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conjectured that thunder and lightning were electrical mani. that Temple Franklin had sold all the papers to the British governfestations; in the same year he planned the lightning-rod (long ment; a French version, Mémoires de la vie privée (Paris, 1791).

was retranslated into English twice in 1793 (London), and from one known as “ Franklin's rod"), which he described and recom

of these versions (by Robinson) still another French version was mended to the public in 1753, when the Copley medal of the made (Paris, 1798). Temple Franklin, deciding to print, got from Royal Society was awarded him for his discoveries. The famous le Veillard the copy sent to him in 1788 (sending in return the original experiment with the kite, proving lightning an electrical pheno- with autograph alterations and the final addition), and from the menon, was performed by Franklin in June 1752. He overthrew and complete. The complete autograph of the biography, acquired entirely the “ friction " theory of electricity and conceived the by John Bigelow in 1867 from its French owners, upon collation idea of plus and minus charges (1753); he thought the sea the with Temple Franklin's edition showed that the latter contained source of electricity. On light Franklin wrote to David Ritten- 1200 emasculations, and that it omitted entirely what had been house in June 1784; the sum of his own conjectures was that with additions from Franklin's correspondence and other writings the corpuscular theory of Newton was wrong, and that light was in 1868; a second

edition (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1888) was published due to the vibration of an elastic aether. He studied with some under the title, The Life of Benjamin Franklin, Written by Himself. care the temperature of the Gulf Stream. In navigation he of Benjamin Franklin (2 vols., New York, 1864): John T. Morse,

In addition to the Autobiography see James Parton, Life and Times suggested many new contrivances, such as water-tight com- Jr.. Benjamin Franklin (Boston, 1889, in the American Statesmen partments, floating anchors to lay a ship to in a storm, and dishes series): J. B. McMaster, Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Lellers that would not upset during a gale; and beginning in 1757 (Boston, 1887, in American Men of Letters series): Paul L. made repeated experiments with oil on stormy waters. As a Bibliography (Brooklyn, 1889): E. E. Hale and E. E. Hale, Jr., mathematician he devised various elaborate magic squares and Franklin in France (2 vols., Boston, 1888): J. H A. Doniol, Histoire novel magic circles, of which he speaks apologetically, because de la participation de la France è l'établissement des Elals - Unis they are of no practical use. Always much interested in agri- d'Amérique (Paris, 6 vols., 1886-1900); S. G. Fisher, The True culture, he made an especial effort (like Robert R. Livingston) | Franklin (New York, 1898, in the American Men of Energy series): to promote the use of plaster of Paris as a fertiliser. He took W. A. Wetzel, " Benjamin Franklin as an Economist, a prominent part in aeronautic experiments during his stay in in series 13. of Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political France. He made an excellent clock, which because of a slight Science; and the prefaces and biographical matter in A. H. Smyth's improvement introduced by James Ferguson in 1757 was long edition of the Works (New York, io vols., 1905-1907). (R. Wé.) known as Ferguson's clock. In medicine Franklin was considered FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN (1786-1847), English rear-admiral important enough to be elected to the Royal Medical Society of and explorer, was born at Spilsby, Lincolnshire, on the 16th of Paris in 1777, and an honorary member of the Medical Society April 1786. His family was descended from a line of free-holders of London in 1787. In 1984 he was on the committee which or “franklins ” from whom some centuries earlier they had investigated Mesmer, and the report is a, document of last- derived their surname; but the small family estate was sold ing scientific value. Franklin's advocacy of vegetarianism, of by his father, who went into business. John, who was the fifth sparing and simple diet, and of temperance in the use of liquors, and youngest son and ninth child, was destined for the church. and of proper ventilation has already been referred to. His most At the age of ten he was sent to school at St Ives, and soon direct contribution to medicine was the invention for his own afterwards was transferred to Louth grammar school, which use of bisocal eyeglasses.

he attended for two years. About this time his imagination A summary of so versatile a genius is impossible. His services was deeply impressed by a holiday walk of 12 m. which he made to America in England and France rank him as one of the heroes with a companion to look at the sea, and he determined to of the American War of Independence and as the greatest of be a sailor. In the hope of dispelling this fancy his father sent American diplomats. Almost the only American scientist of him on a trial voyage to Lisbon in a merchantman; but it being his day, he displayed remarkably deep as well as remarkably found on his return that his wishes were unchanged he was varied abilities in science and deserved the honours enthusi- entered as a midshipman on board the “ Polyphemus," and astically given him by the savants of Europe.

shortly afterwards took part in her in the hard-fought battle BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Franklin's works were not collected in his own of Copenhagen (2nd of April 1801). Two months later he joined lifetime, and he made no effort to publish his writings. Experimenls the “ Investigator," a discovery-ship commanded by his cousin and Observations on Electricity (London, 1769) was translated into Captain Matthew Flinders, and under the training of that able more complete edition, Polilical, Miscellaneous and Philosophical scientific officer was employed in the exploration and mapping Pieces (London, 1779): an edition in three volumes appeared of the coasts of Australia, where he acquired a correctness of after Franklin's death (London, 1806); what seemed the authentic astronomical observation and a skill in surveying which proved Works, as it was under the care of Temple Franklin, was published of eminent utility in his future career. He was on board the ditional matter at Philadelphia (6 vols., 1818). Sparks's edition “Porpoise” when that ship and the “ Cato" were wrecked (10 vols., Boston, 1836-1842: revised.' Philadelphia, 1858) also (18th of August 1803) on a coral reef off the coast of Australia, contained fresh matter; and there are further additions in the and after this misfortune proceeded to China. Thence he obtained edition of John Bigelow (Philadelphia, 1887-1888; 5th ed., 1905) and in that by Albert Henry Smyth (10 vols., New York, 1905-1907).

a passage to England in the “Earl Camden," East Indiaman, There are important Frankliniana, about 13,000 papers, in the commanded by Captain (afterwards Sir) Nathaniel Dance, and possession of the American Philosophical Society, to which they were performed the duty of signal midshipman in the famous action conveyed by the son of Temple Franklin's executor, George Fox. of the 15th of February 1804 when Captain Dance' repulsed a stable garret; they were finally cleared out, their owner, Mary Fox, strong French squadron led by the redoubtable Admiral Linois. intending to send them to a paper mill. One barrel went to the mill. On reaching England he joined the “Bellerophon,” 74, and The others, it was found, contained papers belonging to Franklin, was in charge of the signals on board that ship during the battle and this important collection was bought and presented to the of Trafalgar. Two years later he joined the“ Bedford," attaining university of Pennsylvania. The valuable Frankliniana collected by Henry Stevens were purchased by Congress in 1885. These MS.

the rank of lieutenant the year after, and served in her on the collections were Arst carefully gone over for the edition of the Works Brazil station (whither the“ Bedford ” went as part of the convoy by A. H. Smyth. Franklin's Autobiography was begun in 1771 as a which escorted the royal family of Portugal to Rio de Janeiro private chronicle for his son, Governor William

Franklin; the papers, in 1808), in the blockade of Flushing, and finally in the disastrous governor during the War of Independence, and in 1783 came into expedition against New rleans (1814), in which campaign he ihe possession of Abel James, who restored them to Franklin and displayed such zeal and intelligence as to merit special mention urged him to complete the sketch. He wrote a little in 1784. more in despatches. in 1788, when he furnished a copy to his friend le Veillard, and a little On peace being established, Franklin turned his attention more in 1790. The original manuscript was long in the possession of Temple Franklin, who spent years rearranging the matter in it and

once more to the scientific branch of his profession, and sedulously making over into politer English his grandfather's plain-spokenness extended his knowledge of surveying. In 1818 the discovery So long was the publication delayed that it was generally believed 1 of a North-West Passage to the Pacific became again, after a

long interval, an object of national interest, and Lieutenant | soon became proverbial in the squadron for the happiness and Franklin was given the command of the “ Trent" in the Arctic comfort of her officers and crew. As an acknowledgment of expedition, under the orders of Captain Buchan in the “Dorothea". the essential service which he rendered off Patras in the Greek During a heavy storm the “ Dorothea ” was so much damaged War of Independence, he received the cross of the Redeemer of by the pack-ice that her reaching England became doubtful, Greece from King Otto, and after his return to England he was and, much to the chagrin of young Franklin, the “Trent” created knight commander of the Guelphic order of Hanover. was compelled to convoy her home instead of being allowed In 1836 he accepted the lieutenant-governorship of Van to prosecute the voyage alone. This voyage, however, bad Diemen's Land (now Tasmania), and held that post till the brought Franklin into personal intercourse with the leading end of 1843. His government was marked by several events scientific men of London, and they were not slow in ascertaining of much interest, one of his most popular measures being the his peculiar fitness for the command of such an enterprise. opening of the doors of the legislative council to the public To calmness in danger, promptness and fertility of resource, He also founded a college, endowing it largely from his private and excellent seamanship, he added an ardent desire to promote funds, and in 1838 established a scientific society at Hobart science for its own sake, together with a love of truth that led Town (now called the Royal Society of Tasmania), the meetings him to do full justice to the merits of his subordinate officers, of which were held in Government House and its papers printed without wishing to claim their discoveries as a captain's right. at his expense. In his time also the colony of Victoria was Furthermore, he possessed a cheerful buoyancy of mind, sustained founded by settlers from Tasmania; and towards its close, by deep religious principle, which was not depressed in the most transportation to New South Wales having been abolished, gloomy times. It was therefore with full confidence in his the convicts from every part of the British empire were sent to ability and exertions that, in 1819, he was placed in command Tasmania. On an increase of the lieutenant-governor's salary of an expedition appointed to proceed overland from the Hudson being voted by the colonial legislature, Sir John declined to Bay to the shores of the Arctic Sea, and to determine the trendings derive any advantage from it personally, while he secured the of that coast eastward of the Coppermine river. At this period augmentation to his successors. He welcomed eagerly the various the northern coast of the American continent was known at expeditions for exploration and surveying which visited Hobart two isolated points only,—this, the mouth of the Coppermine Town, conspicuous among these, and of especial interest to river (which, as Franklin discovered, was erroncously placed himself, being the French and English Antarctic expeditions four degress of latitude too much to the north), and the mouth of Dumont d'Urville and Sir James C. Ross-the latter comof the Mackenzie far to the west of it. Licutenant Franklin manding the “ Erebus " and " Terror," with which Franklin's and his party, consisting of Dr Richardson, Midshipmen Gcorge own name was afterwards to be so pathetically connected. A Back and Richard Hood, and a few ordinary boatmen, arrived magnetic observatory fixed at Hobart Town, as a dependency at the depot of the Hudson's Bay Company at the end of August of the central establishment under Colonel Sabine, was also 1819, and making an autumnal journey of 700 m. spent the first an object of deep interest up to the moment of his leaving the winter on the Saskatchewan. Owing to the supplics which colony. That his unflinching efforts for the social and political had been promised by the North-West and Hudson's Bay advancement of the colony were appreciated was abundantly Companies not being forthcoming the following year, it was not proved by the affection and respect shown him by every section until the summer of 1821 that the Coppermine was ascended of the community on his departure; and several years after. to its mouth, and a considerable extent of sea-coast to thc wards, the colonists showed their remembrance of his virtues eastward surveyed. The return journcy lcd over the region and services by sending Lady Franklin a subscription of £1700 known as the Barren Ground, and was marked by the most in aid of her efforts for the search and relief of her husband, terrible sufferings and privations and the tragic death of and later still by a unanimous vote of the legislature for the Lieutenant Hood. The survivors of the expedition reached erection of a statue in honour of him at Hobart Town. York Factory in the month of June 1822, having accomplished Sir John found on reaching England that there was about to altogether 5550 m. of travel. While engaged on this service be a renewal of polar research, and that the confidence of the Franklin was promoted to the rank of commander (Ist of January admiralty in him was undiminished, as was shown by his being 1821), and upon his return to England at the end of 1822 he offered the command of an expedition for the discovery of a obtained the post rank of captain and was elected a fellow of North-West Passage to the Pacific. This offer he accepted. the Royal Society. The narrative of this expedition was pub- The prestige of Arctic service and of his former experiences lished in the following year and became at once a classic of travel, attracted a crowd of volunteers of all classes, from whom were and soon after he married Eleanor, the youngest daughter of selected a body of officers conspicuous for talent and energy. William Porden, an eminent architect.

Captain Crozier, who was second in command, had been three Early in 1825 he was entrusted with the command of a second voyages with Sir Edward Parry, and had commanded the overland expedition, and upon the earnest entrcaty of his dying “Terror" in Ross's Antarctic expedition. Captain Fitzjames, wife, who encouraged him to place his duty to his country before who was commander on board the “Erebus,” had been five times his love for her, he set sail without waiting to witness her end. gazetted for brilliant conduct in the operations of the first China Accompanied as before by Dr (afterwards Sir) John Richardson war, and in a letter which he wrote from Greenland has bequeathed and Lieutenant (afterwards Sir) George Back, he descended the some good-natured but masterly sketches of his brother officers Mackenzie river in thc season of 1826 and traced the North and messmates on this expedition. Thus supported, with crews American coast as far as 149° 37' W. long., whilst Richardson carefully chosen (some of whom had been engaged in the whaling at the head of a separate party connected the mouths of the service), victualled for three years, and furnished with every Coppermine and Mackenzie rivers. Thus between the years 1819 appliance then known, Franklin's expedition, consisting of the and 1827 he had added 1200 m. of coast-line to the American “Erebus” and “ Terror” (129 officers and men), with a transport continent, or one-third of the whole distance from the Atlantic ship to convey additional stores as far as Disco in Greenland, to the Pacific. These exertions were fully appreciated at home sailed from Greenhithe on the 19th of May 1845. The letters and abroad. He was knighted in 1829, received the honorary which Franklin despatched from Greenland were couched in degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford, was awarded the language of cheerful anticipation of success, while those received gold medal of the Geographical Society of Paris, and was elected from his officers expressed their glowing hope, their admiration corresponding member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. The of the seamanlike qualities of their commander, and the happiresults of these expeditions are described by Franklin and Dr ness they had in serving under him. The ships were last seen Richardson in two magnificent works published in 1824-1829. by a whaler near the entrance of Lancaster Sound, on the 26th In 1878 he married his second wife, Jane, second daughter of of July, and the deep gloom which settled down upon their John Griffin. His next official employment was on the Mediter- subsequent movements was not finally raised till fourteen years ranean station, in command of the “Rainbow," and his ship I later.

Franklin's instructions were framed in conjunction with Sir | aided, as she had been before, by the subscriptions of sympathizJohn Barrow and upon his own suggestions. The experience ing friends, she purchased and fitted out the little yacht “ Fox," of Parry had established the navigability of Lancaster Sound which sailed from Aberdeen in July 1857. The command was (leading westwards out of Baffin Bay), whilst Franklin's own accepted by Captain (afterwards Sir) Leopold M'Clintock, whose surveys had long before satisfied him that a navigable passage high reputation had been won in three of the government exexisted along the north coast of America from the Fish river peditions sent out in search of Franklin. Having been comto Bering Strait. He was therefore directed to push through pelled to pass the first winter in Baftin Bay, it was not till the Lancaster Sound and its continuation, Barrow Strait, without autumn of 1858 that the “ Fox" passed down Prince Regent's loss of time, until he reached the portion of land on which Inlet, and put into winter quarters at Port Kennedy at the Cape Walker is situated, or about long. 98° W., and from that eastern end of Bellot Strait, between North Somerset and point to pursue a course southward towards the American coast. Boothia Felix. In the spring of 1859 three sledging parties went An explicit prohibition was given against a westerly course out, Captain (afterwards Sir) Allen Young to examine Prince of beyond the longitude of 98o W., but he was allowed the single Wales Island, Lieutenant (afterwards Captain) Hobson the north alternative of previously examining Wellington Channel (which and west coasts of King William's Island, and M'Clintock the leads out of Barrow Strait) for a northward route, if the naviga- east and south coasts of the latter, the west coast of Boothia, and tion here were open.

the region about the mouth of Great Fish river. This splendid In 1847, though there was no real public anxicty as to the fate and exhaustive search added 800 m. of new coast-line to the of the expedition, preparations began to be made for the possible knowledge of the Arctic regions, and brought to light the course necessity of sending relief. As time passed, however, and no and fate of the expedition. From the Eskimo in Boothia many tidings reached England, the search began in earnest, and from relics were obtained, and reports as to the fate of the ships and 1848 onwards expedition after expedition was despatched in men; and on the west and south coast of King William's Island quest of the missing explorers. The work of these expeditions were discovered skcletons and remains of articles that told a forms a story of achievement which has no parallel in maritime terrible tale of disaster. Above all, in a cairn at Point Victory annals, and resulted in the discovery and exploration of thousands a precious record was discovered by Lieutenant Hobson that of miles of new land within the grim Arctic regions, the develop- briefly told the history of the cxpedition up to April 25, ment of the system of sledge travelling, and the discovery of a 1848, three years after it set out full of hope. In 1845-1846 second North-West Passage in 1850 (see POLAR Regions). the “ Erebus” and “ Terror" wintered at Becchey Island on Here it is only necessary to mention the results so far as the the S.W. coast of North Devon, in lat. 74° 43' 28" N., long. search for Franklin was concerned. In this great national under- 91° 39' 15" W., after having ascended Wellington Channel io taking Lady Franklin's exertions were unwearied, and she lat. 77° and returned by the west side of Cornwallis Island. This exhausted her private funds in sending out auxiliary vessels to statement was signed by Graham Gore, lieutenant, and Charles quarters not comprised in the public search, and by her pathetic F. des Voeux, mate, and bore date May 28, 1847. These appeals roused the sympathy of the whole civilized world. two officers and six mcn, it was further told, left the ships on

The first traces of the missing ships, consisting of a few scattered May 24, 1847 (no doubt for an exploring journcy), at which articles, besides three graves, were discovered at Franklin's time all was well. winter quarters (1845-1846) on Beechey Island, by Captain Such an amount of successful work has seldom been accom(afterwards Sir) Erasmus Ommanney of the Assistance,” in plished by an Arctic expedition within any one season. The August 1851, and were brought home by the “ Prince Albert,” alternative course permitted Franklin by his intructions had which had been fitted out by Lady Franklin. No further tidings been attempted but not pursued, and in the autumn of 1846 were obtained until the spring of 1854, when Dr John Rae, then he had followed that route which was specially commended conducting a sledging expedition of the Hudson's Bay Company to him. But after successfully navigating Peel and Franklin from Repulse Bay, was told by the Eskimo that (as was inferred) Straits on his way southward, his progress had been suddenly in 1850 white men, to the number of about forty, had been seen and finally arrested by the obstruction of heavy (palacocrystic") dragging a boat southward along the west shore of King William's ice, which presses down from the north-west through M'Clintock Island, and that later in the same season the bodies of the whole Channel (not then known to exist) upon King William's Island. party were found by the natives at a point a short distance to the It must be remembered that in the chart which Franklin carried north-west of Back's Great Fish river, where they had perished King William's Island was laid down as a part of the mainland from the united effects of cold and famine. The latter statement of Boothia, and he therefore could pursue his way only down its was afterwards disproved by the discovery of skeletons upon the western coast. Upon the margin of the printed admiralty form presumed line of route; but indisputable proof was given that on which this brief record was written was an addendum dated ihe Eskimo had communicated with members of the missing the 25th of April 1848, which extinguished all further hopes of a expedition, by the various articles obtained from them and successful termination of this grand enterprise. The facts are brought home by Dr Rae. In consequence of the information best conveyed in the terse and expressive words in which they obtained by Dr Rae, a party in canoes, under Messrs Anderson were written, and are therefore given verbalim: “ April 25th, and Stewart, was sent by government down the Great Fish river 1848. H.M. Ships “Terror' and 'Erebus' were deserted on in 1855, and succeeded in obtaining from the Eskimo at the mouth 22nd April, five leagues N.N.W. of this, having been beset of the river a considerable number of articles which had evidently since 12th September 1846. The officers and crews, consisting belonged to the Franklin expedition; while others were picked of 105 souls under the command of Captain F. R. M. Crozier, up on Montreal Island a day's march to the northward. It was landed in lat. 69° 37' 42' N., long. 98° 41' W. This paper was clear, therefore, that a party from the “ Erebus” and “Terror” found by Lieut. Irving ... where it had been deposited by had endeavoured to reach the settlements of the Hudson's Bay the late Commander Gore in June 1847. Sir John Franklin died Company by the Fish river route, and that in making a southerly on the 11th June 1847; and the total loss by deaths in the course it had been arrested within the channel into which the expedition has been to this date 9 officers and 15 men." The Great Fish river empties itself. The admiralty now decided to handwriting is that of Captain Fitzjames, to whose signature is take no further steps to determine the exact fate of the expedition, appended that of Captain Crozier, who also adds the words of and granted to Dr Rae the reward of £10,000 which had been chief importance, namely, that they would start on to-morrow offered in 1849 to whosoever should first succeed in obtaining 26th April 1848 for Back's Fish river.” A briefer record has authentic news of the missing men. It was therefore reserved never been told of so tragic a story. for the latest effort of Lady Franklin to develop, not only the All the party had without doubt been greatly reduced through fate of her husband's expedition but also the steps of its progress want of sufficient food, and the injurious effects of three winters up to the very verge of success, mingled indeed with almost in these regions. They had attempted to drag with them two unprecedented disaster. With all her available means, and I boats, besides heavily laden sledges, and doubtless had soon been compelled to abandon much of their burden, and leave one and Franklin's only other service in the war was as commander boat on the shore of King William's Island, where it was found of the XIX. corps in the abortive Red River Expedition of 1864. by M'Clintock, near the middle of the west coast, containing In this expedition he received a severe wound at the action of two skeletons. The route adopted was the shortest possible, Sabine Cross Roads (April 8, 1864), in consequence of which he but their strength and supplies had failed, and at that season took no further active part in the war. He served for a time on of the year the snow-covered land afforded no subsistence. the retiring board, and was captured by the Confederates on An old Eskimo woman stated that these heroic men "fell down the 17th of July 1864, but escaped the same night. In 1865 he and died as they walked,” and, as Sir John Richardson has well was brevetted major-general in the regular army, and in 1866 said, they " forged the last link of the North-West Passage with he was retired. After the war General Franklin was vicetheir lives." From all that can be gathered, one of the ships president of the Colt's Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, must have been crushed in the ice and sunk in deep water, and was president of the commission to lay out Long Island City, the other, stranded on the shore of King William's Island, lay N.Y. (1871-1872), of the commission on the building of the there for years, forming a mine of wealth for the neighbouring Connecticut state house (1872-1873), and, from 1880 to 1899, of Eskimo.

the board of managers of the national home for disabled volunteer This is all we know of the fate of Franklin and his brave men. soldiers; as a commissioner of the United States to the Paris His memory is cherished as one of the most conspicuous of the Exposition of 1889 he was made a grand officer of the Legion Daval heroes of Britain, and as one of the most successful and of Honour; and he was for a time a director of the Panama daring of her explorers. He is certainly entitled to the honour railway. He died at Hartford, Connecticut, on the 8th of March of being the first discoverer of the North-West Passage; the 1903. He wrote a pamphlet, The Galling Gun for Service Ashore point reached by thc ships having brought him to within a few and Afloat (1874). miles of the known waters of America, and on the monument See A Reply of Major-General William B. Franklin to the Report erected to him by his country, in Waterloo Place, London, of the Joint Committee of Congress on the Conduct of the War (New this honour is justly awarded to him and his companions,-a York, 1863; 2nd ed., 1867), and Jacob L. Greene, Gen. w. B. fact which was also affirmed by the president of the Royal Geo

Franklin and the Operations of the Lefi Wing at the Battle of Fredericks.

burg (Hartford, 1900). graphical Society, when presenting their gold medal to Lady Franklin in 1860. On the 26th of October 1852 Franklin had FRANKLIN, an organized district of Canada, extending from been promoted to the rank of rear-admiral. He left an only the Arctic Circle to the North Pole. It was formed by order-indaughter by his first marriage. Lady Franklin died in 1875 council on the end of October 1895, and includes numerous at the age of eighty-three, and a fortnight after her death a fine islands and peninsulas, such as Banks, Prince Albert, Victoria, monument was unveiled in Westminster Abbey, commemorating Wollaston, King Edward and Baffin Land, Melville, Bathurst, the heroic deeds and fate of Sir John Franklin, and the insepar- Prince of Wales and Cockburn Islands. Of these, Baffin Land able connexion of Lady Franklin's name with the fame of her alone,extends south of the Arctic Circle. The area is estimated husband. Most of the relics brought home by M'Clintock were at 500,000 sq. m., but the inhabitants consist of a few Indians, presented by Lady Franklin to the United Service Museum, Eskimo and fur-traders. Musk-oxen, polar bears, foxes and while those given by Dr Rae to the admiralty are deposited in other valuable fur-bearing animals are found in large numbers. Greenwich hospital. In 1864-1869 the American explorer The district is named after Sir John Franklin. Captain Hall made two journeys in endeavouring to trace the FRANKLIN, a township of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, remnant of Franklin's party, bringing back a number of addi- U.S.A., with an area of 29 sq. m. of rolling surface. Pop. (1900) tional relics and some information confirmatory of that given 5017, of whom 1250 were foreign-born; (1905, state census) 5244; by M'Clintock, and in 1878 Lieutenant F. Schwatka of the (1910 census) 5641. The principal village, also named Franklin, United States army and a companion made a final land search, is about 27 m. S.W. of Boston, and is served by the New York, but although accomplishing a remarkable record of travel New Haven & Hartford railway. Franklin has a public library discovered nothing which threw any fresh light on the history (housed in the Ray memorial building and containing 7700 of the expedition.

volumes in 1910) and is the seat of Dean Academy (Universalist; See H. D. Traill, Life of Sir John Franklin (1896).

founded in 1865), a secondary school for boys and girls. Straw FRANKLIN, WILLIAM BUEL (1823-1903), Federal general goods, felt, cotton and woollen goods, pianos and printing presses in the American Civil War, was born at York, Pennsylvania, are manufactured here. The township was incorporated in on the 27th of February 1823. He graduated at West Point, 1778, previous to which it was a part of Wrentham (1673). at tbe head of his class, in 1843, was commissioned in the Engineer It was the first of the many places in the United States named Corps, U.S.A., and served with distinction in the Mexican War, in honour of Benjamin Franklin (who later contributed books receiving the brevet of first lieutenant for his good conduct at for the public library). Horace Mann was born here. Buena Vista, in which action he was on the staff of General FRANKLIN, a city of Merrimack county, New Hampshire, Taylor. After the war he was engaged in miscellaneous engineer- | U.S.A., at the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnepeing work, becoming a first lieutenant in 1853 and a captain in saukee rivers to form the Merrimac; about 95 m. N.N.W. of 1857. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 he was Boston. Pop. (1890) 4085; (1900) 5846 (1323 foreign-born); made colonel of a regular infantry regiment, and a few days (1910) 6132; area, about 14.4 sq. m. Franklin is served by later brigadier-general of volunteers. He led a brigade in the the Concord Division of the Boston & Maine railway, with a first battle of Bull Run, and on the organization by McClellan branch to Bristol (13 m. N.W.) and another connecting at of the Army of the Potomac he received a divisional command. Tilton (about 5 m. E.) with the White Mountains Division. It He commanded first a division and then the VI. Corps in the contains the villages of Franklin, Franklin Falls, Webster Place operations before Richmond in 1862, earning the brevet of and Lake City, the last a summer resort. The rivers furnish brigadier-general in the U.S. Army; was promoted major- good water power, which is used in the manufacture of a variety general, U.S.V., in July 1862; commanded the VI. corps at of commodities, including foundry products, paper and pulp, South Mountain and Antietam; and at Fredericksburg com- woollen goods, hosiery, saws, needles and knitting machines. manded the “ Left Grand Division" of two corps (I. and VI.). The water-works are owned and operated by the municipality. His part in the last battle led to charges of disobedience and Here, in what was then a part of the town of Salisbury, Daniel negligence being preferred against him by the commanding Webster was born, and on the Webster farm is the New Hampgeneral, General A. E. Burnside, on which the congressional shire orphans' home, established in 1871. The town of Franklin committee on the conduct of the war reported unfavourably was formed in 1828 by the union of portions of Salisbury, to Franklin, largely, it seems, because Burnside's orders to Sanbornton, Andover and Northfield. The earliest settlement Franklin were not put in evidence. Burnside had issued on the within its limits was made in 1748 in the portion taken from 23rd of January 1863 an order relieving Franklin from duty, Salisbury. Franklin was incorporated as a city in 1895.

FRANKLIN, a city and the county-seat of Venango county, | in England to denote a land-holder who was of free but not Pennsylvania, U.S.A., at the confluence of French Creek and of noble birth. Some of the older English writers occasionally Allegheny river, about 55 m. S. by E. of Erie, in the N.W. part use it to mean a liberal host. The Latin form of the word is of the state. Pop. (1890) 6221; (1900) 7317 (489 being foreign- fronchilanus. born); (1910) 9767. Franklin is served by the Erie, the Pennsyl- PRANKLINITE, a member of the spinel group of minerals, vania, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Franklin consisting of oxides of iron, manganese and zinc in varying & Clearfield railways. Its streets are broad and well paved and proportions, (Fe, Zn, Mn)'(Fe, Mn);'"O.. It occurs as large shaded, and there are two public parks, a public library and octahedral crystals often with rounded edges, and as granular many handsome residences. Franklin is the centre of the chief masses. The colour is iron-black and the lustre metallic; oil region of the state, and from it great quantities of refined oil hardness 6, specific gravity 5.2. It thus resembles magnetite are shipped. Natural gas also abounds. The city's manufacture in external characters, but is readily distinguished from this by include oil-well supplies, boilers, engines, steel castings, iron the fact that it is only slightly magnetic. It is found in considergoods, lumber, bricks, asbestos goods, manifolding paper and able amount, associated with zinc minerals (zincite and willemite) flour. On the site of the present city the French built in 1754 in crystalline limestone, at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, a fortification, Fort Machault, which after the capture of Foit where it is mined as an ore of zinc (containing 5 to 20% of the Duquesne by the English was a rallying place for Indians allied metal); after the extraction of the zinc, the residue is used in with the French. In 1759 the French abandoned and completely the manufacture of spiegeleisen (the mineral containing 15 to destroyed the fort; and in the following year the English built 20% of manganese oxides). Associated with franklinite at in the vicinity Fort Venango, which was captured by the Indians Franklin Furnace, and found also at some other localities, in 1763 during the Conspiracy of Pontiac, the whole garrison is another member of the spinel group, namely, gahnite or being massacred. In 1787 the United States built Fort Franklin zinc-spinel, which is a zinc aluminate, ZnAl.O., with a little of (about 1 m. above the mouth of French Creek) as a protection the zinc replaced by iron and manganese. against the Indians; in 1796 the troops were removed to a FRANK-MARRIAGE (liberum marilagium), in real property strongly built and well-fortified wooden building, known as law, a species of estate tail, now obsolete. When a man was

Old Garrison," at the mouth of French Creek, and in 1803 seized of land in fee simple, and gave it to a daughter on marriage, they were permanently withdrawn from the neighbourhood. the daughter and her husband were termed the donees in frankFranklin was laid out as a town in 1795, was incorporated as a marriage, because they held the land granted to them and the borough in 1828, and was chartered as a city in 1868. Most of heirs of their two bodies free from all manner of service, except its growth dates from the discovery of oil in 1860.

fealty, to the donor or his heirs until the fourth degree of conPRANKLIN, a town and the county-seat of Williamson sanguinity from the donor was passed. This right of a freeholder county, Tennessee, U.S.A., in the central part of the state, so to give away his land at will was first recognized in the reign on the Harpeth river, and about 20 m. S.W. of Nashville. Pop. of Henry II., and became up to the reign of Elizabeth the most (1900) 2180; (1910) 2924. Franklin is served by the Louisville usual kind of settlement.. & Nashville railway. It is the seat of the Tennessee Female FRANKPLEDGE (Lat. francum plegium), an early English College and the Battle Ground Academy, and its chief objects institution, consisting (as defined by Stubbs) of an association of interest are the battle-ground, the Confederate cemetery and for mutual security whose members, according to Hallam, the Confederate monument. During the Civil War Franklin were perpetual bail for each other." The custom whereby the was the scene of a minor engagement on the roth of April 1863, inhabitants of a district were responsible for any crime or injury and of a battle, celebrated as one of the most desperately fought committed by one of their number is old and widespread; it of the war, which took place on the 30th of November 1864. prevailed in England before the Norman Conquest, and is an The Union general Schofield, who was slowly withdrawing to outcome of the earlier principle whereby this responsibility Nashville before the advance of General J. B. Hood's army, rested on kinship. Thus a law of Edgar (d. 975) says" and let which he was ordered to hold in check in order to give Thomas every man so order that he have a borh (or surety), and let the time to prepare for battle (see AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, $ 32), borh then bring and hold him to every justice; and if any one was unable immediately to cross the Harpeth river and was then do wrong and run away, let the borh bear that which he compelled- to entrench his forces south of the town until his ought to bear"; and a law of Canute about 1030 says “and wagon trains, and artillery could be sent over the stream by that every one be brought into a hundred and in borh, and let means of two small bridges. In the afternoon Schofield's out the borh hold and lead him to every plea." About this time posts and advanced lines were attacked by the Confederates these societies, each having its headman, were called frilhborhs, in full strength, and instead of withdrawing as ordered they for peace-borhs, and the Normans translated the Anglo-Saxon made a determined stand. Thus the assailants, carrying the word by frankpledge. But the history of the frankpledge advanced works by storm, rushed upon the main defences on proper begins not earlier than the time of the Norman Conquest. the heels of the broken advanced guard, and a general engage- The laws, which although called the laws of Edward the Confessor ment was brought on which lasted from 3.30 until nine were not drawn up until about 1130, contain a clause about o'clock in the evening. Against, it is said, thirteen separate frithborhs which decrees that in every place societies of ten men assaults, all delivered with exceptional fury, Schofield managed shall be formed for mutual security and reparation. And to hold his position, and shortly before midnight he withdrew before this date William the Conqueror had ordered that “ every across the river in good order. The engagement was indecisive one who wishes to be regarded as free must be in a pledge, and in its results, but the Union commander's purpose, to hold Hood that the pledge must hold and bring him to justice if he commits momentarily in check, was gained, and Hood's effort to crush any offence”; and the laws of Henry I. ordered every person Schofield was unavailing. The losses were very heavy; Hood's of substance over twelve years of age to be enrolled in a frankeffective forces in the engagement numbered about 27,000, pledge. This association of ten, or as it often was at a later date Schofield's about 28,000; the Confederate losses (excluding of twelve men, was also called a tithing, or decimo, and in the cavalry) were about 6500, excluding the slightly wounded; north of England was known as tenmanne tale. six general officers were killed (including Major-General P. R. The view of frankpledge (visus franciplegii), or the duty of Cleburne, a brave Irisbman who had been a corporal in the ascertaining that the law with regard to frankpledges was comBritish army), six wounded, and one captured; the Union losses plied with, was in the hands of the sheriffs, who held an itinerant (excluding cavalry) were 2326. In two of the Confederate court called the “sheriff's tourn” for this and other purposes. brigades all the general and field officers were killed or wounded. This court was held twice a year, but in 1217 it was ordered

See J. D. Cox, The Battle of Franklin (New York, 1897). that the view of frankpledge should only be taken once-at

FRANKLIN, a word derived from the Late Lat. francus, free, Michaelmas. Introduced at or before the time of Henry I., and meaning primarily a freeman. Subsequently it was used the view was regulated by the Assize of Clarendon of 1166 and

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