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the institutions of the present to approximate more closely to troubles arose from the intrigues of his Italian rivals at court. those of the past, and devised for the new French constitution a Of the numerous operas which Fux wrote it is unnecessary to body of reforms which reflected the opinions he had formed speak. They do not essentially differ from the style of the upon the democracy at Rome and in ancient France. But these Italian opera seria of the time. Of greater importance are his were dreams which did not hold him long, and he would have sacred compositions, psalms, motets, oratorios and masses, been scandalized had he known that his name was subsequently the celebrated Missa Canonica amongst the latter. It is an ali used as the emblem of a political and religious party. He died but unparalleled tour de force of learned musicianship, being at Massy (Seine-et-Oise) on the 12th of September 1889. Through- written entirely in that most difficult of contrapuntal devicesout his historical career-at the Ecole Normale and the Sorbonne the canon. As a contrapuntist and musical scholar generally, and in his lectures delivered to the empress Eugénie-his sole Fux was unsurpassed by any of his contemporaries, and his aim was to ascertain the truth, and in the defence of truth his great theoretical work, the Gradus ad Parnassum, long polemics against what he imagined to be the blindness and remained by far the most thorough treatment of counterinsincerity of his critics sometimes assumed a character of harsh- point and its various developments. The title of the original ness and injustice. But, in France at least, these critics were Latin edition is Gradus ad Parnassum sive manuductio ad the first to render justice to his learning, his talents and his compositionem musicae regularem, methoda nova ac certa nondum disinterestedness.

ante tam exacta ordine in lucem edita, elaborata a Joanne Josepho See Paul Guiraud, Fustel de Coulanges (1896); H. d'Arbois de Fux (Vienna, 1715). It was translated into most European Jubainville, Deux Manières d'écrire l'histoire: critique de Bossuet, languages during the 18th century, and is still studied by d'Augustin Thierry el de Fustel de Coulanges (1896); and Gabriel musicians interested in the history of their art. The expenses Monod, Portraits et souvenirs (1897).

(C. B.*)

of the publication were defrayed by the emperor Charles VI. FUSTIAN, a term which includes a variety of heavy woven

Fux's biography was published by Ludwig von Köchel (Vienna, cotton fabrics, chiefly prepared for men's wear. It embraces 1871). It is based on minute original research and contains, amongst plain twilled cloth called jean, and cut fabrics similar to velvet, other valuable materials, a complete catalogue of the composer's known as velveteen, moleskin, corduroy, &c. The term was

numerous works. once applied to a coarse cloth made of cotton and flax; now, FUZE or Fuse, an appliance for firing explosives in blasting fustians are usually of cotton and dyed various colours. In the operations, military shells, &c. (see BLASTING and AMMUNITION, reign of Edward III. the name was given to a woollen fabric. $ Shell). The spelling is not governed by authority, but modern The name is said to be derived from El-Fustat, a suburb of Cairo, convenience has dictated the adoption of the “z" by military where it was first made; and certainly a kind of cloth has long engineers as a general rule, in order to distinguish this sense been known under that name. In a petition to parliament, from that of melting by heat (see below). The word, according temp. Philip and Mary, “ fustian of Naples" is mentioned. In to the New English Dictionary, is one of the forms in which the the 13th and 14th centuries priests' robes and women's dresses Lat. fusus, spindle, has been adapted through Romanic into were made of fustian, but though dresses are still made from English, the ordinary fuze taking the shape of a spindle-like some kinds the chief use is for labourers' clothes.

tube. Similarly the term "fusee” (Fr. fusée, spindle full of tow, PUSTIC (Fr. Justoc, from Arab. fustug, Gr. FLOTákn, pistachio) Late Lat. fusata) is applied to a coned spindle sometimes used in YELLOW Wood or OLD FUSTIC, a dye-stuff consisting of the the wheel train of watches and spring clocks to equalize the action wood of Chlorophora tinctoria, a large tree of the natural order of the mainspring (see WATCH); and the application of the same Moraceae, growing in the West Indies and tropical America. term to a special kind of match may also be due to its resemblance Fustic occurs in commerce in blocks, which are brown without, to a spindle. Again, in heraldry, another form,“ fusil," derived and of a brownish-yellow within. It is sometimes employed for through the French from a Late Lat. diminutive (fusillus or inlaid work. The dye-stuff termed young fustic or Zante fustic, fusellus) of this same fusus, is used of a bearing, an elongated and also Venetian sumach, is the wood of Rhus cotinus (fustet, lozenge. According to other etymological authorities, however or smoke tree), a southern European and Asiatic shrub of the (see Skeat, Ełym. Dict., 1898), “ fuze "or" susc,” and “ fusee" natural order Anacardiaceae, called by Gerarde “red sumach," in the sense of match, are all forms derived through the Fr. fusil, and apparently the "coccygia " and " cotinus" of Pliny (Nat. from Late Lat. focile, steel for striking fire from a flint, from Lat. Hist. xii. 41, xvi. 30). Its colouring matter is fisetin, CisH100s, focus, hearth. The Fr. fusil and English "fusil ” were thus which was synthesized by S. von Kostanecki (Ber., 1904, 37, transferred to the “firelock," i.e. the light musket of the 17th p. 384). (See DYEING.)

century (see FUSILIER). FUTURES, a term used in the produce markets for purchases In electrical engineering a “fuse" (always so spelled) is a or sales of commodities to be completed at a future date, as safety device, commonly consisting of a strip or wire of easily opposed to cash or spot transactions, which are settled fusible metal, which melts and thus interrupts the circuit of immediately. See MARKET, and (for a detailed discussion of which it forms part, whenever that circuit, through some accident the question as affecting cotton) COTTON: Marketing and Supply. or derangement, is caused to carry a current larger than that

FUX, JOHANN JOSEPH (1660-1741), Austrian musician, for which it is intended. In this sense the word must be conwas born at Hirtenfeld (Styria) in 1660. Of his youth and nected with fusus, the past participle of Lat. fundere, to pour, early training nothing is known. In 1696 he was organist at one whence comes the verb fuse," to melt by heat, often used of the principal churches of Vienna, and in 1698 was appointed figuratively in the sense of blend, mix. by the emperor Leopold I. as his " imperial court-composer," FYNE, LOCH, an inlet of the sea, Argyllshire, Scotland. with a salary of about £6 a month. At the court of Leopold and From the head, 6 m. above Inveraray, to the mouth on the Sound of his successors Joseph I. and Charles VI., Fux remained for of Bute, it has a south-westerly and then southerly trend and the rest of his life. To his various court dignities that of organistis 44 m. long, its width varying from m. to 6 m. It receives the at St Stephen's cathedral was added in 1704. He married the Fyne, Shira, Aray and many other streams, and, on the western daughter of the government secretary Schnitzbaum. As a side, gives off Lochs Shira, Gair, Gilp (with Ardrishaig, the proof of the high favour in which he was held by the art-loving Crinan Canal and Lochgilphead) and East Tarbert (with Tarbert Charles VI., it is told that at the coronation of that emperor village). The glens debouching on the lake are Fyne, Shira, as king of Bohemia in 1723 an opera, La Constanza e la Fortezza, Aray, Kinglas and Hell's Glen. The coast generally is picturesque especially composed by Fux for the occasion, was given at and in many parts well wooded. All vessels using the Crinan Prague in an open-air theatre. Fux at the time was suffering Canal navigate the loch to and from Ardrishaig, and there are from gout, but the emperor had him carried in a litter all the daily excursions during the season, as far up as Inveraray. way from Vienna, and gave him a seat in the imperial box. There are ferries at St Catherine's and Otter, and piers at Tarbert, Fux died at Vienna on the 13th of February 1741. His life, Ardrishaig, Kilmory, Crarae, Furnace, Inveraray, Strachur and although passed in the great world, was eventless, and his only elsewhere. The industries comprise granite quarrying at Furnace and Crarae, distilling at Ardrishaig, gunpowder-making at with Ducks," of 1660, sold with the Jäger collection at Cologne Furnace and Kilfinan, and, above all, fishing. Haddock, whiting in 1871. Great power is shown in the bear and boar hunts at and codling are taken, and the famous “ Loch Fyne herrings Munich and Ravensworth castle. A “Hunted Roedeer with command the highest price in the market.

Dogs in the Water," in the Berlin Museum, has some of the life FYRD, the name given to the English army, or militia, during and more of the roughness of Snyders, but lacks variety of tint the Anglo-Saxon period (see ARMY, 60). It is first mentioned and finish. A splendid specimen is the Page and Parrot near a in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 605. The ealdorman, table covered with game, guarded by a dog staring at a monkey, or sheriff, of the shire was probably charged with the duty of in the Wallace collection. With the needle and the brush calling out and leading the fyrd, which appears always to have | Fyt was equally clever. He etched 16 plates, and those repreretained a local character, as during the time of the Danish senting dogs are of their kind unique. invasions we read of the fyrd of Kent, of Somerset and of FYZABAD, or FAIZABAD, a city, district and division of Devon. As attendance at the fyrd was included in the Irinoda British India in the United Provinces. The city stands on the necessitas it was compulsory on all holders of land; but that left bank of the river Gogra, 78 m. by rail E. of Lucknow. Pop. it was not confined to them is shown by the following extract (1901) 75,085. To the E. of Fyzabad, and now forming a from the laws of Ine, king of the West Saxons, dated about suburb, is the ancient site of Ajodhya (9.0.). Fyzabad was 690, which prescribes the penalty for the serious offence of founded about 1730 by Sa'adat Ali Khan, the first nawab neglecting the fyrd: “If a gesithcund man owning land neglect wazir of Oudh, who built a hunting-lodge here. It received its the fyrd, let him pay 120 shillings, and forfeit his land; one not present name in the reign of his successor; and Shuja-ud-daula, owning land 60 shillings; a ceorlish man 30 shillings as syrdwite." the third nawab, laid out a large town and fortified it, and here The fyrd was gradually superseded by the gathering of the he was buried. It was afterwards the residence of the Begums thegns and their retainers, but it was occasionally called out for of Oudh, famous in connexion with the impeachment of Warren defensive purposes even after the Norman Conquest.

Hastings. When the court of Oudh was removed to Lucknow FYT, JOHANNES (1609–1661), Belgian animal painter, was in 1775 all the leading merchants and bankers abandoned the born at Antwerp and christened on the 19th of August 1609. place. At the census of 1869 Fyzabad contained only 37,804 He was registered apprentice to Hans van den Berghe in 1621. inhabitants; but it is now again advancing in prosperity and Professionally van den Berghe was a restorer of old pictures population. On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, the cantonrather than a painter of new ones. At twenty Johannes Fytment contained two regiments of infantry, a squadron of cavalry, entered the gild of St Luke as a master, and from that time and a light field battery of artillery-all natives. Owing to till his death in 1661 he produced a vast number of pictures their threatening demeanour after the Meerut massacre, many in which the bold facility of Snyders is united to the powerful of the European women and children were sheltered by one of effects of Rembrandt, and harmonies of gorgeous tone are not the great landholders of Oudh, and others were sent to less less conspicuous than freedom of touch and a true semblance disturbed parts of the country. The troops rose, as was anticiof nature. There never was such a master of technical processes pated, and although they at first permitted their officers to take as Fyt in the rendering of animal life in its most varied forms. boats and proceed towards Dinapur, a message was afterwards He may have been less correct in outline, less bold in action sent to a rebel force lower down the river to intercept the fugitives. than Snyders, but he was much more skilful and more true in Of four boats, one, having passed the rebels unnoticed, succeeded the reproduction of the coat of deer, dogs, greyhounds, hares in reaching Dinapur safely. Of those in the other three boats, and monkeys, whilst in realizing the plumage of peacocks, one alone escaped. Fyzabad is now a station for European woodcocks, ducks, hawks, and cocks and hens, he had not his as well as for native troops. It is the headquarters of a brigade equal, nor was any artist even of the Dutch school more effective in the 8th division of the northern army. There is a government in relieving his compositions with accessories of tinted cloth, college. Sugar-refining and trade in agricultural produce are porcelain ware, vases and fruit. He was not clever at figures, important. and he sometimes trusted for these to the co-operation of Cor- The DISTRICT OF FYZABAD, lying between the two great rivers nelius Schut or Willeborts, whilst his architectural backgrounds Gogra and Gumti, has an area of 1740 sq. m. It is entirely were sometimes executed by Quellyn. “ Silenus amongst alluvial and well wooded, and has a good climate. Pop. (1901) Fruit and Flowers,” in the Harrach collection at Vienna,“ Diana 1,225,374, an increase of -7% in the decade. The district is and her Nymphs with the Produce of the Chase,” in the Belvedere traversed throughout its length by the Oudh and Rohilkhand at Vienna, and “ Dead Game and Fruit in front of a Triumphal railway from Lucknow to Benares, with a branch to Allahabad. Arch," belonging to Baron von Rothschild at Vienna, are Tanda, with a population in 1901 of 19,853, has the largest specimens of the co-operation respectively of Schut, Willeborts production of cotton goods in Oudh. and Quellyn. They are also Fyt's masterpieces. The earliest The Division OF FYZABAD has an area of 12,113 sq. m., and dated work of the master is a cat grabbing at a piece dead comprises the six districts of Fyzabad, Gonda, Bahraich, poultry near a hare and birds, belonging to Baron Cetto at Sultanpur, Partabgarh and Bara Banki. Pop. (1901) 6,855,991, Munich, and executed in 1644. The latest is a “ Dead Snipe an increase of 2% in the decade.


The form of this letter which is familiar to us is an | The felspar is sometimes very clear and fresh, its crystals being invention of the Romans, who had previously converted for the most part short and broad, with rather irregular or the third symbol of the alphabet into a representative rounded outlines. Albite twinning is very frequent, but in these

of a k-sound (see C). Throughout the whole of Roman rocks it is often accompanied by pericline twinning by which the history C remained as the symbol for G in the abbreviations broad or narrow albite plates are cut transversely by many thin, Cand Cn. for the proper names Gaius and Gnaeus. According bright and dark bars as seen in polarized light. Equally to Plutarch (Roman Questions, 54, 59) the symbol for G was characteristic of the gabbros is the alteration of the felspars to invented by Spurius Carvilius Ruga about 293 B.C. This pro- cloudy, semi-opaque masses of saussurite. These are compact, bably means that he was the first person to spell his cognomen tough, devoid of cleavage, and have a waxy lustre and usually a RVGA instead of RVCA. G came to occupy the seventh place greenish-white colour. When this substance can be resolved by in the Roman alphabet which had earlier been taken by 2, the microscope it proves to consist usually of zoisite or epidote, because between 450 B.C. and 350 B.C. the 2-sounds of Latin with garnet and albite, but mixed with it are also chlorite, passed into r, names like Papisius and Fusius in that period amphibole, serpentine, prehnite, sericite and other minerals. becoming Papirius and Furius (sce 2), so that the letter z had The augite is usually brown, but greenish, violet and colourless become superfluous. According to the late writer Martianus varieties may occur. Hypersthene, when present, is often strikCapella z was removed from the alphabet by the censor Appius ingly pleochroic in colours varying from pink to bright green. Claudius Caecus in 312 B.C. To Claudius the insertion of G into It weathers readily to platy-pseudomorphs of bastite which are the alphabet is also sometimes ascribed.

soft and yield low polarization colours, The olivine is colourless In the earliest form the difference from C is very slight, the in itself, but in most cases is altered to green or yellow serpentine, lower lip of the crescent merely rising up in a straight line C, often'with bands of dark magnetite granules along its cleavages but C and G are found also in republican times. In the earliest and cracks. Hornblende when primary is often brown, and may Roman inscription which was found in the Forum in 1899 the surround augite or be perthitically intergrown with it; original form is written from right to left, but the hollow at the bottom green hornblende probably occurs also, though it is more lip of the crescent is an accidental pit in the stone and not a frequently secondary. Dark-brown biotite, although by no diacritical mark. The unvoiced sound in this inscription is means an important constituent of these rocks, occurs in many represented by K. The use of the new form was not firmly of them. Quartz is rare, but is occasionally seen intergrown established till after the middle of the 3rd century B.C.

with felspar as micropegmatite. Among the accessory minerals In the Latin alphabet the sound was always the voiced stop may be mentioned apatite, magnetite, ilmenite, picotite and (as in gig) in classical times. Later, before e, & passed into a garnet. sound like the English y, so that words begin indifferently with A peculiar feature, repeated so constantly in many of the gorj; hence from the Lat. generum (accusative) and Ianuarium minerals of these rocks as to be almost typical of them, is the we have in Ital. genero and Gennajo, Fr. gendre and janvier. occurrence of small black or dark brown enclosures often regularly In the ancient Umbrian dialect g had made this change between arranged parallel to certain crystallographic planes. Reflection vowels before the Christian era, the inhabitant of I guvium (the of light from the surfaces of these minute enclosures produces a modern Gubbio) being in the later form of his native speech shimmering or Schiller. In augite or hypersthene the effect is Iuvins, Lat. Iguvinus. In most cases in Mid. Eng. also & passed that the surface of the mineral has a bronzy sub-metallic appearinto a y sound; hence the old prefix ge of the past participle ance, and polished plates seen at a definite angle yield a bright appears only as y in yclept and the like. But ng and 88 coppery-red reflection, but polished sections of the felspars may took a different course, the g becoming an affricate d? (dzh), as exhibit a brilliant play of colours, as is well seen in the Labrador in singe, ridge, sedge, which in English before 1500 were senge, spar, which is used as an ornamental or semi-precious stone. rigge, segge, and in Scotch are still pronounced sing, ris, seg. Inolivine the black enclosures are not thin laminae, but branching The affricate in words like gaol is of French origin (geole), growths resembling pieces of moss. The phenomenon is known as from a Late Lat. gabiola, out of caveola, a diminutive of the “schillerization "; its origin has been much discussed, some Lat. cadea.

holding that it is secondary, while others regard these enclosures The composite origin of English makes it impossible to lay as original. down rules for the pronunciation of English g; thus there are In many gabbros there is a tendency to a centric arrangement in the language five words Gill, three of which have the g hard, of the minerals, the first crystallized forming nuclei around which while two have it soft: viz. (1) gill of a fish, (2) gill, a ravine, the others grow. Thus magnetite, apatite and picotite, with both of which are Norse, and (3) Gill, the surname, which is olivine, may be enclosed in augite, hornblende, and hypersthene, mostly Gaelic=White; and (4) gill a liquid measure, from sometimes with a later growth of biotite, while the felspars 0. Fr. gelle, Late Lat. gella in the same sense, and (5) Gill, a occupy the interspaces between the clusters of ferromagnesian girl's name, shortened from Gillian, Juliana (see Skeat's Elymo- minerals. In some cases there are borders around olivine con. logical Dictionary). No one of these words is of native origin; sisting of fibrous hornblende or tremolite and rhombic pyroxene otherwise the initial g would have changed to y, as in Eng. (kelyphitic or ocellar structures); spinels and garnet may yell from the 0. Eng. gellan, giellan.

(P. Gr.) occur in this zone, and as it is developed most frequently where GABBRO, in petrology, a group of plutonic basic rocks, olivine is in contact with selspar it may be due to a chemical holocrystalline and usually rather coarse-grained, consisting resorption at a late stage in the solidification of the rock. In essentially of a basic plagioclase felspar and one or more ferro- some gabbros and norites reaction rims of fibrous hornblende magnesian minerals (such as augite, hornblende, hypersthene are found around both hypersthene and diallage where these and olivine). The name was given originally in north Italy to are in contact with felspar. Typical orbicular structure such certain coarsely crystalline dark green rocks, some of which are as characterizes some granites and diorites is rare in the true gabbros, while others are serpentines. The gabbros are the gabbros, though it has been observed in a few instances in plutonic or deep-seated representatives of the dolerites, basalts Norway, California, &c. and diabases (also of some varieties of andesite) with which they agree closely in mineral composition, but not in minute structure. In a very large number of the rocks of this group the plagioclase of their minerals felspar is usually the most abundant, and is felspar has crystallized in large measure before the pyroxene. and is

enveloped by it in ophitic manner exactly as occurs in the diabases. principally labradorite and bytownite, though anorthite occurs

When these rocks become fine-grained they pass gradually into in some, while oligoclase and orthoclase have been found in others. I ophitic diabase and dolerite; only very rarely does olivine enclose



felspar in this way. A Auxion structure or flow banding also.can | (Norway and Sweden) and are sometimes mined as sources of the be observed in some of the rocks of this series, and is characterized | metal. by the occurrence of parallel sinuous bands of dark colour, rich in Chemically the gabbros are typical rocks of the basic subdivision ferromagnesian minerals, and of lighter shades in which selspars and show the characters of that group in the clearest way. They predominate.

have low silica, much iron and magnesia, and the abundance of lime These basic holocrystalline rocks form a large and numerous class distinguishes them in a marked fashion from both the granites and which can be subdivided into many groups according to their mineral the peridotites. A few analyses of well-known gabbros are cited composition; if we take it that typical gabbro consists of plagioclase l here. and augites or diallage, norite of plagioclase and hypersthene, and troctolite of plagioclase and olivine,

SiO, TiO; Ab0. Feo Fe3O. Mgo Cao Na, K,0

H0 we must add to these olivine-gabbro and olivinenorite in which that mineral occurs in addition to

16.18 12.03

49.63 1.75 those enumerated above. Hornblende-gabbros are

1.92 5:38 9:33 1.89 0.81 0.55 II. 49.90

16.04 distinctly rare, except when the hornblende has been


10.08 14:48 1.09 0.55 1.46 III. 45.73

3.51 0.71 developed from pyroxene by pressure and shearing,

11.16 9.26 2.54 0.34

4:38 IV.

46.24 29.85 2.12 1.30 but many rocks may be described as hornblende- or

1.98 2:41 16:24

0.18 biotite-bearing gabbro and norite, when they contain these ingredients in addition to the normal minerals plagioclase, 1. Gabbro, Radanthal, Harzburg: !!. Gabbro, Penig, Saxony: augite and hypersthene. We may recognize also quartz-gabbro III. Troctolite, Coverack, Cornwall; IV. Anorthosite, mouth of the and quartz-norite (containing primary quartz or micropegmatite) Seine river, Bad Vermilion lake, Ontario, Canada. U. S. F.) and orthoclase-gabbro (with a little orthoclase). The name eucrité

GABEL, KRISTOFFER (1617-1673), Danish statesman, was has been given to gabbros in which the felspar is mainly anorthite; many of them also contain hypersthene or enstatite and Olivine, while born at Glückstadt, on the 6th of January 1617. His father, allivalites are anorthite-olivine rocks in which the two minerals Wulbern, originally a landscape painter and subsequently occur in nearly equal proportions; harrisites have preponderating recorder of Glückstadt, was killed at the siege of that fortress olivine, anorthite felspar and a little pyroxene. In areas of gabbro by the Imperialists in 1628. Kristoffer is first heard of in 1639, for example, selspar rocks (anorthosites), augite or hornblende rocks as overseer and accountant at the court of Duke Frederick. (pyroxenites and hornblendites) and olivine rocks (dunites or peri- When the duke ascended the Danish throne as Frederick III., dotites). Segregations of iron ores, such as ilmenite, usually with Gabel followed him to Copenhagen as his private secretary and pyroxene or olivine, occur in association with some gabbro and

man of business. Gabel, who veiled under a mysterious reticence anorthosite masses.

Some gabbros are exceedingly coarse-grained and consist of in considerable financial ability and uncommon shrewdness, had dividual crystals several inches in length such a type often form great influence over the irresolute king. During the brief interval dikes or veins in serpentine or gabbro, and may be called gabbro- between King Charles X.'s first and second attack upon Denmark, pegmatite. Very fine-grained gabbros, on the other hand, have been

Gabel was employed in several secret missions to Sweden; and he distinguished as beerbachites. Still more common is the occurrence of sheared, foliated or schistose forms of gabbro. In these the took a part in the intrigues which resulted in the autocratic minerals have a parallel arrangement, the felspars are often broken revolution of 1660 (see DENMARK: History). His services on down by pressure into a mosaic of irregular grains, while greenish this occasion have certainly been exaggerated; but if not the fibrous or bladed amphibole takes the place of pyroxene and olivine, originator of the revolution, he was certainly the chief interwhich the crushed selspar has flowed (augen-gabbro); or the whole mediary between Frederick III. and the conjoined Estates in rock may have a well-foliated structure (hornblende-schists and the mysterious conspiracy which established absolutism in amphibolites). Very often a mass of normal gabbro with typical Denmark. His activity on this occasion won the king's lifelong igneous character passes at its margins or along localized zones into foliated rocks of this kind, and every transition can be found between gratitude. He wasenriched, ennobled, and in 1664 made governor the different types. Some authors believe that the development of of Copenhagen. From this year must be dated his open and saussurite from selspar is also dependent on pressure rather than on official influence and power, and from 1660 to 1670 he was the weathering, and an analogous change may affect the olivine,

replacing most considerable personage at court, and very largely employed it by talc, chlorite, actinolite and garnet. Rocks showing changes in financial and diplomatic affairs. When Frederick III. died, of the latter type have been described from Switzerland under the name allalinites.

in February 1670, Gabel's power was at an end. The new ruler, Rocks of the gabbro group, though perhaps not so common nor Christian V., hated him, and accusations against him poured in occurring in so great masses as granites, are exceedingly widespread. from every quarter. When, on the 18th of April 1670, he was In Great Britain, for example, there are areas of gabbro in Shetland, dismissed, nobody sympathized with the man who had grown Lizard (Cornwall), Carrock Fell (Cumberland) and St David's wealthy at a time when other people found it hard to live. He (Wales). Most of these occur along with troctolites, norites, ser- died on the 13th of October 1673. pentine and peridotite. In Skye an interesting group of fresh olivine- See Carl Frederik Bricka, Dansk. Biograf. Lex. art “Gabel" gabbros is found in the Cuillin Hills; here also peridotites occur. (Copenhagen, 1887, &c.); Danmarks Riges Historie (Copenhagen, and there are sills and dikes of olivine-dolerite, while a great series 1897–1005), vol. v. of basaltic lavas and ash beds marks the site of volcanic outbursts in early Tertiary time. In this case it is clearly seen that the gabbros

GABELENTZ, HANS CONON VON DER (1807-1874), German are the deep-seated and slowly crystallized representatives of the linguist and ethnologist, born at Altenburg on the 13th of basalts which were poured out at the surfaces, and the dolerites October 1807, was the only son of Hans Karl Leopold von der which consolidated in fissures. The older gabbros of Britain, such Gabelentz, chancellor and privy-councillor of the duchy of or less foliated and show a tendency to pass into hornblende-schists Altenburg. From 1821 to 1825 he attended the gymnasium of and amphibolites. In Germany gabbros are well known in the his native town, where he had Matthiae (the eminent Greek Harz Mountains, Saxony, the Odenwald and the Black Forest. scholar) for teacher, and Hermann Brockhaus and Julius Löbe Many outcrops of similar rocks have been traced in the northern for schoolfellows. Here, in addition to ordinary school-work, zones of the Alps, often with serpentine and hornblende-schist. They occupy considerable tracts of country in Norway and Sweden, he carried on the private study of Arabic and Chinese; and the as for instance in the vicinity of Bergen.' The Pyrenees, Ligurian latter language continued especially to engage his attention Alps, Dauphinéand Tuscany are other European localities for gabbro. during his undergraduate course, from 1825 to 1828, at the In Canada great portions of the eastern portion of the Dominion are universities of Leipzig and Göttingen. In 1830 he entered the the United States gabbros and norites occur near Baltimore and near public service of the duchy of Altenburg, where he attained to the Peekskill on the Hudson river. As a rule each of these occurrences rank of privy-councillor in 1843. Four years later he was chosen contains a diversity of petrographical types, which appear also in certain of the others; but there is often a well-marked individu- and in 1848 he attended the Frankfort parliament, and repre

to fill the post of Landmarschall in the grand-duchy of Weimar, ality about the rocks of the various districts in which gabbros are found.

sented the Saxon duchies on the commission for drafting an From an economic standpoint gabbros are not of great importance. imperialconstitution for Germany, In November of the same year They are used locally for building and for road-metal, but are too he became president of the Altenburg ministry, but he resigned dark in colour, too tough and difficult to dress, to be popular as building stones, and, though occasionally polished, are not to be

office in the following August. From 1851 to 1868 he was compared for beauty with the serpentines and the granites. Segre- president of the second chamber of the duchy of Altenburg; but gations of iron ores are found in connexion with many of them in the latter year he withdrew entirely from public life, that he might give undivided attention to his learned researches. He be applied, long after it had ceased to be a common form as worn died on his estate of Lemnitz, in Saxe-Weimar, on the 3rd of by non-Jews, and to this day in some parts of Europe, e.g. in September 1874.

Poland, it is still worn, while the tendency to wear the frockIn the course of his life he is said to have learned no fewer than

coat very long and loose is a marked characteristic of the race. eighty languages, thirty of which he spoke with fluency and The fact that in the middle ages the Jews were forbidden to elegance. But he was less remarkable for his power of acquisition engage in handicrafts also, no doubt, tended to stereotype a form than for the higher talent which enabled him to turn his know- of dress unfitted for manual labour. The idea of the "gaberdine" ledge to the genuine advancement of linguistic science. Im- being enforced by law upon the Jews as a distinctive garment mediately after quitting the university, he followed up his Chinese is probably due to Shakespeare's use in the Merchant of Venice, researches by a study of the Finno-Ugrian languages, which I. iii. 113. The mark that the Jews were obliged to wear generally resulted in the publication of bis Éléments de la grammaire on the outer garment was the badge. This was first enforced mondchoue in 1832. In 1837 he became one of the promoters, by the fourth Lateran Council of 1215. The “badge" (Lat. and a joint-editor, of the Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgen- rola; Fr. rouelle, wheel) took generally the shape of a circle of landes, and through this medium he gave to the world his cloth worn on the breast. It yaried in colour at different times. Versuch einer mordwinischen Grammatik and other valuable con- In France it was of yellow, later of red and white; in England it tributions. His Grundzüge der syrjänischen Grammatik appeared took the form of two bands or stripes, first of white, then of in 1841. In conjunction with his old school friend, Julius Löbe, yellow. In Edward I.'s reign it was made in the shape of the he brought out a complete edition, with translation, glossary, Tables of the Law (see the Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v.“Costume" and grammar, of Ulfilas's Gothic version of the Bible (1843-1846); and “ Badge"). The derivation of the word is obscure. It and from 1847 he began to contribute to the Zeitschrift der apparently occurs first in 0. Fr. in the forms gauverdine, gal. deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschafl the fruits of his researches vardine, and thence into Ita!. as gavardina, and Span. gabardina, into the languages of the Swahilis, the Samoyedes, the Hazaras, a form which has influenced the English word. The New English the Aimaks, the Formosans and other widely-separated tribes. Dictionary suggests a connexion with the O.H. Ger. wallevarl, The Beiträge zur Sprachenkunde (1852) contain Dyak, akota, pilgrimage. Skeat (Elym. Dici., 1898) refers it to Span. gaban, and Kiriri grammars; to these were added in 1857 a Grammalik coat, cloak; cabaña, hut, cabin. 2.Wörlerbuch der Kassias prache, and in 1860 a treatise in universal GABES, a town of Tunisia, at the head of the gulf of the same grammar (Über das Passivum). In 1864 he edited the Manchu name, and 70 m. by sea S.W. of Sfax. It occupies the site of the translations of the Chinese Sse-shu, Shu-king and Shi-king, Tacape of the Romans and consists of an open port and European along with a dictionary; and in 1873 be completed the work quarter and several small Arab towns built in an oasis of date which constitutes his most important contribution to philology, palms. This oasis is copiously watered by a stream called the Die melanesischen Sprachen nach ihrem grammatischen Bau Wad Gabes. The European quarter is situated on the right bank und ihrer Verwandschaft unler sich und mit den malaiisch-poly of the Wad near its mouth, and adjacent are the Arab towns nesischen Sprachen untersucht (1860-1873) It treats of the of Jara and Menzel. The houses of the native towns are built language of the Fiji Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, largely of dressed stones and broken columns from the ruins New Caledonia, &c., and shows their radical affinity with the of Tacape, Gabes is the military headquarters for southern Polynesian class. He also contributed most of the linguistic Tunisia. The population of the oasis is about 20,000, including articles in Pierer's Conversations-Lexicon.

some 1500 Europeans. There is a considerable export trade in GABELLE (French, from the Med. Lat. gabulum, gablum, dates. a tax, for the origin of which see GAVELKIND), a term which, Gabes lies at the head of the shat country of Tunisia and is in France, was originally applied to taxes on all commodities, intimately connected with the scheme of Commandant Roudaire but was gradually limited to the tax on salt. In process of time to create a Saharan sca by making a channel from the Mediterit became one of the most hated and most grossly unequal ranean to these shats (large salt lakes below the level of the sea). taxes in the country, but, though condemned by all supporters Roudaire proposed to cut a canal through the belt of high ground of reform, it was not abolished until 1790. First imposed in 1286, between Gabes and the shats, and fixed on Wad Melah, a spot in the reign of Philip IV., as a temporary expedient, it was made 10 m. N. of Gabes, for the sea end of the channel (see Sahara). a permanent tax by Charles V. Repressive as a state monopoly, The company formed to execute his project became simply an it was.made doubly so from the fact ihat the government obliged agricultural concern and by the sinking of artesian wells created every individual above the age of eight years to purchase weeklya an oasis of olive and palm trees. minimum amount of salt at a fixed price. When first instituted, The Gulf of Gabes, the Syrlis Minor of the ancients, is a semiit was levied uniformly on all the provinces in France, but for the circular shallow indentation of the Mediterranean, about 50 m. greater part of its history the price varied in different provinces across from the Kerkenna Islands, opposite Sfax on its northern There were five distinct groups of provinces, classified as follows: shore, to Jerba Island, which lies at its southern end. The (c) the Pays de grandes gobelles, in which the tax was heaviest; waters of the gulf abound in fish and sponge. (6) the Pays de petiles gabelles, which paid a tax of about half GABII, an ancient city of Latium, between 12 and 13 m. E. of the rate of the former; (c) the Pays de salines, in which the tax Rome, on the Via Praenestina, which was in early times known was levied on the salt extracted from the salt marshes; (d) the as the Via Gabina. The part played by it in the story of the Pays rédimes, which had purchased redemption in 1549; and expulsion of the Tarquins is well known; but its importance (e) the Pays exempls, which had stipulated for exemption on in the earliest history of Rome rests upon other evidence-the entering into union with the kingdom of France. Greniers continuance of certain ancient usages which imply a period of à sel (dating from 1342) were established in each province, and to hostility between the two cities, such as the adoption of the these all salt had to be taken by the producer on penalty of cinctus Gabinus by the consul when war was to be declared. confiscation. The grenier fixed the price which it paid for the We hear of a treaty of alliance with Rome in the time of Tarsalt and then sold it to retail dealers at a higher rate.

quinius Superbus, the original text of which, written on a bullock's See J. J. Clamagéran, Histoire de l'impôt en France (1876); A. skin, was said by Dionysius of Halicarnassus to be still extant Gasquet, Précis des instilutions politiques de l'ancienne France (1885); in his day. Its subsequent history is obscure, and we only hear Necker, Comple rendu (1781).

of it again in the 1st century B.C. as a small and insignificant GABERDINE, or GABARDINE, any long, loose over-garment, place, though its desolation is no doubt exaggerated by the poets. reaching to the feet and girt round the waist. It was, when made From inscriptions we learn that from the time of Augustus or of coarse material,commonly worn in the middle ages by pilgrims, Tiberius onwards it enjoyed a municipal organization. Its baths beggars and almsmen. The Jews, conservatively attached to were well known, and Hadrian, who was responsible for much of the loose and flowing garments of the East, continued to wear the renewed prosperity of the small towns of Latium, appears to the long upper garment to which the name "gaberdine "could have been a very liberal patron, building a senate-house (Curia

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