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a Tudor tower of brick. A literary and scientific institute occupy | Ross (1762-1790), the Gaelic poet, who was schoolmaster of part of the building. Gainsborough possesses a grammar school Gairloch, of which his mother was a native, was buried in the (founded in 1589 by a charter of Queen Elizabeth) and other old kirkyard, where a monument commemorates him. schools, town-hall, county court-house, Albert Hall and Church GAISERIC, or GENSERIC (c. 390-477), king of the Vandals, of England Institute. There is a large carrying trade by water was a son of King Godegisel (d. 406), and was born about 390. on the Trent and neighbouring canals. Shipbuilding and iron- Though lame and only of moderate stature, he won renown as a founding are carried on, and there are manufactures of linseed warrior, and became king on the death of his brother Gonderic cake, and agricultural and other machinery.
in 428. In 428 or 429 he led a great host of Vandals from Spain Gainsborough (Gegnesburh) was probably inhabited by the into Roman Africa, and took possession of Mauretania. This Saxons on account of the fishing in the Trent. The Saxon step is said to have been taken at the instigation of Boniface, Chronicle states that in 1013 the Danish king Sweyn landed the Roman general in Africa; if true, Boniface soon repented of here and subjugated the inhabitants. Gainsborough, though not his action, and was found resisting the Vandals and defending a chartered borough, was probably one by prescription, for Hippo Regius against them. At the end of fourteen months mention is made of burghal tenure in 1280. The privilege of Gaiseric raised the siege of Hippo; but Boniface was forced the return of writs was conferred on the lord of the manor, to fly to Italy, and the city afterwards fell into the hands of the Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, in 1323, and confirmed Vandals. Having pillaged and conquered almost the whole of to Ralph de Percy in 1383. Mention is made in 1204 of a Roman Africa, the Vandal king concluded a treaty with the Wednesday market, but there is no extant grant before 1258, emperor Valentinian III. in 435, by which he was allowed to when Henry III. granted a Tuesday market to William de retain his conquests; this peace, however, did not last long, Valence, earl of Pembroke, who also obtained from Edward I. and in October 439 he captured Carthage, which he made the in 1291 licence for an annual fair on All Saints' Day, and the capital of his kingdom. According to some authorities Gaiseric seven preceding and eight following days. In 1243 Henry III. at this time first actually assumed the title of king. In religious granted to John Talbot licence for a yearly fair on the eve, day matters he was an Arian, and persecuted the members of the and morrow of St James the Apostle. Queen Elizabeth in 1592 orthodox church in Africa, although his religious policy varied with granted to Thomas Lord Burgh two fairs, to begin on Easter his relations to the Roman empire. Turning his attention in Monday and on the oth of October, each lasting three days. another direction he built a flect, and the ravages of the Vandals Charles I. in 1635–1636 extended the duration of each to nine soon made them known and feared along the shores of the Medidays. The Tuesday market is still held, and the fair days are terranean, “Let us make,” said Gaiseric, “ for the dwellings of Tuesday and Wednesday in Easter-week, and the Tuesday and the men with whom God is angry," and he left the conduct of Wednesday after the 20th of October.
his marauding ships to wind and wave. In 455, however, he See Adam Stark, History and Antiquities of Gainsburgh (London, led an expedition to Rome, stormed the city, which for fourteen 1843).
days his troops were permitted to plunder, and then returned GAIRDNER, JAMES (1828– ), English historian, son of to Africa laden with spoil. He also carried with him many John Gairdner, M.D., was born in Edinburgh on the 22nd of captives, including the empress Eudoxia, who is said to have March 1828. Educated in his native city, he entered the Public invited the Vandals into Italy. The Romans made two attempts Record Office in London in 1846, becoming assistant kceper of to avenge themselves, one by the Western emperor, Majorianus, the public records (1859–1893). Gairdner's valuable and pains- in 460, and the other by the Eastern emperor, Leo I., eight years taking contributions to English history relate chiefly to the later; but both enterprises failed, owing principally to the genius reigns of Richard III., Henry VII. and Henry VIII. For the of Gaiseric. Continuing his course on the sea the king brought " Rolls Series " he edited Letters and Papers illustrative of the Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearic Islands under his rule, Reigns of Richard III.and Henry VII. (London, 1861–1863), and and even extended his conquests into Thrace, Egypt and Asia Memorials of Henry VII. (London, 1858); and he succeeded Minor. Having made peace with the eastern emperor Zeno J. S. Brewer in editing the Letters and Papers, foreign and 476, he died on the 25th of January 477. Gaiseric was a cruel domestic, of the reign of Henry VIII. (London, 1862-1905). and cunning man, possessing great military talents and superior He brought out the best edition of the Paston Letters (London, mental gifts. Though the effect of his victories was afterwards 1872-1875, and again 1896), for which he wrote a valuable neutralized by the successes of Belisarius, his name long remained introduction; and for the Camden Society he edited the Histori- the glory of the Vandals. The name Gaiseric is said to be cal collections of a Citizen of London (London, 1876), and Three derived from gais, a javelin, and reiks, a king. 15th-century Chronicles (London, 1880). His other works include
Sce Vandals; also T. Hodgkin, Italy and her Invaders, vol. il. excellent monographs on Richard III. (London, 1878, new and (London, 1892); E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire enlarged edition, Cambridge, 1898), and on Henry VII. (London, ed. J. B. Bury, 1896-1900); L. Schmidt, Geschichte der Vandalen 1889, and subsequently); The Houses of Lancaster and York (Leipzig, 1901); and F. Martroye, Genseric; La Conquele vandale
en Afrique (Paris, 1907). (London, 1874, and other editions); The English Church in the 16th century (London, 1902); Lollardy and the Reformation in GAISFORD, THOMAS (1779-1855), English classical scholar, England (1908); and contributions to the Encyclopaedia was born at Iford, Wiltshire, on the 22nd of December 1779. Britannica, the Dictionary of National Biography, the Cambridge Proceeding to Oxford in 1797, he became successively student Modern History, and the English Historical Review. Gairdner and tutor of Christ Church, and was in 1811 appointed regius received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the university of professor of Greek in the university. Taking orders, he held Edinburgh in 1897, and was made a C.B. in 1900.
(1815-1847) the college living of Westwell, in Oxfordshire, and GAIRLOCH (Gaelic geàrr, short), a sea loch, village and other ecclesiastical preferments simultaneously with his professorparish in the west of the county of Ross and Cromarty, Scotland.ship. From 1831 until his death on the 2nd of June 1855, he Pop. of parish (1901) 3797. The parish covers a large district was dean of Christ Church. As curator of the Bodleian and on the coast, and stretches inland beyond the farther banks principal delegate of the University Press he was instrumental of Loch Maree, the whole of which lies within its bounds. Itin securing the co-operation of distinguished European scholars also includes the islands of Dry and Horisdale in the loch, and as collators, notably Bekker and Dindorf. Among his numerous Ewe in Loch Ewe, and occupies a total area of 200,646 acres. contributions to Greek literature may be mentioned, HephaesThe place and loch must not be confounded with Gareloch in tion's Encheiridion (1810); Poëlae Graeci minores (1814-1820); Dumbartonshire. Formerly an appanage of the earldom of Ross, Stobaeus' Florilegium (1822); Herodotus, with variorum notes Gairloch has belonged to the Mackenzies since the end of the 15th (1824); Suidas' Lexicon (1834); Elymologicon magnum (1848); century. Flowerdale, an 18th-century house in the pretty little Eusebius's Praeparatio (1843) and Demonstratio evangelica glen of the same name, lying close to the village, is the chief (1852). In 1856 the Gaisford prizes, for Greek composition, were seat of the Gairloch branch of the clan Mackenzie. William I founded at Oxford to perpetuate his memory.
GAIUS, a celebrated Roman jurist. Of his personal history | law relating to wills; the third of intestate succession and of very little is known. It is impossible to discover even his full obligations; the fourth of actions and their forms. name, Gaius or Caius being merely the personal name(praenomen) There are several carefully prepared editions of the Institutes, so common in Rome. From internal evidence in his works it may and Krüger (1900). The most complete English edition is that of
starting from that of Göschen (1820), down to that of Studemund be gathered that he flourished in the reigns of the emperors E. Poste, which includes beside the text an English translation and Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. copious commentary (1885). A comparison ol the early forms of His works were thus composed between the years 130 and 180, actions mentioned by Gaius with those used by other primitive at the time when the Roman empire was most prosperous, and
societies will be found in Sir H. Maine's Early Institutions, cap. 9.
For further information see M. Glasson, Étude sur Gaius el sur le its government the best. Most probably Gaius lived in some jus respondendi; also Roman Law. provincial town, and hence we find no contemporary notices of GAIUS CAESAR (A.D. 12-41), surnamed CALIGULA, Roman his life or works. After his death, however, his writings were emperor from 37-41, youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina recognized as of great authority, and the emperor Valentinian the elder, was born on the 31st of August A.D. 12. He was named him, along with Papinian, Ulpian, Modestinus and brought up in his father's camp on the Rhine among the soldiers, Paulus, as one of the five jurists whose opinions were to be followed and received the name Caligula from the coligae, or foot-soldiers' by judicial officers in deciding cases. The works of these jurists boots, which he used to wear. He also accompanied his father to accordingly became most important sources of Roman law.
Syria, and after his death returned to Rome. In 32 he was Besides the Institutes, which are a complete exposition of the summoned by Tiberius to Capreae, and by skilful flattery managed elements of Roman law, Gaius was the author of a treatise on the to escape the fate of his relatives. After the murder of Tiberius Edics of the Magistrales, of Commentaries on the Twelve Tables, by Naevius Sertorius Macro, the prefect of the praetorian guards, and on the important Lex Papic Poppaea, and several other which was probably due to his instigation, Caligula ascended the works. His interest in the antiquities of Roman law is apparent, throne amidst the rejoicings of the people. The senate conferred and for this reason his work is most valuable to the historian of the imperial power upon him alone, although Tiberius Gemellus, early institutions. In the disputes between the two schools of the grandson of the preceding emperor, had been designated as Roman jurists he generally attached himself to that of the his co-heir. He entered on his first consulship in July 37. For Sabinians, who were said to be followers of Ateius Capito, of the first eight months of his reign he did not disappoint the whose life we have some account in the Annals of Tacitus, and to popular expectation; but after his recovery from a severe illness advocate a strict adherence as far as possible to ancient rules, his true character showed itself. His extravagance, cruelty and and to resist innovation. Many quotations from the works of profligacy can hardly be explained except on the assumption that Gaius occur in the Digest of Justinian, and so acquired a he was out of his mind. According to Pelham, much of his permanent place in the system of Roman law; while a com- conduct was due to the atmosphere in which he was brought up, parison of the Institutes of Justinian with those of Gaius shows and the ideas of sovereignty instilled into him, which led him to that the whole method and arrangement of the later work were
pose as a monarch of the Graeco-oriental type. To fill his excopied from that of the earlier, and very numerous passages are hausted treasury he put to death his wealthy subjects and word for word the same. Probably, for the greater part of the confiscated their property; even the poor fell victims to his period of three centuries which elapsed between Gaius and thirst for blood. He bestowed the priesthood and a consulship Justinian, the Institules of the former had been the familiar text- upon his horse Incitatus, and demanded that sacrifice should be book of all students of Roman law.
offered to himself. He openly declared that he wished the whole Unfortunately the work was lost to modern scholars, until, in Roman people had only one head, that he might cut it off at a 1816, a manuscript was discovered by B. G. Niebuhr in the single stroke. In 39 he set out with an army to Gaul, nominally chapter library of Verona, in which certain of the works of St
to punish the Germans for having invaded Roman territory, but in Jerome were written over some earlier writings, which proved reality to get money by plunder and confiscation. Before leaving, to be the lost work of Gaius. The greater part of the palimpsest he led his troops to the coast opposite Britain, and ordered them has, however, been deciphered and the text is now fairly complete. to pick up shells on the seashore, to be dedicated to the gods at This discovery has thrown a lood of light on portions of the Rome as the spoils of ocean. On his return he entered Rome history of Roman law which had previously been most obscure. with an ovation (a minor form of triumph), temples were built, Much of the historical information given by Gaius is wanting in statues erected in his honour, and a special priesthood instituted the compilations of Justinian, and, in particular, the account of to attend to his worship. The people were ground down by new the ancient forms of procedure in actions. In these forms can be forms of taxation and every kind of extortion, but on the whole traced “survivals " from the most primitive times, which Rome was free from internal disturbances during his reign; provide the science of comparative law with valuable illustrations, some insignificant conspiracies were discovered and rendered which may explain the strange forms of legal procedure found in abortive. A personal insult to Cassius Chaerea, tribune of a other early systems. Another circumstance which renders the praetorian cohort, led to Caligula's assassination on the 24th of work of Gaius more interesting to the historical student than that January 41. of Justinian, is that Gaius lived at a time when actions were See Suetonius, Caligula; Tacitus, Annals, vi. 20 ff.; Dio Cassius tried by the system of formulae, or formal directions given by the lix.; see also S. Baring Gould, The Tragedy of the Caesars (3rd ed., praetor before whom the case first came, to the judex to whom he
1892); H. F. Pelham in Quarterly Review (April, 1905); H. Willrich, referred it. Without a knowledge of the terms of these formulae römischen Kaiserzeit, i. pt. 1: J. B. Bury, Student's Hist. of the
Beiträge zur allen Geschichte (1903); H. Schiller, Geschichte der it is impossible to solve the most interesting question in the his. Roman Empire (1893); Merivale, History of the Romans under the tory of Roman law, and show how
the rigid rules peculiar to the Empire, ch. 48: H. Furneaux's Annals of Tacitus, ji. (introduction). ancient law of Rome were modified by what has been called the Mention may also be made of the famous pamphlet by L. Quidde, equitable jurisdiction of the praetors, and made applicable to new Caligula. Eine Studie über römischen Casarenwohnsinn and an conditions, and brought into harmony with the notions and the (both 1894), and a reply, Fin-de-Siècle-Geschichtsschreibung, by needs of a more developed society. It is clear from evidence of G. Sommerfeldt (1895). Gaius that this result was obtained, not by an independent set of GALAGO, the Senegal name of the long-tailed African reprecourts administering, as in England previous to the Judicature sentatives of the lemur-like Primates, which has been adopted as Acts, a system different from that of the ordinary courts, but by their technical designation. Till recently the galagos have the manipulation of the formulae. In the time of Justinian the been included in the family Lemuridae; but this is restricted to work was complete, and the formulary system had disappeared. the lemurs of Madagascar, and they are now classed with the
The Institutes of Gaius are divided into four books-the first lorises and pottos in the family Nycticebidae, of which they form treating of persons and the differences of the status they may the section Galaginae, characterized by the great elongation of the occupy in the eye of the law; the second of things, and the upper portion of the feet (tarsus) and the power of folding the modes in which rights over them may be acquired, including the large ears. Throughout the greater part of Africa south of the Sahara galagos are widely distributed in the wooded districts, some 300 inhabitants living in low thatched or iron-roofed from Senegambia in the west to Abyssinia in the east, and as far huts, under the supervision of a police commissioner and other south as Natal. They pass the day in sleep, but are very active at officials of Ecuador, by which country the group was annexed in night, feeding on fruits, insects and small birds. When they 1832, when General Villamil founded Floreana on Charles Island, descend to the ground they sit upright, and move about by naming it in honour of Juan José Flores, president of Ecuador. jumping with their hind-legs like jerboas. They are pretty little A governor has been appointed since 1885, some importance animals, varying from the size of a small cat to less than that of a being foreseen for the islands in connexion with the cutting of the rat, with large eyes and ears, soft woolly fur and long tails. Panama canal, as the group lies on the route to Australia opened There are several species, of which G. crassicaudatus from up by that scheme. Charles Island, the most valuable of the Mozambique is the largest; together with G. garnetti of Natal, group, is cultivated by a small colony. On many of the islets G. agisymbanus of Zanzibar, and G. monteiroi of Angola, this numerous tropical fruits are found growing wild, but they are no represents the subgenus Otolemur. The typical group includes doubt escapes from cultivation, just as the large herds of wild G. senegalensis (or galago) of Senegal, G. alleni of West and cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, goats and dogs—the last large and Central Africa, and G. moholi of South Africa; while G. demidoffi. fierce-which occur abundantly on most of the islands have of West and Central Africa and G.anomurus of French Congoland escaped from domestication. represent the subgenus Hemigalago.
(R. L.*) The shores of the larger islands are fringed in some parts with a GALANGAL, formerly written "galingale," and sometimes dense barrier of mangroves, backed by an often impenetrable
garingal,” rhizoma galangae (Arab. Kholinjan ; Ger. Galgant- thicket of tropical undergrowth, which, as the ridges are ascended, wurzel; Fr. Racine de Galanga), a drug, now obsolete, with an give place to taller trees and deep green bushes which are covered aromatic taste like that of mingled ginger and pepper. Lesser with orchids and trailing moss (orchilla), and from which creepers galangal root, radix galangae minoris, the ordinary galangal of hang down interlacing the vegetation. But generally the low commerce, is the dried rhizome of Alpinia officinarum, a plant of grounds are parched and rocky, presenting only a few thickets of the natural order Zingiberaceae; growing in the Chinese island of Peruvian cactus and stunted shrubs, and a most uninviting shore. Hainan, where it is cultivated, and probably also in the woods of The contrast between this low zone and the upper zone of rich the southern provinces of China. The plant is closely allied to vegetation (above about 800 ft.) is curiously marked. From July Alpinia calcarata, the rhizome of which is sold in the bazaars of to November the clouds hang low on the mountains, and give some parts of India as a sort of galangal. Its stems attain a moisture to the upper zone, while the climate of the lower is dry. length of about 4 ft., and its leaves are slender, lanceolate and Rain in the lower zone is scanty, and from May to January does light-green, and have a hot taste; the flowers are white with not occur. The porous soil absorbs the moisture, and fresh water red veins, and in simple racemes; the roots form dense masses, is scarce. Though the islands are under the equator, the climate sometimes more than a foot in diameter; and the rhizomes grow is not intensely hot, as it is tempered by cold currents from the horizontally, and are in. or less in thickness. Galangal seems to Antarctic sea, which, having followed the coast of Peru as far as have been unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and to Cape Blanco, bear off to the N.W. towards and through the have been first introduced into Europe by Arabian physicians. Galapagos. The mean temperature of the lower zone is about It is mentioned in the writings of Ibn Khurdádbah, an Arabian | 71° F., that of the upper from 66° to 62o. geographer who flourished in the latter half of the 9th century, The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to and" gallengar" (gallingale or galangal) is one of the ingredients Ecuador, on account of the guano and the orchilla moss found in an Anglo-Saxon receipt for a “wen salve” (see 0. Cockayne, on them and exported to Europe. Except on Charles Island, Saxon Leechdoms, vol. iii. p. 13). In the middle ages, as at present where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of in Livonia, Esthonia and central Russia, galangal was in esteem the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running in Europe both as a medicine and a spice, and in China it is still wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially employed as a therapeutic agent. Its chief consumption is in goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the Russia, where it is used as a cattle-medicine, and as a flavouring biological conditions of the islands. for liqueurs.
The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, an archipelago of five larger and ten distinctly oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importsmaller islands in the Pacific Ocean, exactly under the equator. ance to this archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in The nearest island to the South American coast lies 580 m. W. of the “Beagle.” The Galapagos archipelago possesses a rare adEcuador, to which country they belong. The name is derived vantage from its isolated situation, and from the fact that its from galápago, a tortoise, on account of the giant species, the history has never been.interfered with by any aborigines of the characteristic feature of the fauna. The islands were discovered human race. Of the seven species of giant tortoises known to early in the 16th century by Spaniards, who gave them their science (although at the discovery of the islands there were present name. They were then uninhabited. The English names probably fifteen) all are indigenous, and each is confined to its of the individual islands were probably given by buccaneers, for own islet. There also occurs a peculiar genus of lizards with two whom the group formed a convenient retreat.
species, the one marine, the other terrestrial. The majority of the The larger members of the group, several of which attain an birds are of endemic species peculiar to different islets, while elevation of 2000 to 2500 ft., are Albemarle or Isabela (100 m. more than half belong to peculiar genera. More than half of the long, 28 m. in extreme breadth, with an area of 1650 sq. m. and flora is unknown elsewhere. an extreme elevation of 5000 ft.), Narborough or Fernandina, Since 1860 several visits have been paid to the group by scientific Indefatigable or Santa Cruz, Chatham or San Cristobal, James investigators-by Dr Habel in 1868: Messrs Baur and Adams, and or San Salvador, and Charles or Santa Maria. The total land the naturalists of the " Albatross," between 1888 and 1891; and in area is estimated at about 2870 sq. m. (about that of the West 1897–1898 by Mr Charles Harris, whose journey was specially under.
taken at the instance of the Hon. Walter Rothschild. Very comRiding of Yorkshire). The extraordinary number of craters, plete collections have therefore, as a result of these expeditions, a few of which are reported still to be active, gives evidence been brought together; but their examination does not materially that the archipelago is the result of volcanic action. The change the facts upon which the conclusions arrived at by Darwin, number of main craters may be about twenty-five, but there
from the evidence of the birds and plants, were based; though he
" no doubt would have paid more attention to the evidence afforded are very many small eruptive cones on the sanks of the old by Land-tortoises), if he had been in possession of facts with which volcanoes. There is a convict settlement on Chatham with we are acquainted now" (Günther). His conclusions were that the
group “has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have 1 Apparently derived from the Chinese Kau-liang-Kiang, i.e. its members been at any time closer together"; and that the charKau-liang ginger, the term applied by the Chinese to galangal, after acter of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over the prefecture Kau-chau fu in Canton provincc, formerly called Kau: from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where liang (see F. Porter Smith, Contrib.' to the Maleria Medica ...of in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees China, p. 9, 1871).
and ways from their ancestors. Equally indecisive is the further exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists | Tavium and from the Paphlagonian hills N. of Ancyra southwards subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large to the N, end of the salt lake Tatta (but probably including the island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species plains W. of the lake during the greater part of its history),-a became differentiated during their isolation. The presence of these. rough oblong about 200 m. long and 100 (to 130) broad. giant reptiles on the group is the chief fact on which a former Galatia is part of the great central plateau of Asia Minor, here land connexion with the continent of America may be sustained. * Nearly all authorities agree that it is not probable that they have ranging from 2000 to 3000 ft. above sea-level
, and falls geographiccrossed the wide sea between the Galapagos Islands and the American ally into two parts separated by the Halys (Kizil Irmak), -a continent, although, while they are helpless, and quite unable to small eastern district lying chiefly in the basin of the Delije swim, they can Hoat on the water. If their ancestors had been Irmak, the principal affluent of the Halys, and a large western carried out to sea once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as region drained almost entirely by the Sangarius (Sakaria) and its the Galapagos Islands " (Wallace)," they must have been numerous on the continent " (Rothschild and Hartert), No remains, and of tributaries. On the N. side Galatia consists of a series of plai course no living species, of these tortoises are known to exist or have with fairly fertile soil, lying between bare hills. But the greater existed on the mainland. Rothschild and Hartert think it is part is a dreary stretch of barren, undulating uplands, intersected more natural to assume the disappearance of a great stock of animals, by tiny streams and passing gradually into the vast level waste of the remains of which have survived, . appearance in comparatively recent times (i.e. in the Eocene period treeless (anc. Axylon) plain that runs S. to Lycaonia; these or later) of enormous land masses.' Past elevations of land, how uplands are little cultivated and only afford extensive pasturage ever (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in for large flocks of sheep and goats. Cities are few and far apart, areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based and the climate is one of extremes of heat and cold. The general on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene condition and aspect of the country was much the same in ancient region.
as in modern times. AUTHORITIES.-Darwin, Voyage of the "Beagle": 0. Salvin, "On The Gaulish invaders appeared in Asia Minor in 278–277 B.C. the Avifauna of the Galapagos Archipelago," Trans. Zool. Soc. They numbered 20,000, of which only one-half were fighting men, part ix. (1876): Sclater and Salvin, “Characters of New
Species the rest being doubtless women and children; and not long after collected by Dr Habel in the Galapagos Islands," Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, . PP322-327; A. R. Wallace, Geographical Dis- their arrival we find them divided into three tribes, Trocmi, tribution of Animals (New York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, Ein Besuch Tolistobogii and Tectosages, each of which claimed a separate der Galapagos Inseln (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in Geographical sphere of operations. They had split off from the army which Journal, vi. 560 (1895): W. L. and P. L. Sclater, The Geography of invaded Greece under Brennus in 279 B.C., and, marching into Mammals (London, 1899); Ridgway, Archipelago," Proc. U.S. Nal. Mus. vol. xix. pp. 459-670 (1897); Thrace under Leonnorius and Lutarius, crossed over to Asia at Baur," New Observations on the Origin of the Galapagos Islands, the invitation of Nicomedes I. of Bithynia, who required help in Amer. Nal. (1897), pp. 661-680, 864-896; A. Agassiz, "The Galapagos his struggle against his brother. For about 46 years they were the Proc. Linn. Soc. (London (President's Address), 'October 1898); scourge of the western half of Asia Minor, ravaging the country, pp. 14-29 (with bibliography from 1875 to 1898 on gigantic land- as allies of one or other of the warring princes, without any serious tortoises); Rothschild and Hartert, Review of the Ornithology check, until Attalus I., king of Pergamum (241-197), inflicted of the Galapagos Islands," Novilates zoologicae, vi; pp. 85-205; several severe defeats upon them, and about 232 B.C. forced B. L. Robinson, “Flora of the Galapagos Islands," Proc. Amer. Acad. of Arts and Sciences, xxxviii. (1902).
them to settle permanently in the region to which they gave their
name. Probably they already occupied parts of Galatia, but GALASHIELS, a municipal and police burgh of Selkirkshire, definite limits were now fixed and their right to the district was Scotland. Pop. (1891) 17,367; (1901) 13,615. It is situated on formally recognized. The tribes were settled where they afterGala Water, within a short distance of its junction with the wards remained, the Tectosages round Ancyra, the Tolistobogii Tweed, 331 m. S.S.E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. round Pessinus, and the Trocmi round Tavium. The constitution The town stretches for more than 2 m. along both banks of the of the Galatian state is described by Strabo: conformably to river, the mills and factories occupying the valley by the stream, Gaulish custom, each tribe was divided into four cantons (Gr. the villas and better-class houses the high-lying ground on either te papxiai), each governed by a chief (“ tetrarch”) of its own side. The principal structures include the municipal buildings, with a judge under him, whose powers were unlimited except in corn exchange, library, public hall, and the market cross.
The cases of murder, which were tried before a council of 300 drawn town is under the control of a provost, bailies and council, and, from the twelve cantons and meeting at a holy place called along with Hawick and Selkirk, forms the Hawick (or Border) Drynemeton. But the power of the Gauls was not yet broken. group of parliamentary burghs. The woollen manufactures, They proved a formidable foe to the Romans in their wars with dating from the close of the 16th century, are the most Antiochus, and after Attalus' death their raids into W. Asia important in Scotland, though now mainly confined to the weav- Minör forced Rome in 189 B.C. to send an expedition against them ing of tweeds. Other leading industries are hosiery, tanning under Cn. Manlius Vulso, who taught them a severe lesson. (with the largest yards in Scotland), dyeing, iron and brass found. Henceforward their military power declined and they fell at times ing, engineering and boot-making. Originally a village built for under Pontic ascendancy, from which they were finally freed by the accommodation of pilgrims to Melrose Abbey (4 m. E. by S.), the Mithradatic wars, in which they heartily supported Rome. it became, early in the 15th century, an occasional residence of the In the settlement of 64 B.C. Galatia became a client-state of Douglases, who were then keepers of Ettrick Forest, and whose the empire, the old constitution disappeared, and three chiefs peel-tower was not demolished till 1814. Galashiels was created (wrongly styled “tetrarchs '') were appointed, one for each tribe. into a burgh of barony in 1599. The Catrail or Picts' Work But this arrangement soon gave way before the ambition of one begins near the town and passes immediatelyto the west. Cloven- of these tetrarchs, Deiotarus, the contemporary of Cicero and fords, 3} m. W., is noted for the Tweed vineries, which are heated Caesar, who made himself master of the other two tetrarchies and by 5m. of water-pipes, and supply the London market throughout was finally recognized by the Romans as king of Galatia. On the the winter. Two miles farther W. by S. is Ashestiel, where Sir death of the third king Amyntas in 25 B.C., Galatia was incorporWalter Scott resided from 1804 to 1812, where he wrote his most ated by Augustus in the Roman empire, and few of the provinces famous poems and began Waverley, and which he left for Abbots- were more enthusiastically loyal. ford.
The population of Galatia was not entirely Gallic. Before the GALATIA. I. In the strict sense (Galatia Proper, Roman arrival of the Gauls, western Galatia up to the Halys was inGallograecia) this is the name applied by Greek-speaking peoples habited by Phrygians, and eastern Galatia by Cappadocians to a large inland district of Asia Minor since its occupation by and other native races. This native population remained, and Gaulish tribes in the 3rd century B.C. Bounded on the N. by constituted the majority of the inhabitants of the rural parts Bithynia and Paphlagonia, W. by Phrygia, S. by Lycaonia and and almost the sole inhabitants of the towns. They were left in Cappadocia, E. by Pontus, it included the greater part of the possession of two-thirds of the land (cf. Caesar, B.G. i. 31) on modern vilayet of Angora, stretching from Pessinus eastwards to l'condition of paying part of the produce to their new lords, who took the other third, and agriculture and commerce with all the prov. Rom. (1867); Şir W. M. Ramsay, Histor. Geogr. (1890), St Paul arts and crafts of peaceful life remained entirely in their hands. (1898), and Introd. to Histor. Commenlary on Galatians (1899). They were henceforth ranked as “Galatians ” by the outside K. Humann and O. Puchstein, Reisen in Kleinasien (1890); Koerte,
For antiquities generally, Perrot, Explor. archéol. de la Galatie (1862); world equally with their overlords, and it was from their numbers Athen. Milleilungen (1897); Anderson and Crowfoot, Journ. of that the “ Galatian " slaves who figure in the markets of the Hellenic Studies (1899); and Anderson, Map of Asia Minor (London, ancient world were drawn. The conquerors, who were few in Murray, 1903).
(J. G. C. A.) number, formed a small military aristocracy, living not in the GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, one of the books of the New towns, but in fortified villages, where the chiefs in their castles Testament. This early Christian scripture is one of the books kept up a barbaric state, surrounded by their tribesmen. With the militant in the world's literature. Its usefulness to Luther in his decline of their warlike vigour they began gradually to mix with propaganda was no accident in its history; it originated in a the natives and to adopt at least their religion: the amalgamation controversy, and the varying views of the momentous struggle was accelerated under Roman influence and ultimately became depicted in Gal. ii. and Acts xv. have naturally determined, from as complete as that of the Normans with the Saxons in England, time to time, the conception of the epistle's aim and date. but they gave to the mixed race a distinctive tone and spirit, and Details of the long critical discussion of this problem cannot be long retained their national characteristics and social customs, given here. (See Paul.) It must suffice to say that to the present as well as their language (which continued in use, side by side writer the identification of Gal. ii. 1-10 with Acts xi. 28 f. and not with Greek, in the 4th century after Christ). In the'ist century, with Acts xv. appears quite untenable, while a fair exegesis of when St Paul made his missionary journeys, even the towns Acts xvi. 1-6 implies a distinction between such towns as Lystra, Ancyra, Pessinus and Tavium (where Gauls were few) were not Derbe and Iconium on the one hand and the Galatian xúpa with Hellenized, though Greek, the language of government and trade, Phrygia upon the other.? A further visit to the latter country is was spoken there; while the rural population was unaffected mentioned, upon this view, in Acts xviii. 23. The Christians to by Greek civilization. Hellenic ways and modes of thought whom the epistle was addressed were thus inhabitants, for the begin to appear in the towns only in the later and century. most part (iv. 8) of pagan birth, belonging to the northern In the rustic parts a knowledge of Greek begins to spread in the section of the province, perhaps mainly in its south-western 3rd century; but only in the 4th and 5th centuries, after the district adjoining Bithynia and the province of Asia. The scanty transference of the centre of government first to Nicomedia and allusions to this mission in Acts cannot be taken as any objection then to Constantinople placed Galatia on the highway of imperial to the theory. Nor is there any valid geographical difficulty. communication, was Hellenism in its Christian form gradually The country was quite accessible from Antioch. Least of all does diffused over the country. (See also ANCYRA; PESSINUS; the historical evidence at our disposal justify the inference that GORDIUM.)
the civilization of north Galatia, during the ist century A.D., II. The Roman province of Galatia, constituted 25 B.C., was Romano-Gallic rather than Hellenic; for, as the coins and included the greater part of the country ruled by Amyntas, viz. inscriptions indicate, the Anatolian culture which predominated Galatia Proper, part of Phrygia towards Pisidia (Apollonia, throughout the province did not exclude the infusion either of Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia, part of Lycaonia (including Greek religious conceptions or of the Greek language. The degree Lystra and Derbe) and Isauria. For nearly 100 years it was the of elementary Greek culture needful for the understanding of frontier province, and the changes in its boundaries are an Galatians cannot be shown to have been foreign to the inepitome of the stages of Roman advance to the Euphrates, one habitants of north Galatia. So far as any trustworthy evidence client-state after another being annexed: Paphlagonia in 6-5 is available, such Hellenic notions as are presupposed in this B.C.; Sebastopolis, 3-2 B.C.; Amasia, A.D. 1-2; Comana, A.D. epistle might well have been intelligible to the Galatians of the 34-35,-together forming Pontus Galaticus,-the Pontic kingdom northern provinces. Still less does the acquaintance with Roman of Polemon, A.D. 64, under the name Pontus Polemoniacus. In jurisprudence in iii. 15-iv. 2 imply, as Halmel contends (Über A.D. 70 Cappadocia (a procuratorial province since A.D. 17) with röm. Recht im Galalerbrief, 1895), not merely that Paul must have Armenia Minor became the centre of the forward movement and acquired such knowledge in Italy but that he wrote the epistle Galatia lost its importance, being merged with Cappadocia in a there. A popular acquaintance with the outstanding features of vast double governorship until A.D. 114 (probably), when Trajan Roman law was widely difíused by this time in Asia Minor. separated the two parts, making Galatia an inferior province of The epistle can hardly have been written therefore until after diminished size, while Cappadocia with Armenia Minor and the period described in Acts xviii. 22, but the terminus ad quem is Pontus became a great consular military province, charged with more difficult to fix. The composition may be placed (cf. the the defence of the frontier. Under Diocletian's reorganization present writer's Historical New Testament, pp. 124 f. for details) Galatia was divided, about 295, into two parts and the name either during the earlier part of Paul's residence at Ephesus retained for the northern (now nearly identical with the Galatia (Acts xix. 1, 10, so most editors and scholars), or on his way from of Deiotarus); and about 390 this province, amplified by the Ephesus to Corinth, or at Corinth itself (so Lightfoot, Bleek, addition of a few towns in the west, was divided into Galatia Salmon). Prima and Secunda or Salutaris, the division indicating the The epistle was not written until Paul had visited Thessalonica, renewed importance of Galatia in the Byzantine empire. After suffering from Persian and Arabic raids, Galatia was conquered The historical and geographical facts concerning Galatia, which by the Seljuk Turks in the nth century and passed to the lead other writers to support the south Galatian theory, are Ottoman Turks in the middle of the 14th.
stated in the preceding article on Galatia; and the question is still
a matter of controversy, the division of opinion being to some extent The question whether the “ Churches of Galatia," to which St dependent on whether it is approached from the point of view of the Paul addressed his Epistle, were situated in the northern or archaeologist or the Biblical critic. The ablcst re-statements of the southern part of the province has been much discussed, and in north Galatian theory, in the light of recent pleas for south Galatia England Prof. Sir W. M. Ramsay has been the principal advocate reader in P. W. Schmiedel's
exhaustive article in Éncyd. Biblica
as the destination of this epistle, may be found by the English of the adoption of the South-Galatian theory, which maintains (1592-1616) and Prof. G. H. Gilbert's Student's Life of Paul (1902), that they were the churches planted in Derbe, Lystra, Iconium and pp. 260-272. Schmiedel's arguments are mainly directed against Antioch (see GALATIANS). In the present writer's opinion this is Sir W. M. Ramsay, but a recent Roman Catholic scholar, Dr A. supported by the study of the historical and geographical facts.' side of the controversy (Die Abfassungsseil des Galaterbriefes, Münster,
AUTHORITIES.–Van Gelder, De Gallis in Graecia et Asia (1888); | i. W., 1906), carrying forward the points already urged by Sieffert Stachelin, Gesch. d. kleinasial. Galater (1897); Perrot, De Galatia and Zöckler amongst others, and especially refuting his fellow
churchman, Prof. Valentine Weber. 1 In the unsettled state of this controversy, weight naturally 3 The tendency among adherents of the south Galatian theory attaches to the opinion of experts on either side; and the above is to put the epistle as carly as possible, making it contemporaneous statement, while opposed to the view taken in the following article with, if not prior to, 1 Thessalonians. So Douglass Round in The on the epistle, must be taken on its merits.-Ed. E.B.
Date of St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians (1906).