the Empire it remained a purely imperial or emperor Charles V. and by the archbishop of Mainz. It refused royal town. It gradually acquired various privileges, and by to subscribe the Augsburg Recess, but at the same time it was the close of the 14th century the only mark of dependence was not till 1536 that it was persuaded to join the League of Schmal. the payment of a yearly tax. Louis the Pious dwelt more kalden. On the failure of this confederation it opened its gates frequently at Frankfort than his father Charlemagne had done, to the imperial general Büren on the 29th of December 1546, and about 823 he built himself a new palace, the basis of the later although he had passed by the city, which he considered too Saalhof. In 822 and 823 two great diets were held in the palace, strong for the forces under his command. The emperor was and at the former there were present deputies from the eastern merciful enough to leave it in possession of its privileges, but he Slavs, the Avars and the Normans. The place continued to inflicted a fine of 80,000 gold gulden, and until October 1547 be a favourite residence with Louis the German, who died there the citizens had to endure the presence of from 8000 to 10,000 in 876, and was the capital of the East Frankish kingdom. soldiers. This resulted in a pestilence which not only lessened By the rest of the Carolingian kings it was less frequently visited, the population, but threatened to give the death-blow to the great and this neglect was naturally greater during the period of the annual fairs; and at the close of the war it was found that it Saxon and Salic emperors from 919 to 1137. Diets, however, had cost the city no less than 228,931 gulden. In 1552 Frankfort were held in the town in 951, 1015, 1069 and 1109, and councils was invested for three wecks by Maurice of Saxony, who was in 1000 and 1006.

From a privilege of Henry IV, in 1074, still in arms against the emperor Charles V., but it continued granting the city of Worms freedom from tax in their trade to hold out till peace was concluded between the principal with several royal cities, it appears that Frankfort was even combatants. Between 1612 and 1616 occurred the great then a place of some commercial importance.

Fettmilch insurrection, perhaps the most remarkable episode Under the Hohenstaufens many brilliant diets were held in the internal history of Frankfort. The magistracy had been within its walls. That of 1147 saw, also, the first election of a acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; all German king at Frankfort, in the person of Henry, son of Conrad power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related III. But as the father outlived the son, it was Frederick 1 , families; and the gravest_peculation and malversation took Barbarossa, who was actually the first reigning king to be place without hindrance. The ordinary citizens were roused to elected here (in 1152). With the beginning of the 13th century assert their rights, and they found a leader in Vincenz Fettmilch, the municipal constitution appears to have taken definite shape. who carried the contest to dangerous excesses, but lacked The chief official was the royal bailiff (Schultheiss), who is first ability to bring it to a successful issue. An imperial commission mentioned in 1193, and whose powers were subsequently enlarged was ultimately appointed, and the three principal culprits and by the abolition, in 1219, of the office of the royal Vogl or advo- several of their associates were executed in 1616. It was not till 1801 that the last mouldering head of the Fettmilch company of the court of appeal for the province, but of this it was deprived dropped unnoticed from the Rententurm, the old tower near

in 1879.

There are several handsome public monuments, the bridge. In the words of Dr Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt, notably that to Duke Leopold of Brunswick, who was drowned (1871), the insurrection completely destroyed the political in the Oder while attempting to save life, on the 27th of April power of the gilds, gave new strength to the supremacy of 1785. The town has a large garrison, consisting of nearly all the patriciate, and brought no further advantage to the rest of arms. Its industries are considerable, including the manufacture the citizens than a few improvements in the organization and of machinery, metal ware, chemicals, paper, leather and sugar. administration of the magistracy. The Jews, who had been situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an attacked by the popular party, were solemnly reinstated by extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder imperial command in all their previous privileges, and received and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important full compensation for their losses.

railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further During the Thirty Years' War Frankfort did not escape. fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere In 1631 Gustavus Adolphus garrisoned it with 600 men, who (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinremained in possession till they were expelled four years later mas. In the neighbourhood are extensive coal fields. by the imperial general Lamboy. In 1792 the citizens had to Frankfort-on-the-Oder owes its origin and name to a settlepay 2,000,000 gulden to the French general Custine; and in ment of Franconian merchants here, in the 13th century, on 1706 Kléber exacted 8,000,000 francs. The independence of land conquered by the margrave of Brandenburg from the Wends. Frankfort was brought to an end in 1806, on the formation of In 1253 it was raised to the rank of a town by the margrave the Confederation of the Rhine; and in 1810 it was made the John I. and borrowed from Berlin the Magdeburg civic concapital of the grand-duchy of Frankfort, which had an area of stitution. In 1379 it received from King Sigismund, then 3215 sq.m. with 302,100 inhabitants, and was divided into the margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the four districts of Frankfort, Aschaffenburg, Fulda and Hanau. Oder; and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic On the reconstitution of Germany in 1815 it again became a free League. The university, which is referred to above, was city, and in the following year it was declared the seat of the opened by the clector Joachim I. in 1506, was removed in 1516 German Confederation. In April 1833 occurred what is known to Koubus and restored again to Frankfort in 1539, at which as the Frankfort Insurrection (Frankfurter Attentat), in which date the Reformation was introduced. It was dispersed during a number of insurgents led by Georg Bunsen attempted to break the Thirty Years' War and again restored by the Great Elector, up the diet. The city joined the German Zollverein in 1836. but finally transferred to Breslau in 1811. During the revolutionary period of 1848 the people of Frankfort, Frankfort has suffered much from the vicissitudes of war where the united German parliament held its sessions, took a In the 15th century it successfully withstood sieges by the chier part in political movements, and the streets of the town Hussites (1429 and 1432), by the Poles (1450) and by the duke were more than once the scene of conflict. In the war of 1866 of Sagan (1477). In the Thirty Years' War it was successively they were on the Austrian side. On the 16th of July the Prussian taken by Gustavus Adolphus (1631), by Wallenstein (1633), by troops, under General Vogel von Falkenstein, entered the town, the elector of Brandenburg (1634), and again by the Swedes, and on the 18th of October it was formally incorporated with who held it from 1640 to 1644. During the Seven Years' War the Prussian state. A fine of 6,000,000 florins was exacted. it was taken by the Russians (1759). In 1812 it was occupied In 1871 the treaty which concluded the Franco-German War by the French, who remained till March 1813, when the Russians was signed in the Swan Hotel by Prince Bismarck and Jules marched in. Favre, and it is consequently known as the peace of Frankfort. See K. R. Hausen, Geschichte der Universität und Stadt Frankfurt

AUTHORITIES.-F. Rittweger, Frankfurt im Jahre 1848 (1898): 1806), and Bieder und Gurnik, Bilder aus der Geschichte der Stadi R. Jung, Das historische Archiv der Sladt Frankfurt (1897); A. Horne,

Frankfurl-an-der-Oder (1898). Geschichte son Frankfurt (4th ed., 1903); H. Grotefend, Quellen sur Frankfürler Geschichte (Frankfort, 1884–1888); }; C. von Fichard, Lat., lus or thus; Heb., lebonah; : Ar., lubin;' Turk., ghyunluk;

FRANKINCENSE,' or OLIBANUM? (Gr. deßarwrós, later Bios; Die Entstehung der Reichssladt Frankfur! (Frankfort, 1819); G. L. Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt (Frankfort, 1871): 'J. F. Böhmer, Hind., ganda-birosa"), a gum-resin obtained from certain species Urkundenbuch der Reichsstadt Frankfurt (new ed., 1901); B. Weber, of trees of the genus Boswellia, and natural order Burseraceae. Zu Reformationsgeschichte der freien Reichsstadt Frankfurt (1895): The members of the genus are possessed of the following 0. Speyer. Die Frankfurter Revolution 1612-1616 (1883); and L Woerl. characters:-Bark often papyraceous; leaves deciduous, comGuide to Frankfort (Leipzig, 1898).

pound, alternate and imparipinnate, with leaflets serrate or FRANKFORT-ON-ODER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian entire; flowers in racemes or panicles, white, green, yellowish province of Brandenburg, 50 m. S.E. from Berlin on the main or pink, having a small persistent, 5-dentate calyx, 5 petals, line of railway to Breslau and at the junction of lines to Custrin,

10 stamens, a sessile 3 to 5-chambered ovary, a long style, and Posen and Grossenhain. Pop. (1905) 64,943. The town proper a 3-lobed stigma; fruit trigonal or pentagonal; and seed lies on the left bank of the river Oder and is connected by a stone compressed. Sir George Birdwood (Trans. Lin. Soc. xxvii., bridge (replacing the old historical wooden structure) goo ft. long, with the suburb of Damm. The town is agreeably situated 1671), gives the derivation: "Frankincense, Thus, q.d. Incensum (i...

" Stephen Skinner, M.D. (Etymologicon linguae Anglicanae, Lond., and has broad and handsome streets, among them the "Linden,” Thus Libere seu Liberaliter, ut in sacris officiis par est, adolendum." a spacious avenue. Above, on the western side, and partly lying c. S. Pinianae exercitationes, t. ii. p. 926, b. E., Traj. ad Rhen. on the site of the old ramparts, is the residential quarter,consisting 1689 fol.). So also Fuchs (Op. didact. pars. ii. p. 42, 1604 fol.), mainly of villas and commanding a fine prospect of the Oder

“Officinis non sine risu eruditorum, Graeco articulo adjecto, Olibanus valley. Between this suburb and the town lies the park, in vocatur.' The term olibano was used in ecclesiastical Latin as early which is a monument to the poet Ewald Christian von Kleist, as the pontificate of Benedict IX., in the IIth century. (See Ferd. who died here of wounds received in the battle of Kunersdorf. Ughellus, I!alia sacra, tom. i. 108, D., Ven., 1717


So designated from its whiteness (J. G. Stuckius, Sacror. et Among the more important public buildings must be noticed sacrific. genl. descrip., p. 79. Lugd. Bat., 1695. fol.; Kitto, Cyd. the Evangelical Marienkirche (Oberkirche), a handsome brick Bibl. Lil. ii. p. 806, 1870); cf. Laben, the Somali name for cream edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic (R. F, Burton, First Footsteps in E. Africa, p. 178, 1856). church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its

• Written Louan by Garcias da Horta (Aromal. et simpl. medica

ment. hist., C. Clusii Atrebatis Exoticorum lib. sept., p. 157, 1605, southern gable the device of a member of the Hanseatic League, fol.), and stated to have been derived by the Arabs from the Greek the government offices and the theatre. The university of name, the term less commonly used by them being Conder: çf. Frankfort, founded in 1506 by Joachim I., elector of Branden. Sanskrit Kunda. According to Colebrooke (in Asiatick Res. ix. burg, was removed to Breslau in 1811, and the academical P: 379, 1807), the Hindu writers on Materia Medica use for the resin buildings are now occupied by a school. To compensate it for of Boswellia thurifera the designation Cunduru.

A term applied also to the resinous exudation of Pinus longifolia the loss of its university, Frankfort-op-Oder was long the seat | (see Dr E. J. Waring, Pharmacopocio of India, p. 52, Lond., 1868).

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1871) distinguishes five species of Boswellia: (A) B. thurifero, Olibanum as a reputed natural product of China. Bernhard Colebr. (B. glabra and B. serrala, Roxb.), indigenous to the von Breydenbach, Ausonius, Florus and others, arguing, it mountainous tracts of central India and the Coromandel coast, would seem, from its Hebrew and Greek names, concluded that and B. papyrifera (Plösslea floribunda, Endl.) of Abyssinia, Olibanum came from Mount Lebanon; and Chardin (Voyage which, though both thuriferous, are not known to yield any en Perse, &c., 1711) makes the statement that the frankincense of the olibanum of commerce; and (B) B. Frereana (see tree grows in the mountains of Persia, particularly Caramania. ELEM, vol. x. p. 259), B. Bhua-Dajiana, and B. Carlerii, ihe Frankincense, or olibanum, occurs in cominerce in semi“Yegaar,” “ Mohr Add,” and “Mohr Madow" of the Somali opaque, round, ovate or oblong tears or irregular lumps, which country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the are covered externally with a white dust, the result of their “Maghrayt d'Sheehaz" of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which friction against one another. It has an amorphous internal are sources of true frankincense or olibanum. The trees on the structure, a dull fracture; is of a yellow to yellowish-brown hue, Somali coast are described by Captain G. B. Kempthorne as the purer varieties being almost colourless, or possessing a greenish growing, without soil, out of polished marble rocks, to which they tinge, and has a somewhat bitter aromatic taste, and a balsamic are attached by a thick oval mass of substance resembling a odour, which is developed by heating. Immersed in alcohol mixture of lime and mortar: the purer the marble the finer it becomes opaque, and with water it yields an emulsion. It appears to be the growth of the tree. The young trees, he contains about 72% of resin soluble in alcohol (Kurbatow); states, furnish the most valuable gum, the older yielding merely a large proportion of gum soluble in water, and apparently a clear glutinous fluid resembling copal varnish. To obtain identical with gum arabic; and a small quantity of a colourless the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, inflammable essential oil, one of the constituents of which is and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in. in length is peeled off. the body oliben, CH16. Frankincense burns with a bright When the milk-like juice ("spuma pinguis, Pliny) which white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium car. exudes has hardened by exposure to the atmosphere, the incision bonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate, is deepened. In about three months the resin has attained the chloride and carbonate of potassium (Braconnot). Good required degree of consistency. The season for gathering lasts frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size, from May until the first rains in September. The large clear brittleness and ready inflammability: That which occurs in globules are scraped off into baskets, and the inferior quality globular drops is, he says, termed male frankincense"; the that has run do vn the tree is collected separately. The coast most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops, of south Arabia is yearly visited by parties of Somalis, who pay formed each by the union of two tears.10 The best frankincense, the Arabs for the privilege of collecting frankincense. In the as we learn from Arrian," was formerly exported from the neighinterior of the country about the plain of Dholár,' during the bourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel); and south-west monsoon, frankincense and other gums are gathered A. von Kremer, in his description of the commerce of the Red by the Beni Gurrah Bedouins, and might be obtained by them Sea (Aegyplen, &c., p. 185, ii. Theil, Leipzig, 1863), observes in much larger quantities; their lawlessness, however, and the that the African frankincense, called by the Arabs “ asli,” is of lack of a safe place of exchange or sale are obstacles to the twice the value of the Arabian " luban." Captain S. B. Miles development of trade. (See C. Y. Ward, The Gulf of 'Aden Pilot, (loc. cit., p. 64) states that the best kind of frankincense, known p. 117, 1863.) Much as formerly in the region of Sakhalites in to the Somali as “ bedwi” or “sheheri," comes from the trees Arabia (the tract between Ras Makalla and Ras Agab)," described “ Mohr Add ” and “Mohr Madow” (vide supra), and from a by Arrian, so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the taller species of Boswellia, the “ Boido," and is sent to Bombay frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations. for exportation to Europe; and that an inferior “mayeti,” the Thence, packed in sheep- and goat-skins, in quantities of 20 to produce of the “ Yegaar,” is exported chiefly to Jeddah and 40 lb, it is carried on camels to Berbera, for shipment either to Yemen ports. The latter may possibly be what Niebuhr alludes Aden, Makalla and other Arabian ports, or directly to Bombay. to as “ Indian frankincense."iaGarcias da Horta, in asserting At Bombay, like gum-acacia, it is assorted, and is then packed the Arabian origin of the drug, remarks that the term “ Indian for re-exportation to Europe, China and elsewhere. Arrian re- is often applied by the Arabs to a dark-coloured variety." lates that it was an import of Barbarike on the Sinthus (Indus). According to Pliny (No. Hist. xiv. 1; cf. Ovid, Fasti i. 337 The idea held by several writers, including Niebuhr, that frankincense was a product of India, would seem to have originated ." Libanus igitur est mons redolentie & summe aromaticitatis. in a confusion of that drug with benzoin and other odoriferous nam ibi herbe odorifere crescunt. ibi etiam arbores thurifere coalesubstances, and also in the sale of imported frankincense with scunt quarum gummi electum olibanum a medicis nuncupatur."the native products of India. The gum resin of Boswellia Perigrinatio, P. 53 (9502, fol.).

See, on the chemistry of frankincense, Braconnot, Ann. de chimie, thurifera was described by Colebrooke (in Asiatick Rescarches, lxviii. (1808) pp. 60-69; Johnston, Phil. Trans. (1839), pp. 301-305; ix. 381), and after him by Dr J. Fleming (1b. xi. 158), as true J. Stenhouse, Ann. der Chem. und Pharm. xxxv. (1840) p. 306; frankincense, or olibanum; from this, however, it differs in its and ...

Kurbatow, Zeitsch. für Chem. (1871), p. 201. softness, and tendency to melt into a mass? (Birdwood, loc. cit., priore consecuta alia miscuit se

19" Praecipua autem gratia est mammoso, cum haerente lacryma

(Nal. Hist. xii. 33). One of the P. 146). It is sold in the village bazaars of Khandeish in India Chinese names for frankincense, -hiang,, milk-perfume," is under the name of Dup-Salai, i.e. incense of the “Salai tree"; explained by the Pen Ts'au (xxxiv. 45), a Chinese work, as being and according to Mr F. Porter Smith, M.B. (Contrib. Towards derived from the nipple-like form of its drops. (See E. Bretschneider, the Mal. Med. and Nal. Hist. of China, p. 162, Shanghai, 1871), p. 19, Lond., 1871.)

On the Knowledge possessed by the Ancieni Chinese of the Arabs, &c.; is used as incense in China. The last authority also mentions 1. The Voyage of Nearchus, loc. cit.

" See “ Appendix," vol. i: p. 419 of Sir W. C. Harris's Highland 1 Vaughan (Pharm. Journ. xii. 1853) speaks of the Arabian of Aethiopia (2nd ed., Lond., 1844); and Trans. Bombay Geog. Soc. Lubān, commonly called Morbal or Shaharree Luban, as realizing xiii. (1857), p. 136.

higher prices in the market than any of the qualities exported from Cruttenden, Trons. Bombay Geng. Soc. vii. (1846), p. 121; S. B. Africa. The incense of " Esher," ie. Shihr or Shehr, is mentioned Miles, J. Geog. Soc. (1872).

by Marco Polo, as also by Barbosa. . (See Yule, op. cil. ii. P: 377.) Or Dhalár. The incense of “ Dosar "is alluded to by Camoens, J. Raymond Wellsted (Travels to the Cily of the Caliphs, p. 173. Lond.. Os Lusiadas, X. 201.

1840) distinguishes two kinds of frankincense" Mealy," selling at •H. I: Carter, " Comparative Geog. of the South-East Coast of $4 per cwt., and an inferior article fetching 20% less. Arabia," in J. Bombay Branch of R. Asiatic Soc. iii. (Jan. 1851), 13 " Es scheint, dass selber die Araber ihr eignes Räuchwerk nicht p. 296; and Müller, Geog. Graeci Minores, i. p. 278 (Paris, 1855) hoch schätzen; denn die Vornehmen in Jemen brauchen gemeiniglich

J: Vaughan, Pharm. Journ. xii. (1853) pp. 227-229; and Ward, indianisches Räuchwerk, ja eine grosse Menge Mastix von der Insel op. cit. p. 97.

Scio" (Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 143. Kopenh., 1772). • Pereira, Elem. of Mal. Med. ü. pt. 2, p. 380 (4th ed., 1847): 11" De Arabibus minus mirum, qui nigricantem colorem, quo Thus

1 " Boswellia thurifera," says Waring (Pharm. of India, Indicum praeditum esse vult Dioscorides (lib. i. c 70). Indum P. 52).. has been thought to yield East Indian olibanum, but there plerumque vocent, ut

ex Myrobalano nigro quem Indum appellant, is no reliable evidence of its so doing."

patet " (op. sup. cil. p. 157).

89.), frankincense was not sacrificially employed in Trojan times. By an act of the 3rd of March 1845, franking was limited to the It was used by the ancient Egyptians in their religious rites, but, president, vice-president, members and delegates in Congress and as Herodotus tells us (ü. 86), not in embalming. It constituted postmasters, other officers being required to keep quarterly a fourth part of the Jewish incense of the sanctuary (Ex. XXX. accounts of postage and pay it from their contingent funds. 34), and is frequently mentioned in the Pentateuch. With other In 1851 free exchange of newspapers was re-established. By an spices it was stored in a great chamber of the house of God at act of the 3rd of March 1863 the privilege was granted the Jerusalem (1 Chron. ix. 29, Neh. xiii. 5-9). On the sacrificial use president and his private secretary, the vice-president, chiefs of and import of frankincense and similar substances see INCENSE. executive departments, such heads of bureaus and chief clerks

In the Red Sea regions frankincense is valued not only for its as might be designated by the postmaster-general for official sweet odour when burnt, but as a masticatory; and blazing letters only; senators and representatives in Congress for all lumps of it are not infrequently used for illumination instead of correspondence, senders of petitions to either branch of the oil lamps. Its fumes are an excellent insectifuge. As a medicine legislature, and to publishers of newspapers for their exchanges. it was in former times in high repute. Pliny (Nai. Hist. xxv. 82) There was a limit as to weight. Members of Congress could also mentions it as an antidote to bemlock. Avicenna (ed., Plempii, frank, in matters concerning the federal department of agricullib. i. p. 161, Lovanü, 1658, fol.) recommends it for tumours, ture, “ seeds, roots and cuttings,” the weight to be fixed by the ulcers of the head and ears, affections of the breast, vomiting, postmaster-general. This act remained in force till the 31st of dysentery and fevers. In the East frankincense has been found January 1873, when franking was abolished. Since 1875, by efficacious as an external application in carbuncles, blind boils sundry acts, franking for official correspondence, government and gangrenous sores, and as an internal agent is given in publications, seeds, &c., has been allowed to congressmen, exgonorrhoea. In China it was an old internal remedy for leprosy congressmen (for 9 months after the close of their term), congressand sttuma, and is accredited with stimulant, tonic, sedative, men-elect and other government officials. By special acts of astringent and vulnerary properties. It is not used in modern 1881, 1886, 1902, 1909, respectively, the franking privilege was medicine, being destitute of any special virtues. (See Waring, granted to the widows of Presidents Garfield, Grant, McKinley Pharm. of India, p. 443, &c.; and F. Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) and Cleveland.

Common frankincense or thus, Abietis resina, is the term PRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST (1810-1894), Austrian poet. applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the He took part in the revolution of 1848, and his poems on liberty Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot had considerable vogue. His lyrics are among his best work. water and strained it constitutes “ Burgundy pitch,” Pix He was secretary of the Jewish community in Vienna, and did a ebieting. The concreted turpentine obtained in the United States lasting service to education by his visit to the Orient in 1856. by making incisions in the trunk of a species of pine, Pinus He founded the first modern Jewish school (the Von Lämmel custralis, is also so designated. It is commercially known as Schule) in Jerusalem. His brilliant volumes Nach Jerusalem

scrape," and is similar to the French "galipot” or “barras." describing his eastern tour have been translated into English, Common frankincense is an ingredient in some ointments and as is the case with many of his poems. His collected poems plasters, and on account of its pleasant odour when burned appeared in three volumes in 1880.

(I. A.) has been used in incense as a substitute for olibanum. (See FRANKLAND, SIR EDWARD (1825-1899), English chemist, Flückiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographio.) The“ black frankin- was born at Churchtown, near Lancaster, on the 18th of January cense oil” of the Turks is stated by Hanbury (Science Papers, 1825. After attending the grammar school at Lancaster he spent D. 142, 1876) to be liquid storax.

(F. H. B.) six years as an apprentice to a druggist in that town. In 1845 FRANKING, a term used for the right of sending letters or he went to London and entered Lyon Playfair's laboratory, postal packages free (Fr. front) of charge. The privilege was subsequently working under R. W. Bunsen at Marburg. In claimed by the House of Commons in 1660 in " a Bill for erecting 1847 he was appointed science-master at Queenwood school, and establishing a Post Office," their demand being that all Hampshire, where he first met J. Tyndall, and in 1851 first letters addressed to or sent by members during the session should professor of chemistry at Owens College, Manchester. Returnbe carried free. The clause embodying this claim was struck ing to London six years later he became lecturer in chemistry out by the Lords, but with the proviso in the Act as passed at St Bartholomew's hospital, and in 1863 professor of chemistry for the free carriage of all letters to and from the king and the at the Royal Institution. From an early age be engaged in great officers of state, and also the single inland letters of the original research with great success. members of that present parliament during that session only. Analytical problems, such as the isolation of certain organic It seems, however, that the practice was tolerated until 1764, radicals, attracted his attention to begin with, but he soon when by an act dealing with postage it was legalized, every peer turned to synthetical studies, and he was only about twenty-five and each member of the House of Commons being allowed to years of age when an investigation, doubtless suggested by the send free ten letters a day, not exceeding an ounce in weight, work of his master, Bunsen, on cacodyl, yielded the interesting to any part of the United Kingdom, and to receive fifteen. The discovery of the organo-metallic compounds. The theoretical act did not restrict the privilege to letters either actually written deductions which he drew from the consideration of these bodies by or to the member, and thus the right was very easily abused, were even more interesting and important than the bodies members sending and receiving letters for friends, all that was themselves. Perceiving a molecular isonomy between them and necessary being the signature of the peer or M.P. in the corner the inorganic compounds of the metals from which they may be of the envelope. Wholesale franking grew usual, and M.P.'s formed, he saw their true molecular type in the oxygen, sulphur supplied their friends with envelopes already signed to be used or chlorine compounds of those metals, from which he held at any time. In 1837 the scandal had become so great that them to be derived by the substitution of an organic group for stricter regulations came into force. The franker had to write the oxygen, sulphur, &c. In this way they enabled him to overthe full address, to which he had to add his name, the post-town throw the theory of conjugate compounds, and they further led and the day of the month; the letter had to be posted on the him in 1857 to publish the conception that the atoms of each day written or the following day at the latest, and in a post-town elementary substance have definite saturation capacity, so not more than 20 m. from the place where the peer or M.P. was that they can only combine with a certain limited number of then living. On the roth of January 1840 parliamentary franking the atoms of other elements. The theory of valency thus founded was abolished on the introduction of the uniform penny rate. has dominated the subsequent development of chemical doctrine,

In the United States the franking privilege was first granted in and forms the groundwork upon which the fabric of modern January 1776 to the soldiers engaged in the American War of structural chemistry reposes. Independence. The right was gradually extended till it included In applied chemistry Frankland's great work was in connexion nearly all officials and members of the public service. By special with water-supply. Appointed a member of the second royal acts the privilege was bestowed on presidents and their widows. I commission on the pollution of rivers in 1868, he was provided by the government with a completely-equipped laboratory, in to assist his father in the business of a tallow-chandler and soap which, for a period of six years, he carried on the inquiries boiler. In his thirteenth year he was apprenticed to his halfnecessary for the purposes of that body, and was thus the means brother James, who was establishing himself in the printing of bringing to light an enormous amount of valuable information business, and who in 1721 started the New England Courant, respecting the contamination of rivers by sewage, trade-refuse, one of the earliest newspapers in America. &c., and the purification of water for domestic use. In 1865, Benjamin's tastes had at first been for the sea rather than the when he succeeded A. W. von Hofmann at the School of Mines, pulpit; now they inclined rather to intellectual than to other he undertook the duty of making monthly reports to the registrar- pleasures. At an early age he had made himself familiar with general on the character of the water supplied to London, and The Pilgrim's Progress, with Locke, On the Human Understanding, these he continued down to the end of his life. At one time he and with a volume of The Spectator. Thanks to his father's was an unsparing critic of its quality, but in later years he became excellent advice, he gave up writing doggerel verse (much of strongly convinced of its general excellence and wholesomeness. which had been printed by his brother and sold on the streets) His analyses were both chemical and bacteriological, and his and turned to prose composition. His success in reproducing dissatisfaction with the processes in vogue for the former at articles he had read in The Spectator led him to write an article the time of his appointment caused him to spend two years in for his brother's paper, which he slipped under the door of the devising new and more accurate methods. In 1859 he passed a printing shop with no name attached, and which was printed and night on the very top of Mont Blanc in company with John attracted some attention. After repeated successes of the same Tyndall. One of the purposes of the expedition was to discover sort Benjamin threw off his disguise and contributed regularly whether the rate of combustion of a candle varies with the to the Courant. When, after various journalistic indiscretions, density of the atmosphere in which it is burnt, a question which James Franklin in 1722 was forbidden to publish the Courant, was answered in the negative. Other observations made by it appeared with Benjamin's name as that of the publisher and Frankland at the time formed the starting-point of a series of was received with much favour, chiefly because of the cleverness experiments which yielded far-reaching results. He noticed of his articles signed “Dr Janus," which, like those previously that at the summit the candle gave a very poor light, and was signed “Mistress Silence Dogood,” gave promise of “Poor thereby led to investigate the effect produced on luminous Richard." But Benjamin's management of the paper, and flames by varying the pressure of the atmosphere in which they particularly his free-thinking, displeased the authorities; the are burning. He found that pressure increases luminosity, so relations of the two brothers gradually grew unfriendly, possibly, that hydrogen, for example, the flame of which in normal as Benjamin thought, because of his brother's jealousy of his circumstances gives nó light, burns with a luminous flame under superior ability; and Benjamin determined to quit his brother's a pressure of ten or twenty atmospheres, and the inference he employ and to leave New England. He made his way first to drew was that the presence of solid particles is not the only New York City, and then (October 1723) to Philadelphia, where factor that determines the light-giving power of a flame. he got employment with a printer named Samuel Keimer. Further, he showed that the spectrum of a dense ignited gas A rapid composer and a workman full of resource, Franklin resembles that of an incandescent liquid or solid, and he traced a was soon recognized as the master spirit of the shop. Sir William gradual change in the spectrum of an incandescent gas under Keith (1680-1749), governor of the province, urged him to start increasing pressure, the sharp lines observable when it is ex- in business for himself, and when Franklin had unsuccessfully tremely attenuated broadening out to nebulous bands as the appealed to his father for the means to do so, Keith promised pressure rises, till they merge in the continuous spectrum as the to furnish him with what he needed for the equipment of a new gas approaches a density comparable with that of the liquid printing office and sent him to England to buy the materials. state. An application of these results to solar physics in con- Keith had repeatedly promised to send a letter of credit by the junction with Sir Norman Lockyer led to the view that at least ship on which Franklin sailed, but when the Channel was reached the external layers of the sun cannot consist of matter in the and the ship's mails were examined no such letter was found. liquid or solid forms, but must be composed of gases or vapours. Franklin reached London in December 1724, and found employ. Frankland and Lockyer were also the discoverers of helium. ment first at Palmer's, a famous printing house in Bartholomew In 1868 they noticed in the solar spectrum a bright yellow line Close, and afterwards at Watts's Printing House. At Palmer's which did not correspond to any substance then known, and he had set up a second edition of Wollaston's Religion of Nature which they therefore attributed to the then hypothetical element, Delineated. To refute this book and to prove that there could helium.

be no such thing as religion, he wrote and printed a small pamSir Edward Frankland, who was made a K.C.B. in 1897, died phlet, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, on the 9th of August 1899 while on a holiday at Golaa, Gud- which brought him some curious acquaintances, and of which brandsdalen, Norway

he soon became thoroughly ashamed. After a year and a half A memorial lecture delivered by Professor H. E. Armstrong before in London, Franklin was persuaded by a friend named Denham, the London Chemical Society on the 31st of October 1901 contained many personal details of Frankland's life, together with a full

a Quaker merchant, to return with him to America and engage discussion of his scientific work; and a volume of Autobiographical in mercantile business; he accordingly gave up printing, but Skelches was printed for private circulation in 1902. His original a few days before sailing he received a tempting offer to remain papers, down to 1877, were collected and published in that year as and give lessons in swimming-his feats as a swimmer having Experimental Researches in Pure, Applied and Physical Chemistry. given him considerable reputation-and he says that he might

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN (1706-1790), American diplomat, have consented “had the overtures been sooner made." He statesman and scientist, was born on the 17th of January 1706 reached Philadelphia in October 1726, but a few months later in a house in Milk Street, opposite the Old South church, Boston, Denham died, and Franklin was induced by large wages to Massachusetts. He was the tenth son of Josiah Franklin, and return to his old employer Keimer; with Keimer he quarrelled the eighth child and youngest son of ten children borne by repeatedly, thinking himself ill used and kept only to train Abiah Folger, his father's second wife. The elder Franklin was apprentices until they could in some degree take his place. born at Ecton in Northamptonshire, England, where the strongly Protestant Franklin family may be traced back for

* Keimer and his sister had come the year before from London, nearly four centuries. He had married young and had migrated where he had learned his trade; both were ardent members of the from Banbury to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1685. Benjamin sect with the help of Franklin, who after leaving his shop ridiculed could not remember when he did not know how to read, and him for his long square beard and for keeping the seventh day. when eight years old he was sent to the Boston grammar school, Keimer settled in the Barbadoes about 1730; and in 1731 began being destined by his father for the church as a tithe of his sons.

to publish at Bridgetown the semi-weekly Barbadoes Gaselle. SelecHe spent a year there and a year in a school for writing and Burning, Exemplified in the Unparalleled Case of Samuel Keimer

tions from it called Caribbeana (1741) and A Brand Plucked from the arithmetic, and then at the age of ten he was taken from school | (1718) are from his pen. He died about 1738.

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