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but the Galatian churches owed their origin to a mission of Paul sections in the epistlc (i. 6-ii. 21). In the closing passage he undertaken some time before he crossed from Asia to Europe. drifts over from an account of this interview with Peter into a When he composed this letter, he had visited the churches twice. sort of monologue upon the incompatibility of the Mosaic.law On the former of these visits (iv. 13 TÒ Apótepov), though with the Christian gospel (ii. 15-21), and this starts him afresh broken down by illness (2 Cor. xii. 7-9?) he had been enthusi- upon a trenchant expostulation and appeal (iii. 1-v. 12) regarding astically welcomed, and the immediate result of his mission was the alternatives of law and spirit. Faith dominates this section; an outburst of religious fervour (iii. 1-5, iv. 14 f.). The local faith in its historical career and as the vantage-ground of Christians made a most promising start (v.7). But they failed to Christianity. The much-vaunted law is shown to be merely a maintain their ardour. On his second visit (iv. 13, 1. 7, V.21) the provisional episodes culminating in the gospel (iii. 7-28) as a apostle found in many of them a disheartening slackness, due to message of filial confidence and freedom (iii. 29-iv. 11). The discord and incipient legalism. His plain-speaking gave offence genuine "sons of Abraham" are not legalistic Jewish Christians in some quarters (iv. 16), though it was not wholly ineffective. but those who simply possess faith in Jesus Christ. A passionate Otherwise, this second visit is left in the shadow. So far as it outburst then follows (iv. 12 f.), and, harping stillon Abraham, the was accompanied by warnings, these were evidently general apostle essays, with fresh rabbinic dialectic, to establish Christi. rather than elicited by any definite and imminent peril to the anity over legalism as the free and final religion for men, applying churches. Not long afterwards, however, some judaizing this to the moral situation of the Galatians themselves (v. 1-12). opponents of the apostle (note the contemptious anonymity of This conception of freedom then leads him to define the moral the tives in i. 7, as in Col. ii. 4 f.), headed by one prominent and responsibilities of the faith (v. 13-vi. 10), in order to prevent influential individual (v. 10), made their appearance among the misconception and to enforce the claims of the gospel upon the Galatians, promulgating a "gospel" which meant fidelity to, not individual and social life of the Galatians. The epilogue (vi. freedom from, the Law (i. 6-10). Arguing from the Old Testa-11-21) reiterates, in a handful of abrupt, emphatic sentences, ment, they represented Paul's gospel as an imperfect creed which the main points of the epistle. required to be supplemented by legal exactitude, including The allusion in vi. 11 (ίδετε πηλίκοις υμίν γράμμασιν έγραψα ritual observance (iv. 10) and even circumcision, while at the i Tû tudi xecpi) is to the large bold size of the letters in Paul's same time they sought to undermine his authority' by pointing handwriting, but the object ard scope of the reference are out that it was derived from the apostles at Jerusalem and matters of disputc. It is “a sensational heading" (Findlay), therefore that his teaching must be open to the checks and tests but it may either refer 10 to the whole epistle (so Augustine, of that orthodox primitive standard which they themselves Chrysostom, &c., followed by Zahn) or, as most hold (with claimed to embody. The sole valid charter to Messianic privileges Jerome) to the postscript (vi. 11-18). Paul commonly dictated his was observance of the Mosaic law, which remained obligatory letters. His use of the autograph here may have been to prevent upon pagan converts (iji. 6-9, 16).
any suspicion of a forgery or to mark the personal emphasis of his When the news of this relapse reached Paul, matters had message. In any case it is assumed that the Galatians knew his evidently not yet gone too far. Only a few had been circum- handwriting. It is unlikely that he inserted this postscript from a cised. It was not too late to arrest the Galatians on their down- feeling of ironical playfulness, to make the Galatians realize that, ward plane, and the apostle, unable or unwilling to re-visit them, after the sternness of the early chapters, be was now treating despatched this epistle. How or when the information came to them like children, "playfully hinting that surely the large him, we do not know. But the gravity of the situation renders letters will touch their hearts" (so Deissmann, Bible-Studies it unlikely that he would delay for any length of time in writing (1901), 346 f.). to counteract the intrigues of his opponents; to judge from The earliest allusion to the epistle!l is the notice of its inclusion allusions like those in i. 6 (Taxews and metatideode-the lapse in Marcion's canon, but almost verbal echoes of iii. 10-13 are to be still in progress), we may conclude that the interval between the heard in Justin Martyr's Dial. xciv.-xcv.; it was certainly known reception of the news and the composition of the letter must have to Polycarp, and as the 2nd century advances the evidence of been comparatively brief.
its popularity multiplies on all sides, from Ptolemaeus and the After a short introductions (i. 1-5), instead of giving his usual Ophites to Irenaeus and the Muratorian canon (cf. Gregory's word of commendation, he plunges into a personal and historical Canon and Text of N.T., 1907, pp. 201-203). It is no longer viodication of his apostolic independence, which, developed necessary for serious criticism to refute the objections to its negatively and positively, forms ihe first of the three main authenticity raised during the 19th century in certain quarters;12 "It is not quite clear whether traces of the Judaistic agitation
as Macaulay said of the authenticity of Caesar's commentaries, were already found by Paul on this visit (30 especially Holsten, to doubt on that subject is the mere rage of scepticism." Lipsius, Sieffert, Pfeiderer, Weiss and Weizsäcker) or whether they Cf. T. H. Green's Works, iii. 186 f. Verses 15-17 are the indirect are to be dated subsequent to his departure (so Philippi, Renan and abstract of the speech's argument, but in verses 18-21 the apostle, Hofmann, among others). The tone of surprise which marks the carried away by the thought and barrier of the moment as he dicopening of the epistle tells in favour of the latter theory. Paul tates to his amanuensis, forgets the original situation. seems to have been taken aback by the news of the Galatians' & Thus Paul reverses the ordinary rabbinic doctrine which taught delection.
(cf. Kiddushim, 30, b) that the law was given as the divine remedy . Apparently they were clever enough to keep the Galatians in for the evil yeser of man. So far from being a remedy, he argues, it ignorance that the entire law would require to be obcyed (v.3). is an aggravation.
* The critical dubiety about oude in ii. 5 (cf. Zahn's excursus and . According to Plutarch, Cato the elder wrote histories for the Prof. Lake in Expositor, March 1906. p. 236 1.) throws a slight doubt use of his son, idiq xelpi kai vegálous ypéuwaow (cf. Field's Notes on the interpretation of ii. 3, but it is clear that the agitators had on Translation of the New Testament, p. 191). If the point of quoted Paul's practice as an authoritative sanction of the rite. Gal. vi, ni lies in the size of the letters, Paul cannot have contem
• This depreciation is voiced in their catch-word oi Don OŪVTES plated copies of the epistle being made. He must have assumed ("those of reputc," ii. 6), while other echoes of their talk can be lihat the autograph would reach all the local churches (cf. 2 Thess. overheard in such phrases as “we are Abraham's seed " (iii. 16). 17, with E. A. Abbott, Johannine Grammar, pp. 530-532). " sinners of Gentiles" (ii. 15) and “Jerusalem which is our mother 10 For dypava, the epistolary aorist, at the close of a letter, cf. (iv. 26), as well as in their charges against Paul of “ seeking to please Xen. Anab. i. 9. 25, Thuc. i. 129. 3, Ezra iv. 14 (LXX) and Lucian, men " (i. 10) and "preaching circumcision (v. 1).
Dial, Meretr, x. * Not only is the address to the churches of Galatia:" unusually " Hermann Schulze's attempt to bring out the filiation of the bare, but Paul associates no one with himself, either because he was later N.T. literature to Galatians (Die Ursprünglichkeit des Galaler. on a journey or because, as the attacked party, he desired to con briefes, Leipzig, 1903) involves repeated exaggerations of the literary centrate attention upon his personal commission. Yet the nucis of evidence. i. 8 indicates colleagues like Silas and Timothy.
13 Cl. especially J. Gloe's Die jüngste Kritik des Galaterbriefes Cl. Hausrath's History of the N.T. Times (iii
. pp. 181-199), with (Leipzig. 1890) and Baljon's reply to Steck and Loman (Exeg:the fine remarks, on vi. 17. that " Paul stands before us like an krilische verhandeling over den Brief van P. aan de Gal., 1889). The ancient general who bares his breast before his mutinous legions, and English reader may consult Schmiedel's article (already referred shows them the scars of the wounds that proclaim him not unworthy to) and Dr R. J. Knowling's The Testimony of Si Paul to Christ to be called Imperator."
(1905), 28 f.
Even the problems of its integrity are quite secondary. Marcionis
admirably, expounded from different standpoints by C. Holsten (cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 2-4) removed what he judged to be some
(Das Evangelium Paulus, Teil I., i., 1880), A. B. Bruce (St Pauls interpolations, but van Manen's attempt to prove that Marcion's Conception of Christianity, 1894, pp: 49-70) and Prof. G. G. Findlay
(Expositor's Bible). On the historical aspects, Zimmer (Galat. und text is more original than the canonical (Theolog. Tijdschrift, A postelgeschichte, 1882) and M. Thomas (Mélanges d'histoire et 1887, 400 f. 451 f.) has won no support (cf. C. Clemen's refutation de lilt. religieuse, Paris, 1899. pp. 1-195) are excellent; E. H. in Die Einheitlichkeit der paulin. Briefe, 1894, pp. 100 f. and Askwith's essay (Epistle to the Galations, ils Destination and Dale, Zahn's Geschichte d. N.T.lichen Kanons, ü. 409 f.), and little or no
1899) advocates ingeniously the south Galatian theory, and W. S.
Wood (Studies in St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, 1887). criticizes weight attaches to the attempts made (e.g. by J. A. Cramer) to Lightfoot. General studies of the epistle will be found in all biodisentangle a Pauline nucleus from later accretions. Even graphics of Paul and histories of the apostolic age, as well as in works D. Völter, who applies this method to the other Pauline epistles, like Sabatier's The Apostle Paul (pp. 187 1.), B, W. Bacon's Story of admits that Galatians, whether authentic or not, is substantially a pp. 60 1.), R. Mariano, Il Cristianesimo nei primi secoli (1902), i. literary unity (Paulus und seine Briefe, 1905, pp. 229-285). The Pp. Iul., and Volkmar's Paulus vom Damaskus bis zum Galaterbrief frequent roughnesses of the traditional text suggest, however, that (1887), to which may be added a series of papers by Haupt in Deutsche here and there marginal glosses may have crept in. Thus iv. 25a Evang.-Blätter (1904), 1-16, 89-108, 161-183, 238-259. and an earlier (TO ydp Ewa opos éotiv Šv tû 'Apaßię) probably represents geschichte des Gal." 1860, pp. 206 1., 1866, pp. 301 1., 1884, pp. 303.f.).
set by Hilgenfeld in the Zeitschrift für wiss. Theologie (“ Zur Vorthe explanatory and prosaic gloss of a later editor, as many other monographs and essays have been noted in the course of this scholars have seen from Bentley (Opuscula philologica, 1781, pp. article. See further under Paul.
U. MT.) 533 f.) to H. A. Schott, J. A. Cramer, J. M. S. Baljon and C. Holsten. The general style of the epistle is vigorous and unpre- from which it is 14 m. S. by rail, 233 st. above sea-level. Pop.
GALATINA, a town of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, meditated, one continuous rush, a veritable torrent of genuine (1901) 12,917 (town); 14,086 (commune). It is chiefly remarkand inimitable Paulinism, like a mountain stream in full flood, able for the fine Gothic church of St Caterina, built in 1390 by such as may often have been seen by his Galatians ”. (J. Raimondello del Balzo Orsini, count of Soleto, with a fine portal Macgregor). But there is a certain rhythmical balance, especially and rose-window. The interior contains frescoes by Francesco in the first chapter (cf. J. Weiss, Beiträge zur paulin. Rhetorik, d’Arezzo (1435). The apse contains the fine mausoleum of the 1897, 8 f.); here as elsewhere the rush and flow of feeling carry
son of the founder id. 1454), a canopy supported by four columns, with them some care for rhetorical form, in the shape of
with his statue beneath it. antitheses, such as a pupil of the schools might more or less
GALATZ (Galații), a city of Rumania, capital of the departunconsciously retain. All through, the letter shows the breaks and pauses of a mind in direct contact with some personal crisis. w. by N. of its mouth at Sulina. Pop. (1900) 62,678, including
ment of Covurlui; on the left bank of the river Danube, 90 m. Hurried, unconnected sentences, rather than sustained argument, are its most characteristic features. The trenchant re
12,000 Jews. The Danube is joined by the Sereth 3 m. S.W. of
Galatz, and by the Pruth 10 m. E. Galalz is built on a slight monstrances and fiery outbursts make it indeed "read like a
eminence among the marshes which line the intervening shore dithyramb from beginning to erd."
and form, beside the western bank of the Pruth, the shallow BIBLIOGRAPHY. Of more modern editions in English, the most competent are those of C. J. Ellicott (4th ed., 1867, strong in lingu exient. With the disappearance, towards the close of the 191h
mere called Lake Bratych (Braleşu!), more than 50 sq. m. in istic and grammatical material), Prof. Eadie (Edinburgh, 1869), 1. B. Lightfoot (11th ed., 1892), Dean Alford (3rd ed., 1862) and century, of most of its older quarters in which the crooked, ilF. Rendall (Expositor's Greek Testament, 1903) on the Greek'text: paved streets and insanitary houses were liable to be flooded every Dr Sanday (in Ellicott's Commentary,, 1879), Dr Jas. Macgregor year, the city improved rapidly. Embankments and fine quays (Edinburgh. .1879), B. Jowett (3rd ed., 1894), Huxtable. (Pulpit were constructed along the Danube; electric tramways were Adeney (Century Bible), Dr E. H. Perowne (Cambridge Bible, 1890) opened in the main streets, which were lighted by gas or and Dr James Drummond (Internal. Handbooks to N.T., 1899) also electricity, and pure water was supplied. The higher, or northcomment on the English text. The cditions of Lightfoot and
western part of the city, which is the more open and comfortable, Jowett are especially valuable for their subsidiary essays, and Sir W. M Ramsay's Historical Commentary on Galatians (1899) contains contains many of the chief buildings. These include the prearchacological and historical material which is often illuminating. fecture, consulate, prison, barracks, civil and military hospitals The French editions are few and minor, those by A. Sardinoux and the offices of the international commission for the control of (Valence, 1837) and E. Reuss (1878) being adequate, however. In the Danube (9.0.). The bishop of the lower Danube resides al Germany the two most up-to-date editions are by F. Sieffcrt (in Meyer's Comment., 1899) and Th. Zahn (2nd ed., 1907); these Galatz. There are many Orthodox Greek, Roman Catholic and supersede most of the earlier works, but H. A. Schott (1834), A. other churches; the most interesting being the cathedral, and Wieseler (Göttingen, 1859), G. B. Winer (4th
ed., 1859), J. C. K. von St Mary's church, in which is the tomb of the famous Cossack Hofmann (2nd ed., 1872). Philippi (1884), R. A. Lipsius (2nd ed., chief, Mazeppa (1644-1709). said to have been rised of its contents Hand.- Commentar, 1892), and Zöckler (2nd ed., 1894) may still be consulted with advantage, while Hilgenfeld's commentary (1852) by the Russians. Galatz is a naval station, and the headquarters discusses acutely the historical problems of the epistle from the of the III. army corps, protected by a line of fortifications which standpoint of Baur's criticism. The works of A. Schlatter (2nd ed., extends for 45 m. E. to Focshani and is known as the Sereth line. 1894) and W. Bousset (in Die Schriften des N.T., 2nd ed., 1907) are more popular in character. F. Windischmann (Mayence, 1843). But the main importance of the city is commercial. Galatz is the F. X. Reithmayr (1865), A. Schäfer (Münster, 1890) and F. Cornely chicí
Moldavian port of entry, approached by three waterways, (1892, also in Cursus scripturae sacrae, 1907) are the most satis- the Danube, Sereth and Pruth, down which there is a continual factory modern editors, from the Roman Catholic church, but it volume of traffic, except in mid-winter; and by the railways should not be forgotten that the 16th century produced the Literalis which intersect all the richest portions of the country. Textiles, expositio of Cajetan (Rome, 1529) and the similar work of Pierre Barahona (Salamanca, 1590), no less than the epoch-making edition machinery, and coal make up the bulk of imports. Besides a of Luther (Latin, 1519, &c.; German, 15251.; English, 15751.). After large trade in petroleum and salt, Galatz ranks first among Calvin and Grotius, H. E. G. Paulus (Des A postel P. Lehrbriefe Rumanian cities in its export of timber, and second to Braila in an die Gal. u. Römer Christen, 1831) was perhaps the most inde its export of grain. It possesses many saw-mills; paste-mills, pendent interpreter. For the patristic editions, see the introductory sections in Zahn and Lightsoot. The religious thought of the epistle flour-mills, roperics, chemical works and petroleum refineries;
manusacturing also metal ware, wire, nails, soap and candles. Compare the minute analysis of the whole cpistle in F. Blass, Vessels of 2500 tons can discharge at the quays, but cargoes Die Rhythmen der asianischen unt römischen Kunstprosa (1905), pp. 43:53. 204-216, where, however, this feature is exaggerated into consigned to Galatz are often transhipped into lighters at unreality. The comic trimeter in Philipp. iii. 1 (duol udve oux oxunpór, Sulina. The shipping trade is largely in foreign hands, the mind áo danés) may well be, like that in i Cor. xv. 33, a reminiscence principal owners being British. * This affects even the vocabulary which has also einen gewissen
GALAXY, properly the MILKY WAY, from the Greek name vulgären Zug " (Nägeli, Der.Wortschats des A postels Paulus, 1905, 1 ó yalațias, sc. KÜKios, from yala, milk, cf. the Lat. via laclea (see pp. 78-79).
STAR). The word is more generally employed in its figurative or
transferred sense, to describe a gathering of brilliant or distin- also of other umbelliferous plants. It occurs usually in hard or guished persons or objects.
soft, irregular, more or less translucent and shining lumps, or GALBA, SERVIUS SULPICIUS, Roman general and orator. occasionally in separate tears, of a light-brown, yellowish or He served under Lucius Aemilius Paulus in the third Macedonian greenish-yellow colour, and has a disagreeable, bitter taste, a War. As praetor in 151 B.c. in farther Spain he made himself peculiar, somewhat musky odour, and a specific gravity of 1.212. infamous by the treacherous murder of a number of Lusitanians, it contains about 8% of terpene; about 65% of a resin which with their wives and children, after inducing them to surrender contains sulphur; about 20% of gum; and a very small by the promise of grants of land. For this in 149 he was brought quantity of the colourless crystalline substance umbelliferone, to trial, but secured an acquittal by bribery and by holding up his C,HO3. Galbanum is one of the oldest of drugs. In Exodus little children before the people to gain their sympathy. He was xxx. 34 it is mentioned as a sweet spice, to be used in the making consul in 144, and must have been alive in 138. He was an of a perfume for the tabernacle. Hippocrates employed it in eloquent speaker, noted for his violent gesticulations, and, in medicine, and Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxiv. 13) ascribes to it extraCicero's opinion, was the first of the Roman orators. His ordinary curative powers, concluding his account of it with the speeches, however, were almost forgotten in Cicero's time. assertion that “the very touch of it mixed with oil of spondylium
Livy xlv. 35; Appian, Hisp. 58-60; Cicero, De oral. i. 53, iii. 9; is sufficient to kill a serpent.” The drug is occasionally given Brutus 21.
in modern medicine, in doses of from five to fifteen grains. It GALBA, SERVIUS SULPICIUS, Roman emperor (June a.d.
has the actions common to substances containing a resin and a 68 to January 69), born near Terracina, on the 24th of December volatile oil. Its use in medicine is, however, obsolescent. 5 B.C. He came of a noble family and was a man of great wealth,
GALCHAS, the name given to the highland tribes of Ferghana, but unconnected either by birth or by adoption with the first six Kohistan and Wakhan. These Aryans of the Pamir and Hindu Caesars. In his early years he was regarded as a youth of Kush, kinsmen of the Tajiks, are identified with the Calcienses remarkable abilities, and it is said that both Augustus, and populi of the lay Jesuit Benedict Goes, who crossed the Pamir Tiberius prophesied his future eminence (Tacitus, Annals, vi. 20; 1 in 1603 and described them as “ of light hair and beard like the Suetonius, Galba, 4). Praetor in 20, and consul in 33, he acquired Belgians." The word “Galcha,” which has been explained as a well-merited reputation in the provinces of Gaul, Germany, meaning " the hungry raven who has withdrawn to the Africa and Spain by his military capability, strictness and mountains," in allusion to the retreat of this branch of the Tajik impartiality. On the death of Caligula, he refused the invitation family to the mountains to escape the Tatar hordes, is probably of his friends to make a bid for empire, and loyally served simply the Persian galcha, "clown ” or “ rustic,” in reference to Claudius. For the first half of Nero's reign he lived in retire
their uncouth manners. The Galchas conform physically to ment, till, in 61, the emperor bestowed on him the province of what has been called the “ Alpine or Celtic European race," so Hispania Tarraconensis. In the spring of 68 Galba was informed much so that French anthropologists have termed them “ those of Nero's intention to put him to death, and of the insurrection of belated Savoyards of Kohistan." D'Ujfalvy describes them as Julius Vindex in Gaul. He was at first inclined to follow the tall, brown or bronzed and even white, with ruddy cheeks, black, example of Vindex, but the defeat and suicide of the latter chestnut, sometimes red hair, brown, blue or grey eyes, never renewed his hesitation. The news that Nymphidius Sabinus, oblique, well-shaped, slightly curved nose, thin lips, oval face and the praefect of the praetorians, had declared in his favour revived round head. Thus it seems reasonable to hold that the Galchas Galba's spirits. Hitherto, he had only dared to call himself the represent the most eastern extension of the Alpine race through legate of the senate and Roman people; after the murder of Armenia and the Bakhtiari uplands into central Asia. The Nero, he assumed the title of Caesar, and marched straight for Galchas for the most part profess Sunnite Mahommedanism. Rome. At first he was welcomed by the senate and the party of order, but he was never popular with the soldiers or the people. Soc. Bengal, xlv. (1876), and xlvi. (1877); Major 3. Biddulph, Tribes
See Robert Shaw, "On the Galtchah Languages," in Journ. As. He incurred the hatred of the praetorians by scornfully refusing of the Hindoo-Koosh (Calcutta, 1880); Hon. Mountstuart Elphin. to pay them the reward promised in his name, and disgusted the stone, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul (1815); Bull. de la mob by his meanness and dislike of pomp and display. His société d'anthropologie de Paris (1887); Charles Eugene D'Ujfalvy advanced age had destroyed his energy, and he was entirely in logie (1879), and Bull de la soc. de géogr. (June 1878); W. Z. Ripley, the bands of favourites. An outbreak amongst the legions of Races of Europe (New York, 1899). Germany, who demanded that the senate should choose another
GALE, THEOPHILUS (1628–1678), English nonconformist emperor, first made him aware of his own unpopularity and the divine, was born in 1628 at Kingsteignton, in Devonshire, where general discontent. In order to check the rising storm, he his father was vicar. In 1647 he was entered at Magdalen College, adopted as his coadjutor and successor L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi Oxford, where he took his B.A. degree in 1649, and M.A. in 1652, Licinianus, a man in every way worthy of the honour. His In 1650 he was made fellow and tutor of his college. He remained choice was wise and patriotic; but the populace regarded it as a sign of fear, and the praetorians were indignant, because the
some years at Oxford, discharging actively the duties of tutor,
and was in 1657 appointed preacher in Winchester cathedral. usual donative was not forthcoming. M. Salvius Otho, formerly In 1662 he refused to submit to the Act of Uniformity, and was governor of Lusitania, and one of Galba's earliest supporters, ejected. He became tutor to the sons of Lord Wharton, whom he disappointed at not being chosen instead of Piso, entered into accompanied to the Protestant college of Caen, in Normandy, communication with the discontented praetorians, and was adopted by them as their emperor. Galba, who at once set out to returning to England in 1665. The latter portion of his life he meet the rebelshe was so feeble that he had to be carried in a passed in London as assistant to John Rowe, an Independent litter-was met by a troop of cavalry and butchered near the Gale succeeded Rowe in 1677, and died in the following year.
minister who had charge of an important church in Holborn; Lacus Curtius. During the later period of his provincial ad
His principal work, The Court of the Gentiles, which appeared in ministration he was indolent and apathetic, but this was due either to a desire not to attract the notice of Nero or to the parts in 1669, 1671 and 1676, is a strange storehouse of miscel
laneous philosophical learning. It resembles the Intellectual growing infirmities of age. Tacitus rightly says that all would System of Ralph Cudworth, though much inferior to that work have pronounced him worthy of empire if he had never been both in general construction and in fundamental idea. Gale's emperor (“ omnium consensu capax imperii nisi imperasset ”).
endeavour (based on a hint of Grotius in De veritate, i. 16) is to See his life by Plutarch and Suetonius: Tacitus, Histories, i. 7-49; Dio Cassius Ixiii. 23-Ixiv. 6; B. W. Henderson, Civil War and
prove that the whole philosophy of the Gentiles is a distorted or Rebellion in the Roman Empire, A.D. 69-70 (1908):W. A. Spooner, mangled reproduction of Biblical truths. Just as Cudworth On the Characters of Galba, Otho and Vitellius in Introd. to his edition referred the Democritean doctrine of atoms to Moses as the (1891) of the Histories of Tacitus.
original author, so Gale tries to show that the various systems of GALBANUM (Heb. Helbenäh; Gr. xaxßám), a gum-resin, the Greek thought may be traced back to Biblical sources. Like so product of Ferula galbaniflua, indigenous to Persia, and perhaps I many of the learned works of the 17th century, the Court of the Gentiles is chaotic and unsystematic, while its erudition is and after the peace which followed the Christian victory at St rendered almost valueless by the complete absence of any critical Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English king Charles II. discrimination.
in his war with the Dutch, until the intervention of Louis XIV. His other writings are: A True Idea of Jansenism (1669); Theo and Frederick William I. of Brandenburg compelled him to phil, or a Discourse of the Saint's Amitie with God in Christ (1671): make a disadvantageous peace in 1666. When Galen again Analomie of Infidelilie (1672); Idea theologiae (1673); Philosophia attacked Holland six years later he was in alliance with Louis, but generalis (1676).
he soon deserted his new friend, and fought for the emperor GALE, THOMAS (?1636–1702), English classical scholar and Leopold I. against France. Afterwards in conjunction with antiquarian, was born at Scruton, Yorkshire. He was educated Brandenburg and Denmark he attacked Charles XI. of Sweden, at Westminster school and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which and conquered the duchy of Bremen. He died at Ahaus on the he became a fellow. In 1666 he was appointed regius professor 19th of September 1678. Galen showed himself anxious to reform of Greek at Cambridge, in 1672 high master of St Paul's school, the church, but his chief energies were directed to increasing his in 1676 prebendary of St Paul's, in 1677 a fellow of the Royal power and prestige. Society, and in 1697 dean of York. He died at York on the 7th See K. Tücking, Geschichte des Stifts_Münster unter C. B. von (or 8th) of April 1702. He published a collection, Opuscula Galen, (Münster, 1865); P. Corstiens, Bernard van Galen, Vorstmythologica, ethica, et physica, and editions of several Greek and Bisschop van Munster (Rotterdam, 1872); A. Hüsing,
Fürstbischof Latin authors, but his fame rests chiefly on his collection of old Historical Review, vol. xxi. (1906). There is in the British Museum
C. B. von Galen (Münster, 1887); and C. Brinkmann in the English works bearing on Early English history, entitled Historiae a poem printed in 1666, entitled Letter to the bishop of Munster Anglicanae scriplores and Historiae Britannicae, Saxonicae, conlaining a Panegyrick of his heroick achievements in heroick verse. Anglo-Danicae scriptores XV. He was the author of the inscrip- GALEN (or GALENUS), CLAUDIUS, called Gallien by Chaucer tion on the London Monument in which the Roman Catholics and other writers of the middle ages, the most celebrated of were accused of having originated the great fire.
ancient medical writers, was born at Pergamus, in Mysia, about See J. E. B. Mayor, Cambridge in the Time of Queen Anne, 448-450. A.D. 130. His father Nicon, from whom he received his early
GALE. 1. (A word of obscure origin; possibly derived from education, is described as remarkable both for excellence of Dan. gel, mad or furious, sometimes applied to wind, in the sense natural disposition and for mental culture; his mother, on the of boisterous) a wind of considerable power, considerably other hand, appears to have been a second Xanthippe. In 146 stronger than a breeze, but not severe enough to be called a storm. Galen began the study of medicine, and in about his twentieth In nautical language it is usually combined with some qualifying year he left Pergamus for Smyrna, in order to place himself word, as“ half a gale," a " stiff gale." In poetical and figurative under the instruction of the anatomist and physician Pelops, and language“ gale" is often used in a pleasant sense, as in "favour of the peripatetic philosopher Albinus. He subsequently visited ing gale"; in America, it is used in a slang sense for boisterous or other cities, and in 158 returned from Alexandria to Pergamus. excited behaviour.
A few years later he went for the first time to Rome. There he 2. The payment of rent, customs or duty at regular intervals; healed Eudemus, a celebrated peripatetic philosopher, and other a "hanging gale” is an arrear of rent left over after each suc- persons of distinction; and ere long, by his learning and uncessive“ gale" or rent day. The term survives in the Forest of paralleled success as a physician, earned for himself the titles of Dean, for leases granted to the “ free miners ” of the forest, Paradoxologus," the wonder-speaker, and "Paradoxopoeus," granted by the "gaveller " or agent of the crown, and the term is the wonder-worker, thereby incurring the jealousy and envy of also applied to the royalty paid to the crown, and to the area his fellow-practitioners. Leaving Rome in 168, he repaired to mined. The word is a contracted form of the 0. Eng. gasol, his native city, whence he was soon sent for to Aquileia, in which survives in “ gavel," in gavelkind (q.v.), and in the name of Venetia, by the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius. In the office mentioned above. The root from which these words 170 he returned to Rome with the latter, who, on departing derive is that of “ give.” Through Latinized forms it appears in thence to conduct the war on the Danube, having with difficulty gabelle (q.v.).
been persuaded to dispense with his personal attendance, 3. The popular name of a plant, also known as the sweet gale or appointed him medical guardian of his son Commodus. In gaul, sweet willow, bog or Dutch myrtle. The Old English form of Rome Galen remained for some years, greatly extending his the word is gagel. It is a small, twiggy, resinous fragrant shrub reputation as a physician, and writing some of his most important found on bogs and moors in the British Islands, and widely treatises. It would appear that he eventually betook himself to distributed in the north temperate zone. It has narrow, short-Pergamus, after spending some time at the island of Lemnos, stalked leaves and inconspicuous, apetalous, unisexual flowers where he learned the method of preparing a certain popular borne in short spikes. The small drupe-like fruit is attached to the medicine, the "terra lemnia" or "sigillata.” Whether he ever persistent bracts. The leaves are used as tea and as a country revisited Rome is uncertain, as also are the time and place of his medicine. John Gerard (Herball, p. 1228) describes it as sweet death. According to Suidas, he died at the age of seventy, or in willow or gaule, and refers to its use in beer or ale. The genus the year 200, in the reign of Septimius Severus. If, however, Myrica is the type of a small, but widely distributed order, we are to trust the testimony of Abul-faraj, his decease took Myricaceae, which is placed among the apetalous families of place in Sicily, when he was in his eightieth year. Galen was one Dicotyledons, and is perhaps most nearly allied to the willow of the most versatile and accomplished writers of his age. He family. Myrica cerifcra is the candleberry, wax-myrtle or wax- composed, it is said, nearly 500 treatises on various subjects, tree (q.v.).
including logic, ethics and grammar. Of the published works GALEN, CHRISTOPH BERNHARD, FREIHERR VON (1606- attributed to him, 83 are recognized as genuine, 19 are of doubtful 1678), prince bishop of Münster, belonged to a noble West-authenticity, 45 are confessedly spurious, 19 are fragments, and phalian family, and was born on the 12th of October 1606. 15 are notes on the writings of Hippocrates. Reduced to poverty through the loss of his paternal inheritance, Galen, who in his youth was carefully trained in the Stoic he took holy orders; but this did not prevent him from fighting philosophy, was an unusually prolific writer on logic. Of the on the side of the emperor Ferdinand III. during the concluding numerous commentaries and original treatises, a catalogue of stages of the Thirty Years' War. In 1650 he succeeded Ferdinand which is given in his work De propriis libris, one only has come of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne, as bishop of Münster. After down to us, the treatise on Follacies in dictione (Ilepi tûv kata restoring some degree of peace and prosperity in his principality, Thu Né Ecv godlomátwv). Many points of logical theory, however, Galen had to contend with a formidable insurrection on the part of are discussed in his medical and scientific writings. His name is the citizens of Münster; but at length this was crushed, and the perhaps best known in the history of logic in connexion with the bellicose bishop, who maintained a strong army, became an fourth syllogistic figure, the first distinct statement of which was important personage in Europe. In 1664 he was chosen one of ascribed to him by Averroes. There is no evidence from Galen's the directors of the imperial army raised to fight the Turk; l own works that he did make this addition to the doctrines of
syllogism, and the remarkable passage quoted by Minoides opened, one of whose proprietors was Joseph Jefferson, the father Minas from a Greek commentator on the Analytics, referring the of the celebrated actor of that name. fourth figure to Galen, clearly shows that the addition did not, GALENA, a city of Cherokee county, Kansas, U.S.A., in the as generally supposed, rest on a new principle, but was merely an extreme S.E. part of the state, on Short Creek and near Spring amplification or alteration of the indirect moods of the first river. Pop. (1890) 2496; (1900) 10,155, of whom 580 were figure already noted by Theophrastus and the earlier Peripatetics. negroes and 251 were foreign-born; (1905) 6449; (1910) 6096.
In 1844 Minas published a work, avowedly from a MS. with the It is situated at the intersection of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, superscription Galenus, entitled Talmvoll cloaywrth Scalextunń. and the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis (“ Frisco System ") of this work, which contains no direct intimation of a fourth railways, in the midst of a lead and zinc region, extremely figure, and which in general exhibits an astonishing mixture of valuable deposits of these metals having been discovered in 1877. the Aristotelian and Stoic logic, Prantl speaks with the bitterest | Smelters and foundries are its principal manufacturing establishcontempt. He shows demonstratively that it cannot be regarded ments. Water power in abundance is furnished by the Spring as a writing of Galen's, and ascribes it to some one or other of the river. After the discovery of the ore deposits two rival companies later Greek logicians. A full sunimary of its contents will be founded Galena and Empire City (pop. in 1905, 982), the former found in the ist vol. of the Geschichte der Logik (pp. 591-610), and S. of Short Creek and the latter N.of it. Galena was incorporated a notice of the logical theories of the true Galen in the same work, in 1877, and in 1907 Empire City was annexed to it. pp. 559-577
GALENA, an important ore of lead, consisting of lead sulphide There have been numerous issues of the whole or parts of Gạlen's (PbS). The mineral was mentioned by Pliny under this name, works, among the editors or illustrators of which may be mentioned and it is sometimes now known as lead-glance (Ger. Bleiglanz). Jo. Bapt. Opizo, N. Leonicenus, L. Fuchs, A. Lacuna, Ant. Musa Brassavolus, Aug. Gadaldinus, Conrad Gesner, Sylvius, Cornarius,
It crystallizes in the cubic system, and well-developed crystals Joannes Montanus, Joannes Caius, Thomas Linacre, Theodore are of common occurrence; the usual form is the cube or the Goulston, Caspar Hoffman, René Chartier, Haller and Kühn. oi cubo-octahedron (fig.). An important Latin translations Choulant mentions one in the 15th and twenty- character, and one by which the mineral two in the following century. The Greek text was edited at Venice; may always be recognized, is the perfect in 1525, 5 vol Latin version by René Chartier, in 1639, and in 1679, 13 vols. fol.; cubical cleavage, on which the lustre is and at Leipzig, in 1821-1833, by C. G. Kühn, considered to be the best, brilliant and metallic. The colour of the 20 vols. 8vo. An epitome in English of the works of Hippocrates mineral and of its streak is lead-grey; and Galen, by J. R. Coxe, was published at Philadelphia in 1846. it is opaque; the hardness is 24 and A new edition of Galen's smaller works by J. Marquardt, Iwan
Twinned Müller and G. Helmreich was published in three volumes at Leipzig the specific gravity 7.5. in 1884-1909
crystals are not common, but the Further details as to the life and an account of the anatomical presence of polysynthetic twinning is sometimes shown by fine and medical knowledge of Galen will be found in the historical articles striations running diagonally or obliquely across the cleavage under the headings of ANATOMY and MEDICINE. See also René Chartier's Life, in his edition of Galen's works; N. F. J. Eloy, surfaces. Large masses with a coarse or fine granular structure Dictionnaire historique de la médecine, s.v. Galien," tom. i. (1778): are of common occurrence; the fractured surfaces of such F. Adams's " Commentary "in his Medical Works of Paulus Aegineta masses present a spangled appearance owing to the numerous (London and Aberdeen, 1834); J. Kidd, " A Cursory Analysis of the bright cleavages. Works of Galen, so far as they relate to Anatomy and Physiology," Trans. Provincial Med. and Surg. Assoc. vi., 1837; , pp. 299-336;
The formula Pbs corresponds with lead 86.6 and sulphur C. V. Daremberg, Exposition des connaissances de Galien sur l'ana- 13:4%. The mineral nearly always contains a small amount of lomie, la physiologie et la pathologie du système nerveux (Thèse pour silver, and sometimes antimony, arsenic, copper, gold, selenium, le Doctorat en Médecine) (Paris, 1841);, J. R. Gasquet, "The &c. Argentiferous galena is an important source of silver; this Practical Medicine of Galen and his Time," The British and Foreign metal is present in amounts rarely exceeding 1%, and often less "Die Schriften des Claudius Galenos," 'Rheinisches Museum für than 0.03% (equivalent to 107 ounces per ton). Since argentite Philologie, 1889, 1892 and 1896.
(Ag2S) is isomorphous with galena, it is probable that the silver GALENA, a city and the county-seat of Jo Daviess county, isomorphously replaces lead, but it is to be noted that native Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.W: part of the state, on the Galena silver has been detected as an enclosure in galena. (formerly the Fever) river, near its junction with the Mississippi, Galena is of wide distribution, and occurs usually in metalabout 165 m. W.N.W. of Chicago. Pop. (1900) 5005, of whom liferous veins traversing crystalline rocks, clay-slates and lime918 were foreign-born; (1910) 4835. It is served by the Chicago, stones, and also as pockets in limestones. It is often associated Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western and the with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, Illinois Central railways; the Galena river has been made barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the navigable by government locks at the mouth of the river, but the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite river traffic is unimportant. The city is built on rocky limestone occur as alteration products. The mineral has occasionally been bluffs, which rise rather abruptly on each side of the river, and a observed as a recent formation replacing organic matter, such number of the parallel streets, of different levels, are connected as wood; and it is sometimes found in beds of coal. As small by Alights of steps. In Grant Park there is a statue of General concretionary nodules, it occurs disseminated through sandU.S. Grant, who was a resident of Galena at the outbreak of the stone at Kommern in the Eifel. In the lead-mining districts of Civil War. In the vicinity there are the most important deposits of Derbyshire and the north of England the ore occurs as veins and zinc and lead in the state, and the city derives its name from the flats in the Carboniferous Limestone series, whilst in Cornwall deposits of sulphide of lead (galena), which were the first worked the veins traverse clay-slates. In the Upper Mississippi lead about here; below the galena is a zone of zinc carbonate (or region of Missouri, Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin the ore fills smithsonite) ores, which was the main zone worked between 1860 large cavities or chambers in limestone. and 1890; still lower is a zone of blende, or zinc sulphide, now Galena is met with at all places where lead is mined; of the principal source of the mineral wealth of the region. The localities which have yielded finely crystallized specimens the production of zinc is increasing, but that of lead is unimportant. following may be selected for mention: Derbyshire, Alston in The principal manufactures are mining pumps and machinery, Cumberland, Laxey in the Isle of Man (where crystals measuring flour, woollen goods, lumber and furniture. Water power is almost a foot across have been found), Neudorf in the Harz, afforded by the river. Galena was originally a trading post, Rossie in New York and Joplin in Missouri. Good crystals have called by the French “ La Pointe ” and by the English “ Fever also been obtained as a furnace product. River," the river having been named after le Fevre, a French Coarsely grained galena is used for glazing pottery, and is then trader who settled near its mouth. In 1826 Galena was laid out known as “ potters' ore” or alquifoux. as a town and received its present name; it was incorporated in The galena group includes several other cubic minerals, such as 1835 and was reincorporated in 1882. In 1838 a theatre was argentite (9.0.). Mention may also be made here of clausthalite