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(lead selenide, PbSe) and altaite (lead telluride, PbTe), which, broad integumentary expansion extending outwards from the with their lead-grey colour and perfect cubic cleavage, closely sides of the neck and body, but there is also a web between the resemble galena in appearance; these species are named after fingers and toes as far as the base of the claws (fig.); and the the localities at which they were originally found, namely, hind-limbs are further connected by a similar expansion passing Klausthal in the Harz and the Altai mountains in Asiatic Russia. outwards along the back of the feet to the base of the claws, and, Altaite is of interest as being one of the tellurides found associated inwardly, involving the long tail to the tip, forming a true with gold.
(L. J. S.) interfemoral membrane, as in bats. Besides differing from bats GALEOPITHECUS, the scientific designation of the Colugo altogether in the form of the anterior limbs and of the double(7.0.) or Cobego, commonly known as the flying-lemur, and alone rooted outer incisors and canines, Galeopithecus contrasts strongly representing the family Galcopithecidae. Much uncertainty has with that order in the presence of a large sacculated caecum, and prevailed among naturalists as to the systematic position of this in the great length of the colon, which is so remarkably short in animal, or rather these animals (for there are two species); and Chiroplera. From the lemurs, on the other hand, the form of while some have referred it to the lemurs, others have placed it the brain, the character of the teeth, the structure of the skull, with the bats, and others again among the Inseclivora, as the and the deciduate discoidal placenta at once separate the representative of a special subordinal group, the Dermoptera. group.
(R. L.*) Dr H. C. Chapman, who has made a special study of the creature, GALERIUS (GALERIUS VALERIUS MAXIMIANUS), Roman writes, however, as follows: “ It appears, at least in the judg- emperor from A.D. 305 to 311, was born near Sardica in Thrace. ment of the author, that Galeopithecus cannot be regarded as He originally followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsbeing either a lemur, or insectivore, or bat, but that it stands man, whence his surname of Armentarius (Lat. armentum, herd). alone, the sole representative of an ancient group, Galeopithecidae, He served with distinction as a soldier under Aurelian and as Hyrax does of Hyracoidea. While Galeopithecus is but re- Probus, and in 293 was designated Caesar along with Constantius motely related to the Lemuroidea and Insectivora, it is so closely Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria, and related to Chiroplera, more particularly in regard to the structure at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian of its patagium, brain, alimentary canal, genito-urinal apparatus, provinces. In 296, at the beginning of the Persian War, he was
removed from the Danube to the Euphrates; his first campaign ended in a crushing defeat, near Callinicum, but in 297, advancing through the mountains of Armenia, he gained a decisive victory over Narses (9.0.) and compelled him to make peace. In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and Daia (Maximinus), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. This scheme, however, was defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) on the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and
Maxentius in Italy. After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in Feet of Philippine Colugo, or Flying Lemur (Galeopithecus 307 he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and, philippinensis).
moderating his ambition, devoted the few remaining years of his
life" to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some &c., that there can be but little doubt that the Chiroplera are the works of public utility." It was at the instance of Galerius that descendants of Galeo pilhecus, or, more probably, that both are the the first of the celebrated edicts of persecution against the descendants of a Galeopithecus-like ancestor." Without going Christians was published, on the 24th of February 303, and this quite so far as this, it may be definitely admitted that the colugo policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance is entitled to represent an order by itself, the characters of which of the general edict of toleration (311), issued in his own name and will be as follows: Herbivorous, climbing, unguiculate mammals, in those of Licinius and Constantine. He died in May 311 A.D. provided with a very extensive flying-membrane, and having the See Zosimus ii. 8-11; Zonaras xii. 31-34; Eutropius ix. 24, dental formula i. *, c. , p. 3, m. , total 34. The lower incisors x. I. are directed forwards and have a comb-like structure of their GALESBURG, a city and the county-seat of Knox county, crowns, while the outermost of these teeth and the canines are Illinois, U.S.A., in the N.W. part of the state, 163 m. S.W. of double-rooted, being in these respects, taken together, quite Chicago. Pop. (1890) 15,264; (1900) 18,607; of whom 3602 unlike those of all other mammals; the cheek-teeth have were foreign-born; (census, 1910) 22,089. It is served by the numerous sharp cusps; and there is the normal replacement of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé, and the Chicago, Burlington & milk-molars by premolars. In the skull the orbit is surrounded Quincy railways. Knox College (non-sectarian and coeducaby bone, and the tympanic has a bulla and an ossified external tional), which was chartered here in 1837 as the “Knox Manual mcatus. The ulna and fibula are to some extent inclined back- Labor College” (the present name was adopted in 1857), was wards; the carpus has a scapho-lunar; and the feet are five-opened in 1841, and had in 1907-1908, 31 instructors and 628 toed. The hemispheres of the brain are short and but slightly students, of whom more than half were in the Conservatory of convoluted; the stomach is simple; there is a large caecum; Music, a department of the college, and 79 were in the Academy. the testes are received into inguinal pouches; the uterus is Lombard College (coeducational; Universalist), which was two-horned; the placenta is discoidal; and there are two chartered as the “ Illinois Liberal Institute "in 1851, was known pairs of pectoral teats. A single offspring is produced at a as Lombard University (in honour of Benjamin Lombard, a birth.
benefactor) from 1855 to 1899; it includes a College of Liberal It will be obvious that if other representatives of the Dermoptera Arts, the Ryder Divinity School (1881), and departments of were discovered, some of these features might apply only to the music and domestic science, and in 1907-1908 had 18 instructors family Galeopithecidae.
and 117 students. Here also are Corpus Christi College (Roman There are two species, Galeopithecus volans, ranging from Catholic), St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic) and Brown's Burma, Siam and the Malay Peninsula to Borneo, Sumatra and Business College (1874). There is a public library, founded in Java, and G. philippinensis of the Philippine group. The former, 1874. The industries consist mainly of the construction and which is nearly 2 ft. in total length, is distinguished by its repairing of steam railway cars (in the shops of the Chicago, Burlarger upper incisors, shorter ears and smaller skull. In both lington & Quincy railway) and the manufacture of soundry and species not only are the long and slender limbs connected by a l machine-shop products, vitrified brick, agricultural implements and machinery. The total value of the factory product in 1905 | 30th of October 1787, Galiani kept up with his old Parisian friends was $2,217,772, being 52.9% more than in 1900. Galesburg a correspondence, which was published in 1818. was named in honour of the Rev. George Washington Gale (1789- See L'Abate Galiani, by Alberto Marghieri (1878), and his corre1862), a prominent Presbyterian preacher, who in 1827-1834 had spondence with Tanucci in Viesseux's L'Archivio storico (Florence, founded the Oneida Manual Labor Institute at Whitestown, 1878). Oneida county, New York. Desiring to establish a college in the GALICIA (Ger. Galizien; Pol. Holicz), a crownland of Austria, Mississippi Valley to supply“ an evangelical and able ministry" bounded E. and N. by Russia, S. by Bukovina and Hungary, and to“ spread the Gospel throughout the world,” and also wishing to w. by Austrian and Prussian Silesia. It has an area of 30,299 counteract the influence of pro-slavery men in Illinois, he sq. m., and is the largest Austrian province. It comprises the old interested a number of people in the project, formed a society for kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and colonization, and in 1836 led the first settlers to Galesburg, the Zator, and the grand duchy of Cracow. “Mesopotamia in the West." Knox College was founded to Galicia lies on the northern slopes of the Carpathians, which fulfil his educational purpose. Galesburg was an important with their offshoots cover about a third of the whole area of "station" of the Underground Railroad, one of the conditions of the country. The surface gradually sinks down by undulating membership in the “ Presbyterian Church of Galesburg" (the terraces to the valleys of the Vistula and Dniester. To the N. and name of Mr Gale's society) being opposition to slavery; and in E. of these rivers Galicia forms a continuation of the great plains 1855 this caused the church to withdraw from the Presbytery of Russia, intersected only by a few hills, which descend from the Galesburg was chartered as a city in 1857. On the 7th of October plateaus of Poland and Podolia, and which attain in some places 1858 one of the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates was held in the an altitude of 1300 to 1500 ft. The Carpathians, which, extendgrounds of Knox College.
ing in the form of an arc, form the boundary between Galicia and GALGĀCUS, or perhaps rather CALGĀCUS, a Caledonian chief Hungary, are divided into the West and the East Beskides, who led the tribes of North Britain against the invading Roman which are separated by the northern ramifications of the massif army under Cn. Julius Agricola about A.D. 85 and was defeated of the Tatra. The highest peaks are the Babia Góra (5650 ft.), at the battle of Mons Graupius (Tac. Agric. 29). The name the Wolowiec (6773 ft.) and the Cserna Góra (6505 ft.). The recurs much later, in Adamnan's Life of Columba, in th name principal passes are those of Zdjar over the Tatra, and of of a wood near Londonderry, Daire-Calgaich or Roboretum Dukla, Vereczke Körösmező or Delatyn in the East Beskides. Calgachi, “ the wood of Calgacus ": it may be Celtic and depote The river Vistula, which becomes navigable at Cracow, " the man with the sword."
and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia, GALIANI, FERDINANDO (1728-1787), Italian economist, was receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with born at Chieti on the 2nd of December 1728. He was carefully its affluents the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San educated by his uncle Monsignor C. Galiani at Naples and Rome and the Bug. The Dniester, which rises in the Carpathians, with a view to entering the Church. Galiani gave early promise within the territory of Galicia, becomes navigable at Sambor, of distinction as an economist, and even more as a wit At the and receives on the right the Stryj, the Swica, the Lomnica and age of twenty-two, after he bad taken orders, he had produced the Bystrzyca, and on the left the Lipa, the Strypa, the Sereth two works by which his name became widely known far beyond and the Zbrucz, the boundary river towards Russia. The the bounds of his own Naples. The one, his Trattato della Pruth, which also rises in the Carpathians, within the territory of moneta, in which he shows himself a strong supporter of the Galicia, traverses its south-eastern corner and receives the mercantile school, deals with many aspects of the question of Czeremosz, the boundary river towards Bukovina. There are few exchange, but always with a special reference to the state of lakes in the country except mountain tarns; but considerable confusion then presented by the whole monetary system of the morasses exist about the Upper Dneister, the Vistula and the Neapolitan government. The other, Raccolta in Morle del Boia, San, while the ponds or dams in the Podolian valleys are estimated established his fame as a humorist, and was highly popular in to cover an area of over 200 sq. m. The most frequented mineral Italian literary circles at the end of the 18th century. In this springs are the alkaline springs at Szczawnica and Krynica, the volume Galiani parodied with exquisite felicity, in a series of sulphur springs at Krzesowice, Szklo and Lubian, and the discourses on the death of the public hangman, the styles of the iodine springs at Iwonicz. most pompous and pedantic Neapolitan writers of the day. Exposed to the cold northern and north-eastern winds, and Galiani's political knowledge and social qualities now pointed him shut out by the Carpathians from the warm southerly winds, out to the discriminating eye of King Charles, afterwards Charles Galicia has the severest climate in Austria. It has long winters, III. of Spain, and his liberal minister Tanucci, and he was with an abundant snowfall, short and wet springs, hot summers appointed in 1759 secretary to the Neapolitan embassy at Paris. and long and steady autumns. The mean annual temperature at This post he held for ten years, when he returned to Naples and Lemberg is 46.2° F., and at Tarnopol only 43° F. was made a councillor of the tribunal of commerce, and in 1777, Of the total area 48.45% is occupied by arable land, 11•16% minister of the royal domains. His economic reputation was by meadows, 9.19% by pastures, 1.39% by gardens and 25-76% made by a book written in French and published in Paris, by forests. The soil is generally fertile, but agriculture is still namely, his Dialogues sur le commerce des blés. This work, by its backward. The principal products are barley, oats, rye, wheat, light and pleasing style, and the vivacious wit with which it maize and leguminous plants. Galicia has the largest area under abounded, delighted Voltaire, who spoke of it as a book in the pro- potatoes and legumes in the whole of Austria, and hemp, flax, duction of which Plato and Molière might have been combined! | tobacco and hops are of considerable importance. The principal The author, says Pecchio, treated his arid subject as Fontenelle mineral products are salt, coal and petroleum. Salt is extracted did the vortices of Descartes, or Algarotti the Newtonian system at Wieliczka, Bochnia, Bolechow, Dolina, Kalusz and Kosow. of the world. The question at issue was that of the freedom of the Coals are found in the Cracow district at Jaworzno, at Siersza corn trade, then much agitated, and, in particular, the policy of near Trzebinia and at Dabrowa. Some of the richest petroleum the royal edict of 1764, which permitted the exportation of grain fields in Europe are spread in the region of the Carpathians, and so long as the price had not arrived at a certain height. The are worked at Boryslaw and Schodnica near Drohobycz, Bobrka general principle he maintains is that the best system in regard to and Potok near Krosno, Sloboda-Rungurska near Kolomea, &c. this trade is to have no system-countries differently circum- Great quantities of ozocerite are also extracted in the petrolistanced requiring, according to him, different modes of treatment. ferous region of the Carpathians. Other mineral products are He fell, however, into some of the most serious errors of the zinc, extracted at Trzebionka and Wodna in the Cracow region, mercantilists-holding, as indeed did also Voltaire and even amounting to 40% of the total zinc production in Austria, iron Verri, that one country cannot gain without another losing, and ore, marble and various stones for construction. The sulphur in his earlier treatise going so far as to defend the action of govern- mines of Swoszowice near Cracow, which had been worked since ments in debasing the currency. Until his death at Naples on the I 1598, were abandoned in 1884. XI 7*
The manufacturing industries of Galicia are not highly | Lodomeria; and in 1382, by the marriage of Louis's daughter developed. The first place is occupied by the distilleries, whose with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as part of his output amounts to nearly 40% of the total production of Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became despirits in Austria. Then follow the petroleum refineries and finitively assigned to Poland. On the first partition of Poland, in kindred industries, saw-mills and the fabrication of various 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, wood articles, paper and milling. The sugar factory at Tlumacz and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; and the tobacco factory at Winniki are amongst the largest but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were establishments of their kind in Austria. Cloth manufacture is surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of concentrated at Biala, while the weaving of linen and of woollens East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia. This is pursued as a household industry, the former in the Carpathian latter portion was recovered by Austria at the peace of Paris region, the latter in eastern Galicia. The commerce, which is (1814), and the former came back on the suppression of the mainly in the hands of the Jews, is very active, and the transit independent republic of Cracow in 1846. After the introduction trade to Russia and to the East is also of considerable importance. of the constitution of February 1861, Galicia gained a larger
Galicia had in 1900 a population of 7,295,538, which is degree of autonomy than any other province in the Austrian equivalent to.241 inhabitants per sq. m. The two principal empire. nationalities are the Poles (45%) and the Ruthenians (42%),
See Die österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild, the former predominating in the west and in the big towns, and vol. 19 (Wien, 1885-1902, 24 vols.); Die Länder Österreich-Ungarns the latter in the east. The Poles who inhabit the Carpathians are in Wort und Bild, vol. 10 (Wien, 1881-1886, 15 vols.). Remarkable
sketches of Galician life are to be found in the works of the German distinguished as Goralians (from góry, mountain), and those of
novelist Sacher-Masoch (1835-1895). the lower regions as Mazures and Cracoviaks. The Ruthenian highlanders bear the name of Huzulians. The Poles are mostly GALICIA (the ancient Gallaecia or Callaecia, Kallauria or Roman Catholics, the Ruthenians are Greek Catholics, and there Kalaxia), a captaincy-general, and formerly a kingdom, count. are over 770,000 Jews, and about 2500 Armenians, who are ship and province, in the north-western angle of Spain; bounded Catholics and stand under the jurisdiction of an Armenian on the N. by the Bay of Biscay, E. by Leon and Asturias, S. by archbishop at Lemberg.
Portugal, and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1900) 1,980,515; The Roman Catholic Church has an archbishop, at Lemberg, area, 11,254 sq. m. In 1833 Galicia was divided for adminisand three bishops, at Cracow, at Przemysl and at Tarnow, and the trative purposes into the provinces of Corunna, Lugo, Orense and Greek Catholic Church is represented by an archbishop, at Pontevedra. Lemberg, and two bishops, at Przemysl and at Stanislau. At the Galicia is traversed by mountain ranges, sometimes regarded head of the educational institutions stand the two universities of as a continuation of the Cantabrian chain; and its surface is Lemberg and Cracow, and the Polish academy of science at further broken in the east by the westernmost ridges of that Cracow.
system, which, running in a south-westerly direction, rise above The local Diet is composed of 151 members, including the 3 the basin of the Miño. The high land north of the beadwaters of archbishops, the 5 bishops, and the 2 rectors of the universities, the Miño forms the sole connecting link between the Cantabrians and Galicia sends 78 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna. For properly so-called and the mountains of central and western administrative purposes, the province is divided into 78 districts Galicia. The average elevation of the province is considerable, and 2 autonomous municipalities-Lemberg (pop. 159,618), the and the maximum height (6593 ft.) is reached in the Peña capital, and Cracow (91,310). Other principal towns are: Trevinca on the eastern border of Orense. Przemysl (46,439), Kolomea (34,188), Tarnów (31,548), Tarnopol The principal river is the Miño (Portuguese Minho; Lat. (30,368), Stanislau (29,628), Stryj (23,673), Jaroslau (22,614), Minius; so named, it is said, from the minium or vermilion Drohobycz (19,146), Podgórze (18,142), Brody (17,360), Sambor found in its bed). Rising near Mondoñedo, within 25 m. of the (17,027), Neusandec (15,724),Rzeszów (14,714), Zloczow (12,209), northern coast, the Miño enters the Atlantic near the port of Grodek (11,845), Horodenka (11,615), Buczacz (11,504), Sniatyn Guardia, after a course of 170 m. S. and S.W. Its lower reaches (11,498), Brzezany (11,244), Kuty (11,127), Boryslaw (10,671), are navigable by small vessels. Of its numerous affluents the Chrzanów (10,170), Jaworów (10,090), Bochnia (10,049) and most important is the Sil, which rises among the lofty mountains Biala (8265).
between Leon and Asturias. Among other rivers having a' Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise, along with the neighbouring westerly direction may be mentioned the Tambre, the Ulla and principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir), in the course of the 12th the Lerez or Lec,'which falls into the Atlantic by estuaries or rias century—the seat of the ruling dynasty being Halicz or Halitch. called respectively Ria de Muros y Noya, Ria de Arosa and Ria. Disputes between the Galician and Lodomerian houses led to the de Pontevedra. The rivers of the northern versant, such as the interference of the king of Hungary, Bela III., who in 1190 Nera, are, like those of Asturias, for the most part short, rapid assumed the title of king, and appointed his son Andreas and subject to violent floods. lieutenant of the kingdom. Polish assistance, however, enabled The coast-line of Galicia, extending to about 240 m., is everyVladimir, the former possessor, to expel Andreas, and in 1198 where bold and deeply indented, presenting a large number of Roman, prince of Lodomeria, made himself master of Galicia also. secure harbours, and in this respect forming a marked contrast to On his death in 1205 the struggle between Poland and Hungary the neighbouring province. The Eo, which bounds Galicia on for supremacy in the country was resumed; but in 1215 it was the east, has a deep estuary, the Rivadeo or Ribadeo, which arranged that Daniel (1205-1264), son of Roman, should be offers a safe and commodious anchorage. Vivero Bay and the invested with Lodomeria, and Coloman, son of the Hungarian Ria del Barquero y Váres are of a similar character; while the king, with Galicia. Coloman, however, was expelled by Mstislav harbour of Ferrol ranks among the best in Europe, and is the chief of Novgorod; and in his turn Andreas, Mstislav's nominee, was naval station on the northern coast of Spain. On the opposite expelled by Daniel of Lodomeria, a powerful prince, who by a side of Betanzos Bay (the péyas Acuñy or Porlus Magnus of the flexible policy succeeded in maintaining his position. Though in ancients) is the great port of Corunna or Coruña. The principal 1235 he had recognized the overlordship of Hungary, yet, when port on the western coast is that formed by the deep and sheltered he found himself hard pressed by the Mongolian general Batu, he bay of Vigo, but there are also good roadsteads at Corcubion called in the assistance of Innocent IV., and accepted the crown under Cape Finisterre, at Marin and at Carril. of Galicia from the hands of a papal legate; and again, when The climate of the Galician coast is mild and equable, but the Innocent disappointed his expectation, he returned to his former interior, owing to the great elevation (the town of Lugo is 1500 ft. connexion with the Greek Church. On the extinction of his line above sea-level), has a wide range of temperature. The rainfall is in 1340 Casimir III. of Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; exceptionally large, and snow lies on some of the loftier elevations on Casimir's death in 1370 Louis the Great of Hungary, in accord for a considerable portion of the year. The soil is on the whole ance with previous treaties, became king of Poland, Galicia and I fertile, and the produce very varied. A considerable quantity of timber is grown on the high lands, and the rich valley pastures GALILEE (Heb. Soha, “ border” or “ring,” Gr. Padelaia), a support large herds of cattle, while the abundance of oaks and Roman province of Palestine north of Samaria, bounded S. by chestnuts favours the rearing of swine. In the lowland districts Samaria and the Carmel range, E. by the Jordan, N. by the good crops of maize, wheat, barley, oats and rye, as well as of Leontes (Litāni), and W. by the Mediterranean and part of turnips and potatoes, are obtained." The fruit also is of excellent Phoenicia. Its maximum extent was about 60 m: north to south quality and in great variety, although the culture of the vine is and 30 east to west. The name in the Hebrew Scriptures hardly limited to some of the warmer valleys in the southern districts. had a definite territorial significance. It literally means a ring or The dehesas or moorlands abound in game, and fish are plentiful circuit, and, like analogous words in English, could be applied to in all the streams. The mineral resources of the province, which various districts. Thus Joshua (xiii. 2) and Joel (ii. 4) refer to are considerable, were known to some extent to the ancients. the Geliloth (“ borders, coast ") of the Philistines or of Palestine; Strabo (c.63 B.C.-A.D. 21) speaks of its gold and tin, and Pliny Joshua again (xxii. 10, 11) and Ezekiel (xlvii. 8) mention the (A.D. 23-79) mentions the gemmo Gallaica, a precious stone. Jordan valley plain as the “ Geliloth of Jordan "in “ the Eastern Galicia is also remarkable for the number of its sulphur and other Gelilah.” In its more restricted connotation, denoting the warm springs, the most important of which are those at Lugo, district to which it is usually applied or a part thereof, it is found and those from which Orense is said to take its name (Aquae in Joshua xx. 7, xxi. 32, 1 Chr. vi. 76, as the place where was urentes).
situated the town of Kadesh; and in 1 Kings ix. 11, the district of Ethnologically the Galicians (Gallegos) are allied to the "worthless "cities given by Solomon to Hiram. In Isa. ix. I we Portuguese, whom they resemble in dialect, in appearance and in find the full name of the district, Galil ha-Goyim, literally “the habits more than the other inhabitants of the peninsula. The ring, circuit or border of the foreigners ”-referring to the men are well known all over Spain and Portugal as hardy, Phoenicians, Syrians and Aramaeans, by whose country the honest and industrious, but for the most part somewhat unskilled, province was on three sides surrounded. In 1 Kings xv. 29 it is labourers; indeed the word Gallego has come to be almost a specified as one of the districts whose population was deported by synonym in Madrid for a “ hewer of wood and drawer of water.” Tiglath-Pileser. Throughout the Old Testament history, howIt is also used as a term of abuse, meaning“ boor." Agriculture ever, Galilee as a whole cannot be said to have a history; the engages the greater part of the resident population, both male and unit of territorial subdivision was tribal rather than provincial, female; other industries, except the fisheries, are little developed. and though such important events as those associated with the The largest town in Galicia is Corunna (pop. 1900, 43,971); names of Barak, Gideon, Gilboa, Armageddon, took place within Santiago de Compostela is the ancient capital and an archi- its borders, yet these belong rather to the histories of Issachar, episcopal see; Lugo, Tuy, Mondoñedo and Orense are bishoprics. Zebulon, Asher or Naphtali, whose territories together almost
Gallaecia, the country of the Galacci, Calloici or Gallaici, correspond with Galilee, than to the province itself. seems to have been very imperfectly known to the earlier After the Jewish return from exile the population confined geographers. According to Eratosthenes (276–196 B.C.) the itself to Judaea, and Galilee was left in the possession of the mixed entire population of the peninsula were at one time called Galatae. multitude of successors established there by the Assyrians: The region properly called by their name, bounded on the south When it once more came into Israelite hands is uncertain; it is by the Douro and on the east by the Navia, was first entered by generally supposed that its reconquest was due to John Hyrcanus. the Roman legions under Decius Junius Brutus in 137-136 B.C. Before very long it developed a nationalism and patriotism as (Livy lv., lvi., Epit.); but the final subjugation cannot be placed intense as that of Judaea itself, not withstanding the contempt earlier than the time of Augustus (31 B.C.-A.D. 14). On the with which the metropolitans of Jerusalem looked down upon the partition of Spain, which followed the successful invasions of the Galilean provincials. Stock proverbial sayings such as “Out of Suevi, Alans and Vandals, Gallaecia fell to the lot of the first Galilee cometh no prophet” (though Deborah, Jonah, Elisha, named (A.D. 411). After an independent subsistence of nearly and probably Hosea, were Galileans) were apparently common, 200 years, the Suevian kingdom was annexed to the Visigothic Provincialism of speech (Matt. xxvi. 73) distinguished the dominions under Leovigild in 585. In 734 it was occupied by the Galileans; it appears that they confused the gutturals in Moors, who in turn were driven out by Alphonso I. of Asturias, pronunciation. in 739. During the 9th and 10th centuries it was the subject of Under the Roman domination Galilee was made a tetrarchate dispute between more than one count of Galicia and the governed by members of the Herod family. Herod the Great was suzerain, and its coasts were repeatedly ravaged by the Normans. tetrarch of Galilee in 47 B.C.; in 4 B.C. he was succeeded by his son When Ferdinand I. divided his kingdom among his sons in 1063, Antipas. Galilee was the land of Christ's boyhood and the chief Galicia was the portion allotted to Garcia, the youngest of the centre of His active work, and in His various ministries here three. In 1072 it was forcibly reannexed by Garcia's brother some of His chief discourses were uttered (as the Sermon on Alphonso VI. of Castile and thenceforward it remained an the Mount, Matt. v.) and some of His chief miracles performed. integral part the kingdom of Castile or of Leon. The honorary After the destruction of Jerusalem the Judaean Rabbinic title of count of Galicia has frequently been borne by younger schools took refuge in the Galilee they had heretofore despised. sons of the Spanish sovereign.
No ancient remains of Jewish synagogues exist except those that See Annette B. Meakin, Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain (London, have been identified in some of the ancient Galilean towns, such 1909).
as Tell Hum (Talḥūm), Keräzeh, Kefr Bir'ím, and elsewhere. GALIGNANI, GIOVANNI ANTONIO (1752-1821), newspaper One of the chief centres of Rabbinism was Şafed, still a sacred publisher, was born at Brescia, Italy, in 1752. After living some city of the Jews and largely inhabited by members of that faith. time in London, he went to Paris, where he started in 1800 an Near here is Meirûn, a place much revered by the Jews as English library, and in 1808 a monthly publication, the Repertory containing the tombs of Hillel, Shammai and Simon ben Yohai; of English Litercture. In 1814 he began to publish, in Paris, a yearly festival in honour of these rabbis is here celebrated. At Galignani's Messenger, a daily paper printed in English. At his Tiberias also are the tombs of distinguished Jewish teachers, death in 1821 the paper was carried on by his two sons, Jean- including Maimonides. Antoine (1796-1873) and Guillaume (1798-1882). Under their The province was subdivided into two parts, Upper and Lower management it enjoyed a high reputation. Its policy was to Galilee, the two being divided by a ridge running west to east, which promote good feeling between England and France. The brothers prolonged would cut the Jordan about midway between Hūleh and
the Sea of Galilee. Lower Galilee includes the plains of Buttauf established and endowed hospitals at Corbeil and at Neuilly- and Esdraelon. sur-Seine. In recognition of their generosity the city of Corbeil The whole of Galilee presents country more or less disturbed by erected a monument in their honour In 1884 the Galignani volcanic action. In the lower division the hills are all tilted up
towards the east, and broad streams of lava have flowed family disposed of their interest in Galignani's Messenger, and
over the plateau above the sea of Galilee. In this district from that date until 1904, when it was discontinued, the paper the highest hills are only about 1800 ft. above the sea. The appeared under the title of the Daily Messenger.
ridge of Nazareth rises north of the great plain of Esdraelon, and
north of this again is the fertile basin of the Buttauf, separated from monuments, rock-cut tombs, and wine-presses, with numerous the sea-coast plains by low hills. East of the Buttaut extends the remains of Byzantine monasteries and fine churches of the time of basaltic plateau called Sahel el Abma ("the inaccessible plain."); the crusades. There are also remains of Greek architecture in rising 1700 ft. above the Sea of Galilee. North of the Buttauf is a confused hill country, the spurs falling towards a broad valley which various places; but the most interesting buildings are the ancient lies at the foot of the mountains of Upper Galilee. This broad synagogues, of which some eleven examples are now known. valley, running westwards to the coast, is perhaps the old boundary They are rectangular, with the door to the south, and two rows of plain of Esdraelon is of triangular form,
bounded by Gilboa on the columns forming aisles east and west. The architecture is a east and by the ridge which runs to Carmel on the west. It is 14 m. peculiar and debased imitation of classic style, attributed by long from Jenin to the Nazareth hills, and its southern border is architects to the 2nd century A.D. In Kefr Bir'ım there were about 20 m. long. It rises 200 ft. above the sea, the hills on both remains of two synagogues, but early in the 20th century one of by the Kishon, which runs through a narrow gorge at the north-west them was completely destroyed by a local stone-mason. At corner of the plain, descending beside the ridge of Carmel to the sea. Irbid, above Tiberias, is another synagogue of rather different The broad valley of Jezreel on the east, descending towards the character. Traces of synagogues have also been found on Jordan valley, forms the gate by which Palestine is entered from Carmel, and at Tireh, west of Nazareth. It is curious to find north-east corner, and rather farther south the conical hill called the representation of various animals in relief on the lintels Nebi Dubi rises between Tabor and Gilboa. The whole of Lower of these buildings. Hebrew inscriptions also occur, and the Galilee is well watered. The Kishon is fed by springs from near carved work of the cornices and capitals is rich though debased. Tabor and from a copious stream from the west side of the plain of Esdraelon. North-west of Nazareth is Wadi el Melek, an open kingdom of Jerusalem, and its borders were strongly protected
In the 12th century Galilee was the outpost of the Christian valley full of springs. The river Belus, just south of Acre, risingin the sea-coast marshes, drains the whole valley above identified with by fortresses, the magnificent remains of which still crown the Jiphthah-el. On the east the broad valley of Jezreel is full of most important strategical points. Toron (mod. Tibnin). was magnificent springs, many of which are thermal. The plains of built in 1104, the first fortress erected by the crusaders, and remarkable for the rich basaltic soil which covers them, in which corn, standing on the summit of the mountains of Upper Galilee. cotton, maize, sesame, tobacco, millet and various kinds of vegetable Beauvoir (Kaukab el-Hawa, built in 1182) stood on a precipice are grown, while indigo and sugar-cane were cultivated in former above Jordan south-west of the Sea of Galilee, and guarded the times. The Nazareth hills and Gilboa are bare and white, but west advance by the valley of Jezreel; and about the same time of Nazareth is a fine oak wood, and another thick wood spreads over the northern slopes of Tabor: The hills west of the great plain are
Château Neuf (Hunin) was erected above the Haleh lake. Belfort partly of bare white chalk, partly covered with dense thickets. The (esh Shukif), on the north bank of the Leontes, the finest and mountains north of the Buttaut are rugged and covered with scrub, most important, dates somewhat earlier; and Montfort (Kalat el except near the villages, where fine olive groves exist. The principal Kurn) stood on a narrow spur north-east of Acre, completing the places of importance in Lower Galilee are Nazareth (10,000 inhabit-chain of frontier fortresses. The town of Banias, with its castle, Buttauf on the spurs of the southern hills,
and Jenin (En Gannim), formed also a strong outpost against Damascus, and was the a flourishing village, with a palm garden (3000 inhabitants). The scene, in common with the other strongholds, of many desperate ancient capital, Jezreel (Zerin), is now a miserable village on a pre encounters between Moslems and Christians. Lower Galilee was cipitous spur of Gilboa; north of this are the small mud hamlets, the last remaining portion of the Holy Land held by the Chrisof the plain is the ruin of Lejjūn (the Legio of the 4th century, which tians. In 1250 the knights of the Teutonic order owned lands exwas then a place of importance). In the hills north of the Buttaut tending round Acre as far east as the Sea of Galilee, and including is Jefāt, situated on a steep hill-top, and representing the Jotapata Şafed. These possessions were lost in 1291, on the fall of Acre. defended by Josephus. Kefr Kenna, now a flourishing Christian
The population of Galilee is mixed. In Lower Galilee the village at the foot of the Nazareth hills, south of the Buttauf, is one of the sites identified with Cana of Galilee, and the ruin Käna, on peasants are principally Moslem, with a sprinkling of Greek the north side of the same plain, represents the site pointed out to Christians round Nazareth, which is a Christian town. In Upper the pilgrims of the 12th and 13th centuries.
Galilee, however, there is a mixture of Jews and Maronites, The mountains are tilted up towards the Sea of Galilee, and the Druses and Moslems (natives or Algerine settlers), while the drainage of the district is towards the north-west. On the south the Upper
rocky range of Jebel Jarmūk rises to nearly 4000 ft. above slopes above the Jordan are inhabited by wandering Arabs. The the sea; on the east a narrow ridge 2800 ft. high forms Jews are engaged in trade, and the Christians, Druses and Mosthe watershed,
with steep eastern slopes falling towards lems in agriculture; and the Arabs are an entirely pastoral Jordan. Immediately west of the watershed are two small plateaus
(C. R. C.; R. A. S. M.) covered with basaltic débris, near el-Jish and Kades. On the west are rugged mountains with deep intricate valleys. The main drains
GALILEE, an architectural term sometimes given to a porch or of the country are-first, Wadi el 'Ayūn, rising north of Jebel chapel which formed the entrance to a church. This is the case Jarmūk, and running north-west as an open valley; and secondly, at Durham and Ely cathedrals, and in Lincoln cathedral the name Wādi el' Ahjār, a rugged precipitous gorge running north to join the is sometimes given to the south-west porch. The name is said Leontes. The district is well provided with springs throughout, and the valleys are full of water in the spring-time. Though rocky to be derived from the scriptural expression “ Galilee of the and difficult, Upper Galilee is not barren, the soil of the plateaus is Gentiles" (Matt. iv. 15). Galilees are supposed to have been rich, and the vine flourishes in the higher hills, especially in the used sometimes as courts of law, but they probably served chiefly neighbourhood of Kefr Bir'im. The principal town is Şafed, perched for penitents not yet admitted to the body of the church. The on a white mountain 2700 ft. above the sea. It has a population of Galilee would also appear to have been the vestibule of an abbey about 9000, including Jews, Christians and Moslems.
church where women were allowed to see the monks to whom they Josephus gives a good description of the Galilee of his time in were related, or from which they could hear divine service. The Wars, iii. 3. 2 : The Galileans are inured to war from their foundation of what is considered to have been a Galilee exists at infancy, and have been always very numerous; nor hath the the west end of Fountains Abbey. Sometimes also corpses were country been ever destitute of men of courage or wanted a placed there before interment. numerous set of them; for their soil is universally rich and fruit- GALILEE, SEA OF, a lake in Palestine consisting of an ful, and full of plantations of trees of all sorts, insomuch that it expansion of the Jordan, on the latitude of Mt. Carmel. It is invites the most slothful to take pains in its cultivation.... 13 m. long, 8 m. broad, 64 sq. m. in area, 680 ft. below the level of Moreover, the cities lie bere very thick, and the very many villages the Mediterranean, and, according to Merrill and Barrois (who there are here are everywhere full of people." Though the bave corrected the excessive depth said to have been found by population is diminished and the cities ruinous, the country Lortet at the northern end), 150 ft. in maximum depth. It is is still remarkable for fertility, thanks to the copiousness of its pear-shaped, the narrow end pointing southward. In the Hebrew water-supply draining from the Lebanon mountains.
Scriptures it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth (probThe principal products of the country are corn, wine, oil and ably derived from a town of the same name mentioned in soap (from the olives), with every species of pulse and gourd. Joshua xi. 2 and elsewhere; the etymology that connects it with
The antiquities of Galilee include dolmens and rude stone tu,“ a harp," is very doubtful.) In Josepbus and the book of