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Aelia Augusta) and an aqueduct. After the 3rd century Gabii | was consequently dropped; Gabinius went into exile, and his práctically disappears from history, though its bishops continue to property was confiscated. After the outbreak of the civil war, be mentioned in ecclesiastical documents till the close of the 9th. he was recalled by Caesar in 49, and entered his service, but took The primitive city occupied the eastern bank of the lake, the no active part against his old patron Pompey. After the battle citadel being now marked by the ruins of the medieval fortress of of Pharsalus, he was commissioned to transport some recently Castiglione, while the Roman town extended farther to the south. levied troops to Illyricum. On his way thither by land, he was The most conspicuous relic of the latter is a ruined temple, attacked by the Dalmatians and with difficulty made his way generally attributed to Juno, which had six columns in the front to Salonae (Dalmatia). Here he bravely defended himself and six on each side. The plan is interesting, but the style of against the attacks of the Pompeian commander, Marcus architecture was apparently mixed. To the east of the temple Octavius, but in a few months died of illness (48 or the belay the Forum, where excavations were made by Gavin Hamilton ginning of 47). in 1792. All the objects found were placed in the Villa Borghese, See Dio Cassius xxxvi. 23-36, xxxviii. 13. 30, xxxix. 55-63; but many of them were carried off to Paris by Napoleon, and Plutarch, Pompey, 25: 48; Josephus, Antiq. xiv. 4-6; Appian; still remain in the Louvre. The statues and busts are especially ii. 13, Posi reditum in senatu, 4-8, Pro lege Monilia, 17, 18, 19; numerous and interesting; besides the deities Venus, Diana, exhaustive article by Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Nemesis, &c., they comprise Agrippa, Tiberius, Germanicus, Encyclopädie; and monograph by G. Stocchi, Aulo Gabinio e i suoi Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Trajan and Plotina, Hadrian and processi (1892). Sabina, M. Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Geta, Gordianus Pius GABION (a French word derived through Ital. gabbione, and others. The inscriptions relate mainly to local and municipal gabbia, from Lat. cavea, a cage), a cylindrical basket without matters.

top or bottom, used in revetting fortifications and for numerous See E. Q. Visconti, Monumenti Gabini della Villa Pinciana other purposes of military engineering. The gabion is filled (Rome, 1797, and Milan, 1835); T. Ashby in Papers of the British with

earth when in position. The ordinary brushwood gabion in School ai Rome, i. 180 seq.; G. Pinza in Bull. Com. (1903), the British service has a diameter of 2 ft. and a height of 2ft.gin. 321 seq.

(T. As.)

There are several forms of gabion in use, the best known being GABINIUS, AULUS, Roman statesman and general, and the Willesden paper band gabion and the Jones iron or steel supporter of Pompey, a prominent figure in the later days of the band gabion. Roman republic. In 67 B.C., when tribune of the people, he GABLE, in architecture, the upper portion of a wall from the brought forward the famous law (Lex Gabinia) conferring upon level of the eaves or gutter to the ridge of the roof. The word is Pompey the command in the war against the Mediterranean a southern English form of the Scottish gävel, or of an O. Fr. pirates, with extensive powers which gave him absolute control word gable or jable, both ultimately derived from 0. Norwegian over that sea and the coasts for 50 m. inland. By two other gafl

. In other Teutonic languages, similar words, such as measures of Gabinius loans of money to foreign ambassadors Ger. Gabel and Dutch gaffel, mean “ fork,” cf. Lat. gabalus, in Rome were made non actionable (as a check on the corruption gallows, which is Teutonic in origin; “gable” is represented of the senate) and the senate was ordered to give audience to by such forms as Ger. Giebel and Dutch gevel. According to the foreign envoys on certain fixed days (ist of Feb.-ist of March). New English Dictionary the primary meaning of all these words In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public is probably " top” or “ head,” cf. Gr. Kepalń, and refers to the favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, forking timbers at the end of a roof. The gable corresponds to and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion the pediment in classic buildings where the roof was of low pitch. of bribery. During his term of office he aided Publius Clodius If the roof is carried across on the top of the wall so that the in bringing about the exile of Cicero. In 57 Gabinius went purlins project beyond its face, they are masked or hidden by a as proconsul to Syria. On his arrival he reinstated Hyrcanus barge board,” but as a rule the roof butts up against the back of in the high-priesthood at Jerusalem, suppressed revolts, intro- the wall which is raised so as to form a parapet. In the middle duced important changes in the government of Judaea, and ages the gable end was invariably parallel to the roof and was rebuilt several towns. During his absence in Egypt, whither he crowned by coping stones properly weathered on both sides to bad been sent by Pompey, without the consent of the senate, throw off the rain. In the 16th century in England variety was to restore Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, Syria had been given to the outline of the gable by a series of alternating semidevastated by robbers, and Alexander, son of Aristobulus, had circular and ogee curves. In Holland, Belgium and Scotland a again taken up arms with the object of depriving Hyrcanus of the succession of steps was employed, which in the latter country are high-priesthood. With some difficulty Gabinius restored order, known as crow gables or corbie steps. In Germany and the and in 54 handed over the province to his successor, M. Licinius Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries the step gables Crassus. The knights, who as farmers of the taxes had suffered assume very elaborate forms of an extremely rococo character, heavy losses during the disturbances in Syria, were greatly and they are sometimes of immense size, with windows in two or embittered against Gabinius, and, when he appeared in the senate three storeys. Designs of a similar rococo character are found in to give an account of his governorship, he was brought to trial England, but only in crestings such as those which surmount the on three counts, all involving a capital offence. On the charge towers of Wollaton and the gatehouse of Hardwick Hall. of majestas (high treason) incurred by having left his province for Gabled Towers, in architecture, are those towers which are Egypt without the consent of the senate and in defiance of the finished with gables instead of parapets, as at Sompting, Sussex. Sibylline books, he was acquitted; it is said that the judges were Many of the German Romanesque towers are gabled. bribed, and even Cicero, who had recently attacked Gabinius GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS (1786-1853), German Hegelian with the utmost virulence, was persuaded by Pompey to say as philosopher, son of J. P. Gabler (below), was born on the 30th little as he could in his evidence to damage his former enemy. of July 1786, at Altdorf in Bavaria. In 1804 he accompanied On the second charge, that of repetundae (extortion during the his father to Jena, where he completed his studies in philosophy administration of his province), with especial reference to the and law, and became an enthusiastic disciple of Hegel. After 10,000 talents paid by Ptolemy for his restoration, he was found holding various educational appointments, he was in 1821 guilty, in spite of evidence offered on his behalf by Pompey and appointed rector of the Bayreuth gymnasium, and in 1830 witnesses from Alexandria and the eloquence of Cicero, who had general superintendent of schools. In 1835 he succeeded Hegel been induced to plead his cause. Nothing but Cicero's wish to in the Berlin chair. He died at Teplitz on the 13th of September do a favour to Pompey could have induced him to take up what 1853. His works include Lehrbuch d. philos. Propädeutik (1st must have been a distasteful task; indeed, it is hinted that the vol., Erlangen, 1827), a popular exposition of the Hegelian half-heartedness of the defence materially contributed to system; De verae philosophiae erga religionem Christianam pietate Gabinius's condemnation. The third charge, that of ambilus (Berlin, 1836), and Die Hegel'sche Philosophie (ib., 1843), a (illegalities committed during his canvass for the consulship), 1 defence of the Hegelian philosophy against Trendelenburg.

GABLER, JOHANN PHILIPP (1753-1826), German Protestant | Koran great prominence is given to his function as the medium theologian of the school of J. J. Griesbach and J. G. Eichhorn, of divine revelation, and, according to the Mahommedan interwas born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 4th of June 1753. In preters, he it is who is referred to by the appellations “ Holy 1772 he entered the university of Jena as a theological student. Spirit" and "Spirit of Truth.” He is specially commemorated In 1776 he was on the point of abandoning theological pursuits, in the calendars of the Greek, Coptic and Armenian churches. when the arrival of Griesbach inspired him with new ardour. GABRIEL HOUNDS, a spectral pack supposed in the North of After having been successively Repetent in Göttingen and teacher England to foretell death by their yelping at night. The legend in the public schools of Dortmund (Westphalia) and Altdorf is that they are the souls of unbaptized children wandering (Bavaria), he was, in 1785; appointed second professor of theology through the air till the day of judgment. They are also somein the university of Altdorf, whence he was translated to a chair times called Gabriel or Gabble Ratchet. A very prosaic exin Jena in 1804, where he succeeded Griesbach in 1812. Here he planation of this nocturnal noise is given by J. C. Atkinson in died on the 17th of February 1826. At Altdorf Gabler published his Cleveland Glossary (1868). “This,” he writes, “is the name (1791-1793) a new edition, with introduction and notes, of for a yelping sound heard at night, more or less resembling Eichhorn's Urgeschichte; this was followed, two years afterwards, the cry of hounds or yelping of dogs, probably due to large by a supplement entitled Neuer Versuch über die mosaische flocks of wild geese which chance to be flying by night.” Schöpfungsgeschichte. He was also the author of many essays See further Joseph Lucas, Studies in Nidderdale (1882), pp. which were characterized by much critical acumen, and which had 156-157. considerable influence on the course of German thought on

GABRIELI, GIOVANNI (1557-1612?), Italian musical comtheological and Biblical questions. From 1798 to 1800 he was

poser, was born at Venice in 1557, and was a pupil of his uncle editor of the Neuestes theologisches Journal, first conjointly with Andrea, a distinguished musician of the contrapuntal school H. K. A. Hänlein (1762-1829), C. F. von 'Ammon (1766-1850) and organist of St Mark's. He succeeded Claudio Merulo as and H. E. G. Paulus, and afterwards unassisted; from 1801 to

first organist of the same church in 1585, and died at Venice 1504 of the Journal für theologische Litteratur; and from 1805 for several choirs, writing frequently for 12 or 16 voices, and is

either in 1612 or 1613. He was remarkable for his compositions to 1811 of the Journal für auserlesene theologische Litteratur.

Some of his essays were published by his sons (2 vols., 1831); and important as an early experimenter in chromatic harmony. a memoir appeared in 1827 by W. Schröter.

It was probably for this reason that he made a special point of GABLETS (diminutive of “gable"), in architecture, triangular combining voices with instruments, being thusone of the founders terminations to buttresses, much in use in the Early English of choral and orchestral composition. Among his pupils was and Decorated periods, after which the buttresses generally Heinrich Schütz; and the church of St Mark, from the time of terminated in pinnacles. The Early English gablets are generally the Gabrielis onwards down to that of Lotti, became one of the plain, and very sharp in pitch. In the Decorated period they most important musical schools in Europe. are often enriched with panelling and crockets. They are

See also Winterfeld, Johann Gabrieli und seine Zeit (1834). sometimes finished with small crosses, but oftener with finials.

GABUN, a district on the west coast of Africa, one of the GABLONZ (Czech, Jablonec), a town of Bohemia, Austria, colonies forming French Congo (9:0.). It derives its designation 94 m. N. E. of Prague by rail

. Pop. (1900) 21,086, mostly from the settlements on the Gabun river or Rio de Gabão. The German. It is the chief seat of the glass pearl and imitation Gabun, in reality an estuary of the sea, lies immediately north of jewelry manufacture, and has also an important textile industry, the equator. At the entrance, between Cape Joinville or Santa and produces large quantities of hardware, papier mâché and Clara on the N. and Cape Pangara or Sandy Point on the S., it other paper goods.

has a width of about 10 m. It maintains a breadth of some 7 m. GABORIAU, ÉMILE (1833-1873), French novelist, was born

for a distance of 40 m. inland, when it contracts into what is at Saujon (Charente Inférieure) on the 9th of November 1833. known as the Rio Olambo, which is not more than 2 or 3 m. He became secretary to Paul Féval, and, after publishing some

from bank to bank. Several rivers, of which the Komo is novels and miscellaneous writings, found his real gift in L'Affaire the chief, discharge their waters into the estuary. The Gabun Lerouge (1866), a detective novel which was published in the

was discovered by Portuguese navigators towards the close of the Pays and at once made his reputation. The story was produced 15th century, and was named from its fanciful resemblance to a on the stage in 1872. A long series of novels dealing with the sabão or cabin. On the small island of Koniké, which lies about annals of the police court followed, and proved very popular. the centre of the estuary, scanty remains of a Portuguese fort have Among them are: Le Crime d'Orcival (1867), Monsieur Lecoq been discovered. The three principal tribes in the Gabun are the (1869), La Vie infernale (1870), Les Esclaves de Paris (1869), Mpongwe, the Fang and the Bakalai. L'Argent des autres (1874). Gaboriau died in Paris on the 28th

GACE BRULÉ (d. C. 1220), French trouvère, was a native of of September 1873.

Champagne. It has generally been asserted that he taught GABRIEL (Heb. bxana, man of God), in the Bible, the Thibaut of Champagne the art of verse, an assumption which is heavenly messenger (see ANGEL) sent to Daniel to explain the based on a statement in the Chroniques de Saint-Denis: “Si vision of the ram and the he-goat, and to communicate the pre

fist entre lui (Thibaut) et Gace Brulé les plus belles chançons et diction of the Seventy Weeks (Dan. viii. 16, ix. 21). He was also les plus délitables et melodieuses qui onque fussent oïes.” This employed to announce the birth of John the Baptist to Zacharias, has been taken as evidence of collaboration between the two and that of the Messiah to the Virgin Mary (Luke i. 19, 26). poets. The passage will bear the interpretation that with those Because he stood in the divine presence (sce Luke i. 19; Rev. of Gace the songs of Thibaut were the best bitherto known. viii. 2; and cf. Tobit xii. 15), both Jewish and Christian writers Paulin Paris, in the Histoire littéraire de la France (vol. xxiii.), generally speak of him as an archangel. In the Book of Enoch quotes a number of facts that fix an earlier date for Gace's songs. “the four great archangels” are Michael, Uriel, Suriel or Raphael, Gace is the author of the earliest known jeu parti. The interand Gabriel, who is set over“ all the powers” and shares the locutors are Gace and a count of Brittany who is identified with work of intercession. His name frequently occurs in the Jewish Geoffrey of Brittany, son of Henry II. of England. Gace appears literature of the later post-Biblical period. Thus, according to

to have been banished from Champagne and to have found the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, he was the man who showed the refuge in Brittany. A deed dated 1212 attests a contract between way to Joseph (Gen. xxxvii. 15); and in Deut. xxxiv. 6 it is Gatho Bruslé (Gace Brulé) and the Templars for a piece of land affirmed that he, along with Michael, Uriel, Jophiel, Jephephiah in Dreux. It seems most probable that Gace died before 1220, at and the Metatron, buried the body of Moses. In the Targum on

the latest in 1225. 2 Chron. xxxi. 21 he is named as the angel who destroyed the

See Gédéon Busken Huet, Chansons de Gace Brulé, edited for the host of Sennacherib; and in similar writings of a still later period duction. Dante quotes a song by Gace, Tre d'amor qui en mon cuer

Société des anciens textes français (1902), with an exhaustive introhe is spoken of as the spirit who presides over fire, thunder, the repaire, which he attributes erroneously to Thibaut of Navarre ripening of the fruits of the earth and similar processes. In the I (De vulgari eloquentia, p. 151, ed. P. Rajna, Florence, 1895).

GACHARD, LOUIS PROSPER (1800-1885), Belgian man of Jeroboam in the great revolt against the house of David, and its letters, was born in Paris on the 12th of March 1800. He entered later fortunes until 734 B.C. (1 Chron. v. 26) would be those of the administration of the royal archives in 1826, and was ap- the northern kingdom. pointed director-general, a post which he held for fifty-five years. See, for a critical discussion of the data, H. W. Hogg, Ency. Bib. During this long period he reorganized the service, added to the cols. 1579 sqq.; also GILEAD; MANASSEH: REUBEN. records by copies taken in other European collections, travelled GADAG, or GARAG, a town of British India, in the Dharwar for purposes of study, and carried on a wide correspondence district of Bombay, 43 m. E. of Dharwar town.' Pop. (1901) with other keepers of records, and with historical scholars. He 30,652. It is an important railway junction on the Southern also edited and published many valuable collections of state Mahratta system, with a growing trade in raw cotton, and also papers; a full list of his various publications was printed in the in the weaving of cotton and silk. There are factories for Annuaire de l'académie royale de Belgique by Ch. Piot in 1888, ginning and pressing cotton, and a spinning mill. The town pp. 220-236. It includes 246 entries. He was the author of contains remains of a number of temples, some of which exhibit several bistorical writings, of which the best known are Don fine carving, while inscriptions in them indicate the existence Carlos el Philippe II (1867), Études et notices historiques con- of Gadag as early as the roth century, cernant l'histoire des Pays-Bas (1863), Histoire de la Belgique GADARA, an ancient town of the Syrian Decapolis, the capital au commencement du XVIII° siècle (1880), Histoire politique et of Peraea, and the political centre of the small district of Gadaris. diplomatique de P. P. Rubens (1877), all published at Brussels. It was a Greek city, probably entirely non-Syrian in origin. His chief editorial works are the Actes des états généraux des The earliest recorded event in its history is its capture by Pays-Bas 1576-1585 (Brussels, 1861–1866), Collection de docu- Antiochus III. of Syria in 218 B.C.; how long it may have menis inédits concernant l'histoire de la Belgique (Brussels, 1833- existed before this date is unknown. About twenty years later 1835), and the Relations des ambassadeurs Vénitiens sur Charles it was besieged for ten months by Alexander Jannaeus. It was V et Philippe II (Brussels, 1855). Gachard died in Brussels restored by Pompey, and in 30 B.C. was presented by Augustus on the 24th of December 1885.

to Herod the Great; on Herod's death it was reunited to Syria. GAD, in the Bible. 1. A prophet or rather a "seer" (cp. The coins of the place bear Greek legends, and such inscriptions 1 Sam. ix. 9), who was a companion of David from his early days. as have been found on its site are Greek. Its governing and He is first mentioned in 1 Sam. xxii. 5 as having warned David wealthy classes were probably Greek, the common people being to take refuge in Judah, and appears again in 2 Sam. xxiv. 11 seq. Hellenized and Judaized Aramaeans. The community was to make known Yahweh's displeasure at the numbering of the Hellenistically organized, and though dependent on Syria and people. Together with Nathan he is represented in post-exilic acknowledging the supremacy of Rome it was governed by a tradition as assisting to organize the musical service of the temple democratic senate and managed its own iniernal affairs. In the (2 Chron. xxix. 25), and like Nathan and Samuel he is said to have Jewish war it surrendered to Vespasian, but in the Byzantine written an account of David's deeds (1 Chron. xxix. 29); a period it again flourished and was the seat of a bishop. It was history of David in accordance with later tradition and upon the renowned for its hot sulphur baths; the springs still exist and lines of later prophetic ideas is far from improbable.

show the remains of bath-houses. . The temperature of the 2. Son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's maid; a tribe of Israel springs is 110° F. This town was the birthplace of Meleager the (Gen. xxx. 11). The name is that of the god of “luck” or anthologist. There is a confusion in the narrative of the healing fortune, mentioned in Isa. Ixv. II (R.V. mg.), and in several of the demoniac between the very similar names Gadara, Gerasa names of places, e.g. Baal-Gad (Josh. xi. 17, xii. 7), and and Gergesa; but the probabilities, both textual and geographical, possibly also in Dibon-Gad, Migdol-Gad and Nahal-Gad.' are in favour of the reading of Mark (Gerasenes, ch. v. 1, revised There is another etymology in Gen. xlix. 19, where the name version); and that the miracle has nothing to do with Gadara, is played on: "Gad, a plundering troop (sedad)shall plunder him but took place at Kersa, on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee. (yegudennu), but he shall plunder at their heels." There are no Gadara is now represented by Umm Kais, a group of ruins traditions of the personal history of Gad. One of the earliest about 6 m. S.E. of the Sea of Galilee, and 1194 ft. above the references to the name is the statement on the inscription of sea-level. There are very fine tombs with carved sarcophagi in Mesha, king of Moab (about 850 B.c.), that the men of Gad” the neighbourhood. There are the remains of two theatres and had occupied Ataroth (E. of Dead Sea) from of old, and that the (probably) a temple, and many heaps of carved stones, representking of Israel had fortified the city. This is in the district ing ancient buildings of various kinds. The walls are, or were, ascribed to Reuben, with which tribe the fortunes of Gad were traceable for a circuit of 2 m., and there are also the remains of very closely connected. In Numbers xxxii. 34 sqq. the citics a street of columns. The natives are rapidly destroying the ruins of Gad appear to lie chiefly to the south of Heshbon; in Joshua by quarrying building material out of them. (R. A. S. M.) xiii. 24-28 they lie almost wholly to the north; while other texts GADDI. Four painters of the early Florentine school-father, present discrepancies which are not easily reconciled with either son and two grandsons-bore this name. passage. Possibly some cities were common to both Reuben and 1. GADDO GADDI was, according to Vasari, an intimate friend Gad, and perhaps others more than once changed hands. That of Cimabue, and afterwards of Giotto. The dates of birth and Gad, at one time at least, held territory as far south as Pisgah death have been given as 1239 and about 1312; these are probably and Nebo would follow from Deut. xxxiii. 21, if the rendering of too early; he may have been born towards 1260, and may have the Targums be accepted, “ and he looked out the first part for died in or about 1333. He was a painter and mosaicist, is said himself, because there was the portion of the buried law-giver.” to have executed the great mosaic inside the portal of the It is certain, however, that, at a late period, this tribe was localized cathedral of Florence, representing the coronation of the Virgin, chiefly in Gilead, in the district which now goes by the name of and may with more certainty be credited with the mosaics inside Jebel Jil'ād. The traditions encircling this district point, it the portico of the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, relating to would seem, to the tribe having been of Aramaean origin (see the the legend of the foundation of that church; their date is probably story of Jacob); at all events its position was extremely exposed, 1308. In the original cathedral of St Peter in Rome he also and its population at the best must have been a mixed one. executed the mosaics of the choir, and those of the front repreIts richness and fertility made it a prey to the marauding nomads senting on a colossal scale God the Father, with many other of the desert; but the allusion in the Blessing of Jacob gives the figures; likewise an altarpiece in the church of S. Maria Novella, tribe a character for bravery, and David's men of Gad (1 Chron. Florence; these works no longer exist. It is ordinarily held that xii. 8) were famous in tradition. Although rarely mentioned by no picture (as distinct from mosaics) by Gaddo Gaddi is now name (the geographical term Gilead is usual), the history of Gad extant. Messrs Crowe & Cavalcaselle, however, consider that enters into the lives of Jephthah and Saul, and in the wars of the mosaics of S. Maria Maggiore bear so strong a resemblance Ammon and Moab it must have played some part. It followed in style to four of the frescoes in the upper church of Assisi,

See G. B. Gray, Heb. Proper Names, pp. 134 seq., 145. representing incidents in the life of St Francis (frescoes 2, 3, 4 and especially s, which shows Francis stripping himself, and with the emperor Heraclius carrying the Cross as he enters protected by the bishop), that those frescoes likewise may, with Jerusalem; in this picture is a portrait of the painter himself. considerable confidence, be ascribed to Gaddi. Some other extant Agnolo composed his subjects better than Taddeo; he had more mosaics are attributed to him, but without full authentication. dignity and individuality in the figures, and was a clear and bold This artist laid the foundation of a very large fortune, which colourist; the general effect is laudably decorative, but the continued increasing, and placed his progeny in a highly distin- drawing is poor, and the works show best from a distance. guished worldly position.

Various other productions of this master exist, and many have 2. TADDEO GADDI (about 1300-1366, or later), son of Gaddo, perished. Cennino Cennini, the author of the celebrated treatise was born in Florence, and is usually said to have been one of on painting, was one of his pupils. Giotto's most industrious assistants for a period of 24 years. 4. GIOVANNI Gaddi, brother of Agnolo, was also a painter of This can hardly be other than an exaggeration; it is probable. nise. He died young in 1383. that he began painting on his own account towards 1330, when Vasari, and Crowe and Cavelcaselle can be consulted as Giotto went to Naples. Taddeo also traded as a merchant, and to the Gaddi. Other notices appear here and there such as had a branch establishment in Venice. He was a painter, La Cappella de' Rinuccini in S. Croce di Firenze, by G. Ajazzi mosaicist and architect. He executed in fresco, in the Baroncelli (1845).

(W.M. R.) (now Giugni) chapel, in the Florentine church of S. Croce, the GADE, NIELS WILHELM (1817–1890), Danish composer, Virgin and Child between Four Prophets," on the funeral was born at Copenhagen, on the 22nd of February 1817, his father monument at the entrance, and on the walls various incidents in being a musical instrument maker. He was intended for his the legend of the Virgin, from the expulsion of Joachim from the father's trade, but his passion for a musician's career, made Temple up to the Nativity. In the subject of the “Presentation evident by the ease and skill with which he learnt to play upon of the Virgin in the Temple " are the two heads traditionally a number of instruments, was not to be denied. Though he accepted as portraits of Gaddo Gaddi and Andrea Tafi; they, at became proficient on the violin under Wexschall, and in the any rate, are not likely to be portraits of those artists from the elements of theory under Weyse and Berggreen, he was to a great life. On the ceiling of the same chapel are the " Eight Virtues." extent self-taught. His opportunities of hearing and playing in In the museum of Berlin is an altarpiece by Taddeo, the “ Virgin the great masterpieces were many, since he was a member of the and Child," and some other subjects, dated 1334; in the Naples court band. In 1840 his Aladdin and his overture of Ossian gallery, a triptych, dated 1336, of the “ Virgin enthroned along attracted attention, and in 1841 his Nachklänge aus Ossian with Four Saints," the “ Baptism of Jesus," and his " Deposition overture gained the local musical society's prize, the judges from the Cross "'; in the sacristy of S. Pietro a Megognano, near being Spohr and Schneider. This work also attracted the notice Poggibonsi, an altarpiece dated 1355, the “Virgin and Child of the king, who gave the composer a stipend which cnabled him enthroned amid Angels." A series of paintings, partly from the to go to Leipzig and Italy. In 1844 Gade conducted the Gewandlife of St Francis, which Taddeo executed for the presses in S. haus concerts in Leipzig during Mendelssohn's absence, and on Croce, are now divided between the Florentine Academy and the the latter's death became chief conductor. In 1848, on the Berlin Museum; the compositions are taken from or founded outbreak of the Holstein War, he returned to Copenhagen, where on Giotto, to whom, indeed, the Berlin authorities have ascribed he was appointed organist and conductor of the Musik-Verein. their examples. Taddeo also painted some frescoes still extant In 1852 he married a daughter of the composer J. P. E. Hartmann. in Pisa, besides many in S. Croce and other Florentine buildings, He became court conductor in 1861, and was pensioned by the which have perished. He deservedly ranks as one of the most government in 1876—the year in which he visited Birmingham eminent successors of Giotto; it may be said that he continued to conduct his Crusaders. This work, and the Frühlingsfantasie, working up the material furnished by that great painter, with the Erlkönigs Tochter, Frühlingsbotschaft and Psyche (written for comparatively feeble inspiration of his own. His figures are Birmingham in 1882) have enjoyed a wide popularity. Indeed, vehement in action, long and slender in form; his execution they represent the strength and the weakness of Gade's musical rapid and somewhat conventional. To Taddeo are generally ability quite as well as any of his eight symphonies (the best of ascribed the celebrated frescoes—those of the ceiling and left which are the first and fourth, while the fifth has an obbligato or western wall--in the Cappella degli Spagnuoli, in the church pianoforte part). Gade was distinctly a romanticist, but his of S. Maria Novella, Florence; this is, however, open to con- music is highly polished and beautifully finished, lyrical rather siderable doubt, although it may perhaps be conceded that the than dramatic and effective. Much of the pianoforte music, designs for the ceiling were furnished by Taddeo. Dubious also Aquarellen, Spring Flowers, for instance, enjoyed a considerable are the three pictures ascribed to him in the National Gallery, vogue, as did the Novelletten trio; but Gade's opera Mariolla London. In mosaic he has left some work in the baptistery of has not been heard outside the Copenhagen opera house. He Florence. As an architect he supplied in 1336 the plans for the died at Copenhagen on the 21st of December 1890. present Ponte Vecchio, and those for the original (not the present) GADOLINIUM (symbol Gd., atomic weight 157•3), one of the Ponte S. Trinita; in 1337 he was engaged on the church of rare earth metals (see ERBIUM). The element was discovered Or San Michele; and he carried on after Giotto's death the work in 1880 in the mineral samarskite by C. Marignac (Comples of the unrivalled Campanile.

rendus, 1880, 90, p. 899; Ann. chim. Phys., 1880 (5) 20, p. 535). 3. Agnolo GADDI, born in Florence, was the son of Taddeo; G. Urbain (Comptes rendus, 1905, 140, P: 583) separates the the date of his birth has been given as. 1326, but possibly 1350 metal by crystallizing the double nitrate of nickel and gadolinium. is nearer the mark. He was a painter and mosarcist, trained by The salts show absorption bands in the ultra-violet. The oxide his father, and a merchant as well; in middle age he settled down Gd,O3 is colourless (Lecoq de Boisbaudran). to commercial life in Venice, and he added greatly to the family GADSDEN, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805), American patriot, wealth. He died in Florence in October 1396. His paintings was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1724. His father, show much early promise, hardly sustained as he advanced Thomas Gadsden, was for a time the king's collector for the in life. One of the earliest, at S. Jacopo tra' Fossi, Florence, port of Charleston. Christopher went to school near Bristol, in represents the “ Resurrection of Lazarus." Another probably England, returned to America in 1741, was afterwards employed youthsul performance is the series of frescoes of the Pieve di in a counting house in Philadelphia, and became a merchant and Prato-legends of the Virgin and of her Sacred Girdle, bestowed planter at Charleston. In 1759 he was captain of an artillery upon St Thomas, and brought to Prato in the 11th century by company in an expedition against the Cherokees. He was a Michele dei Dagomari; the “Marriage of Mary" is one of the member of the South Carolina legislature almost continuously best of this series, the later compositions in which have suffered from 1760 to 1780, and represented his province in the Stamp much by renewals. In S. Croce he painted, in eight frescoes, Act Congress of 1765 and in the Continental Congress in 1774the legend of the Cross, beginning with the archangel Michael 1776. In February 1776 he was placed in command of all the giving Seth a branch from the tree of knowledge, and ending military forces of South Carolina, and in October of the same year was commissioned a brigadier-general and was taken into | 1852), was Protestant Episcopal bishop of South Carolina in The Continental service; but on account of a dispute arising out | 1839–1852. of a conflict between state and Federal authority.resigned his GADWALL, a word of obscure origin, the common English command in 1777. He was lieutenant-governor of his state in name of the duck, called by Linnaeus Anos, strepeta, but con1780, when Charleston was surrendered to the British. For about sidered by many modern ornithologists to require removal from three months following this event he was held as a prisoner on the genus Anas to that of Chaulelasmus or Clenorkynchus, of parole within the limits of Charleston; then, because of his either of which it is almost the sole species. Its geographical influence in deterring others from exchanging their paroles for distribution is almost identical with that of the common wild duck the privileges of British subjects, he was seized, taken to St or mallard (see DUCK), since it is found over the greater part of Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would not give another the northern hemisphere; but, save in India, where it is one of parole to those who had violated the former agreement affecting the most abundant species of duck during the cold weather, it is him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon. In hardly anywhere so numerous, and both in the eastern parts of 1782 Gadsden was again elected a member of his state legislature; the United States and in the British Islands it is rather rare than he was also elected governor, but declined to serve on the ground otherwise. Its habits also, so far as they have been observed, that he was too old and infirm; in 1788 he was a member of the greatly resemble those of the wild duck; but its appearance convention which ratified for South Carolina the Federal con- on the water is very different, its small head, ilat back, elongated stitution; and in 1790 he was a member of the convention which form and elevated stern rendering it recognizable by the fowler framed the new state constitution. He died in Charleston on the even at such a distance as hinders him from seeing its very 28th of August 1805. From the time that Governor Thomas distinct plumage. In coloration the two sexes appear almost Boone, in 1762, pronounced his election to the legislature equally sombre; but on closer inspection the drake exhibits a improper, and dissolved the House in consequence, Gadsden was pencilled grey coloration and upper wing-coverts of a deep hostile to the British administration. He was an ardent leader chestnut, which are almost wanting in his soberly dad partner. of the opposition to the Stamp Act, advocating even then a She closely resembles the female of the mallard in colour, but has, separation of the colonies from the mother country; and in like her own male, some of the secondary quills of a pure white, the Continental Congress of 1774 he discussed the situation on presenting a patch of that colour which forms one of the most the basis of inalienable rights and liberties, and urged an im- readily perceived distinctive characters of the species. The mediate attack on General Thomas Gage, that he might be gadwall is a bird of some interest in England, since it is one of the defeated before receiving reinforcements.

few that have been induced, by the protection afforded them in GADSDEN, JAMES (1788–1858), American soldier and diplo- certain localities, to resume the indigenous position they once mat, was born at Charleston, S.C., on the 15th of May 1788, the filled, but had, through the draining and reclaiming of marshy grandson of Christopher Gadsden. Hegraduated at Yale in 1806, lands, long since abandoned. In regard to the present species, became a merchant in his native city, and in the war of 1812 this fact was due to the efforts of Andrew Fountaine, on whose served in the regular U.S. Army as a lieutenant of engineers. property, in West Norfolk and its immediate neighbourhood, In 1818 he served against the Seminoles, with the rank of captain, the gadwall, from 1850, annually bred in increasing numbers. as aide on the staff of Gen. Andrew Jackson. In October 1829 It has been always esteemed one of the best of wild fowl for the he became inspector-general of the Southern Division, with the table.

(A. N.) rank of colonel, and as such assisted in the occupation and the GAEKWAR, or GUICOWAR, the family name of the Mahratta establishment of posts in Florida after its acquisition. From rulers of Baroda (2.0.) in western India, which has been conAugust 1821 to March 1822 he was adjutant-general, but, his verted by the English into a dynastic title. It is derived from the appointment not being confirmed by the Senate, he left the army vernacular word for the cow, but it is a mistake to suppose that and became a planter in Florida. He served in the Territorial the family are of the cowherd caste; they belong to the upper class legislature, and as Federal commissioner superintended in 1823 of Mahrattas proper, sometimes claiming a Rajput origin. The the removal of the Seminole Indians to South Florida. In 1832 dynasty was founded by a succession of three warriors, Damaji I., he negotiated with the Seminoles a treaty which provided for their Pilaji and Damaji II., who established Mahratta supremacy removal within three years to lands in what is now the state of throughout Gujarat during the first half of the 18th century. The Oklahoma; but the Seminoles refused to move, hostilities again present style of the ruler is Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda. broke out, and in the second Seminole War Gadsden was GAETA (anc. Caictae Portus), a scaport and episcopal see of quartermaster-general of the Florida Volunteers from February Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, from which it is to April 1836. Returning to South Carolina he became a rice 53 m. W.N.W. by rail via Sparanise. Pop. (1901) 5528. planter, and was president of the South Carolina railway. occupies a lower projecting point of the promontory which forms In 1853 President Franklin Pierce appointed him minister to the S.W. extremity of the Bay of Gaeta. The tomb of Munatius Mexico, with which country he negotiated the so-called“ Gadsden Plancus, on the summit of the promontory (see CAIETAE PORTUS), treaty” (signed the 30th of December 1853), which gave to the is now a naval signal station, and lies in the centre of the extenUnited States freedom of transit for mails, merchandise and sive earthworks of the modern fortifications. The harbour is troops across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and provided for a well sheltered except on the E., but has little commercial im. readjustment of the boundary established by the treaty of portance, being mainly a naval station. To the N.W. is the Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States acquiring 45,535 sq. m. suburb of Elena (formerly Borgo di Gaeta). Pop. (1901) 10,369. of land, since known as the “ Gadsden Purchase,” in what is Above the town is a castle erected by the Angevin kings, and now New Mexico and Arizona. In addition, Article XI. of the strengthened at various periods. The cathedral of St Erasmus treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which bound the United States (S. Elmo), consecrated in 1106, has a fine campanile begun in to prevent incursions of Indians from the United States into Mexico, and to restore Mexican prisoners captured by such

i The New English Dictionary has nothing to say. Webster gives Indians, was abrogated, and for these considerations the United that it was taken from the syllables quedul, of the Lat. querguedula,

the etymology gad well = go about well. Dr R G. Latham suggested States paid to Mexico the sum of $10,000,000. Ratifications of a teal. The spelling." gadwall" seems to be first found in Willughby the treaty, slightly modified by the Senate, were exchanged on the in 1676, and has been generally adopted by later writers; but 30th of June 1854; before this, however, Gadsden had retired Merrett, in 1667, has" gaddel" (Pinax rerum naturalium Britanni

carum, p. 180), saying that it was so called by bird-dealers. The from his post. The boundary line between Mexico and the

synonym gray," given by Willughby and Ray, is doubtless derived Gadsden Purchase” was marked by joint commissions ap- from the general colour of the species,

and has its analogue in the pointed in 1855 and 1891, the second commission publishing its Icelandic Gráönd, applied almost indifferently, or with some disa report in 1899. Gadsden died at Charleston, South Carolina, on tinguishing epithet, to the female of any of the freshwater ducks, and the 25th of December 1858.

especially to both sexes of the present, in which, as stated in the text,

there is comparatively little conspicuous difference of plumage in An elder brother, CHRISTOPHER EDWARDS GADSDEN (1785-1 drake and duck.

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