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a populous unwalled town devoted to commerce and industry; | see of Gap, now in the ecclesiastical province of Aix en Provence, it is possible, however, that Idrisi is referring not to Gao but to is first certainly mentioned in the 6th century, and in 1791 was another town somewhat to the south-at that period the middle enlarged by the annexation of that of Embrun (then suppressed). course of the Niger had many prosperous towns along its banks. Gap is the Vapincum of the Romans, and was founded by In the 14th century Gao was conquered by the king of Melle, and Augustus about 14 B.C. It long formed part of Provence, but in its great mosque was built (c. 1325) by the Melle sovereign 1232 most of the region passed by marriage to the dauphins of Kunkur Musa on his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca. In the Viennois. The town itself, however, remained under the rule of 15th century the Songhoi regained power and Gao attained its the bishops until 1512, when it was annexed to the crown of greatest prosperity in the reign of Askia. It did not enjoy the France. The bishops continued to bear the title of count of commercial importance of Jenné nor the intellectual supremacy Gap until the Revolution. The town was sacked by the of Timbuktu, but was the political centre of the western Sudan Huguenots in 1567 and 1577, and by the duke of Savoy in 1692. for a long period. On the break up of the Songhoi power the It was the birthplace of the reformer Guillaume Farel (1489city declined in importance. It became subject in 1590 to the 1565), who first preached his doctrines there about 1561-1562, Ruma of Timbuktu, from whom it was wrested in 1770 by the but then took refuge in Switzerland. Tuareg, the last named surrendering possession to the French. See J. Roman, Histoire de la ville de Gap (Gap, 1892). The first European to reach Gao was Mungo Park (1805); he was
(W. A. B. C.) followed in 1851 by Heinrich Barth, and in 1896 by the French GAPAN, a town of the province of Nueva Ecija, Luzon, naval lieutenant Hourst. Gao is now the headquarters of a mili- Philippine Islands, 3 m. E. of San Isidro, the capital. Pop. tary district. A caravan route leads from it to Kano and Bornu. (1903) 11,278. It is situated in a rich rice-growing region, and From Gao upwards the Niger is navigable for over 1000 m. extensive forests in its vicinity contain fine hardwoods. Its
See TIMBUKTU. For the Gao region of the Niger see an article climate is comparatively cool and healthy. The principal native by F. Dubois in L'Afrique française (January 1909).
dialects spoken are Tagalog and Pampangan. Gapan is the oldest GAOL, or Jail, a prison (q.o.). The two forms of the word are town of the province. due to the parallel dual forms in Old Central and Norman French GARARISH (KARARISH), a semi-nomadic tribe of Semitic respectively, jaiole or jaole, and gaiole or gayolle. The common origin, dwelling along the right bank of the Nile from Wādi origin is the med. Lat. gabiola, a diminutive formed from cavea, Halfa to Merawi. Many members of the tribe are agriculturists, a hollow, a den, from which the English “cave” is derived. others act as guides or transport drivers. They declare themselves The form "gaol” still commonly survives in English, and is in kinsfolk of the Ababda, but they are more Arab than Beja. official usage, e.g. “gaol-delivery," but the common pronuncia- GARASHANIN, ILIYA (1812–1874), Servian statesman, was tion of both words, “ jail," shows the real surviving word. the son of a Servian peasant, who made money by exporting
GAON (Heb. for “Excellency," plural Geonim), the title cattle and pigs to Austria and by his intelligence and wealth given to the heads of the two Jewish academies in Babylonia, attained to a certain influence in the country. He wanted to Sura and Pumbeditha. Though the name is far older, it is give his son as good an education as possible, and therefore sent chiefly applied to Rabbis who lived between the close of the him to Hungary to learn first in a Greek and then in a German Talmud and the transference of the centre of Judaism from Asia school. Highly gifted, and having passed through a regular to Europe-j.e. from the end of the 6th to the middle of the with although somewhat short school training, the young Iliya very century A.D. The Geonim were required to do homage to the quickly came to the front. In 1836 Prince Milosh appointed him Exilarchs (sce ExiLARCH) but were otherwise independent. a colonel and commander of the then just organized regular army They exercised wide authority and were appealed to in settle- of Servia. In 1842 he was called to the position of assistant to ment of the social and religious affairs of the diaspora. To them the home minister, and from that time until his retirement from must be assigned the arrangement of the main lines of the present public life in 1867 he was repeatedly minister of home affairs, disSynagogue liturgy. Their chief literary activity took the form of tinguishing himself by the energy and justice of his administration. Answers to Questions-a form which was extensively used in But he rendered far greater services to his country as minister later centuries. The most noted of the Geonim, who will be for foreign affairs. He was the first Servian statesman who had a found treated under their respective names, were Ahai, Amram, political programme, and who worked to replace the Russian proSemach, Saadiah, Sherira and Hai. Hai Gaon died in 1038, tectorate over Servia by the joint protectorate of all the great closing the period of the Geonim after an activity of four and a powers of Europe. As minister for foreign affairs in 1853 he was balf centuries.
decidedly opposed to Servia joining Russia in war against Turkey A full list of the Geonim is given in tabular form in the Jewish and the western powers. His anti-Russian views resulted in Encyclopaedia, vol. v. p. 571.
(I. A.) Prince Menshikov, while on his mission in Constantinople, 1853, GAP, the capital of the French department of the Hautes peremptorily demanding from the prince of Servia (Alexander Alpes. Pop. (1906) town, 6888; commune, 10,823. It is built Karageorgevich) his dismissal. But although dismissed, his at a height of 2418 ft. on the right bank of the Luye (an affiuent personal influence in the country secured the neutrality of Servia of the Durance), in an agreeable position, and is dominated afar during the Crimean War. He enjoyed esteem in France, and it by snowy peaks on the N.E. The little city has the look of a was due to him that France proposed to the peace conference of Provençal town, being white. The 17th-century cathedral Paris (1856) that the old constitution, granted to Servia by church has been entirely reconstructed (1866-1905). In the Turkey as suzerain and Russia as protector in 1839, should be prefecture is the tomb of the constable de Lesdiguières (1543- replaced by a more modern and liberal constitution, framed by a 1626), dating from about 1613, and due to a Lorraine sculptor, European international commission. But the agreement of the Jacob Richier. The same building contains various scientific powers was not secured. Garashanin induced Prince Alexander and archaeological collections, as well as the very rich archives, Karageorgevich to convoke a national assembly, which had not which include many MSS. from the monastery of Durbon, &c. been called to meet for ten years. The assembly was convoked There are a few small manufactories of purely local importance. for St Andrew's Day 1858, but its first act was to dethrone Prince Gap is connected by railway with Briançon (514 m.) and with Alexander and to recall the old Prince Milosh Obrenovich. When Grenoble (851 m.), while from the railway junction of Veynes after the death of his father Milosh (in 1860) Prince Michael (161 m. W. of Gap) it is 122 m. by rail to Marseilles. The episcopal ascended the throne, he entrusted the premiership and foreign Bulala dynasty, an offshoot of the royal family of Kanem, whose affairs to Iliya Garashanin. The result of their policy was that rule in the 15th century extended from the Shari to Darfur. The Servia was given a new, although somewhat conservative, conexistence of the state was first mentioned by Leo Africanus.
To the stitution, and that she obtained, without war, the evacuation Bornuese it was known as Bulala or Kuka Bulala, a name which persists as that of a district in French Congo (see BORNU). The
of all the fortresses garrisoned by the Turkish troops on the similarity of the name Gaoga to that of the Songhoi capital has given Servian territory, including the fortress of Belgrade (1867). rise to much confusion.
Garashanin was preparing a general rising of the Balkan nations against the Turkish rule, and had entered into confidential GARAT, PIERRE-JEAN 01764-1823), French singer, nephew arrangements with the Rumanians, Bosnians, Albanians, of Dominique Joseph Garat, was born in Bordeaux on the 25th Bulgarians and Greeks, and more especially with Montenegro. of April 1764. Gifted with a voice of exceptional timbre and But the execution of his plans was frustrated by his sudden compass he devoted himself, from an early age, to the cultivation resignation (at the end of 1867), and more especially by the of his musical talents. On account of bis manifesting a distaste assassination of Prince Michael a few months later (the roth of for the legal profession, for which his father wished him to study, June 1868). Although he was a Conservative in politics, and as he was deprived of his allowance, but through the patronage of a such often in conflict with the leader of the Liberal movement, friend he obtained the office of secretary to Comte d'Artois, and Yovan Ristich, he certainly was one of the ablest statesmen was afterwards engaged to give musical lessons to the queen of whom Servia had in the 19th century.
(C. Mi.) France. At the beginning of the Revolution he accompanied GARAT, DOMINIQUE JOSEPH (1749-1833), French writer Rode to England, where the two musicians appeared together in and politician, was born at Bayonne on the 8th of September concerts. He returned to Paris in 1794. After the Revolution he 1749. After receiving a good education under the direction of a became a professional singer, and on account of a song which he relation who was a curé, and having been an advocate at Bor- had composed in reference to the misfortunes of the royal family deaux, he came to Paris, where he obtained introductions to the he was thrown into prison. On regaining his liberty he went to most distinguished writers of the time, and became a contributor Hamburg, where he at once achieved extraordinary success; and to the Encyclopédie méthodique and the Mercure de France. He by his subsequent appearances in Paris, and his visits to Italy, gained considerable reputation by an éloge on Michel de L'Hôpital Spain, Germany and Russia, he made for himself a reputation as in 1778, and was afterwards three times crowned by the Academy a singer unequalled by any other of his own time. He was a keen for éloges on Suger, Montausier and Fontenelle. In 1785 he was partisan of Gluck in opposition to Handel. On the institution of named professor of history at the Lycée, where his lectures the Conservatoire de Musique he became its professor of singing. enjoyed an equal popularity with those of G. F. Laharpe on He also composed a number of songs, many of which have literature. Being chosen a deputy to the states-general in 1789, considerable merit. He died on the ist of March 1823 in Paris. he rendered important service to the popular cause by his GARAY, JÁNOS (1812-1853), Hungarian poet and author, narrative of the proceedings of the Assembly contributed to the was born on the 10th of October 1812, at Szegszárd, in the Journal de Paris. Possessing strongly optimist views, a mild county of Tolna. From 1823 to 1828 he studied at Fünfkirchen, and irresolute character, and indefinite and changeable con- and subsequently, in 1829, at the university of Pest. In 1834 he victions, he played a somewhat undignified part in the great brought out an heroic poem, in hexameters, under the title political events of the time, and became a pliant tool in carrying Csalár. After this he issued in quick succession various historical out the designs of others. Danton had him named minister of dramas, among which the most successful were Arbócz, Országh justice in 1792, and in this capacity had entrusted to him what he Ilona and Balkori Erzsébet,—the first two published at Pest in called the commission assreuse of communicating to Louis XVI. 1837 and the last in 1840. Garay was an energetic journalist, his sentence of death. In 1793 he became minister of the interior. and in 1838 he removed to Pressburg, where he edited the political In this capacity he proved himself quite inefficient. Though journal Hirnök (Herald). He returned to Pest in 1839, when he himself uncorrupt, he winked at the most scandalous corruption was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy in his subordinates, and in spite of the admirably organized of Sciences. In 1842 he was admitted into the Kisfaludy Society, detective service, which kept him accurately informed of every of which he became second secretary. Garay enriched Hungarian movement in the capital, he entirely failed to maintain order, literature with numerous lyrical poems, ballads and tales. The which might easily have been done by a moderate display of first collection of his poems was published at Pest in 1843; and firmness. At last, disgusted with the excesses which he had been his prose tales appeared in 1845, under the title of Tollrajzok unable to control, he resigned (August 15, 1793). On the end of (Sketches with the Pen). His historical ballads and legends, October he was arrested for Girondist sympathies but soon styled Arpádok (Pest, 1847, 2nd ed. 1848), showed him to be a released, and he escaped further molestation owing to the master in the art of ballad-writing. Some of his lyrical poems friendship of Barras and, more especially, of Robespierre, whose also are excellent, as, for example, Balatoni Kagylók (Shells from literary amour-propre he had been careful to flatter. On the oth the Balaton Lake) (Pest, 1848). His legend Bosnyák Zsófia Thermidor, however, he took sides against Robespierre, and on (Pest, 1847), and his poetical romance Frangepán Kristojné the 12th of September 1794 he was named by the Convention as a (Christopher Frangepan's Wife) (Pest, 1846), gained the prize of member of the executive committee of public instruction. In the Kisfaludy Society. His last and most famous work was an 1798 he was appointed ambassador to Naples, and in the following historical poem in twelve cantos, with the title Szent László year he became a member, then president, of the Council of the (Saint Ladislaus) (Eger, 1852, 2nd ed., Pest, 1853, 3rd ed. 1863). Ancients. After the revolution of the 18th Brumaire he was Garay was professor of Hungarian language and literature to the chosen a senator by Napoleon and created a count. During the university of Pest in 1848-1849. After about four years' illness Hundred Days he was a member of the chamber of representa- he died on the 5th of November 1853, in great want. A collective tives. In 1803 he was chosen a member of the Institute of France, edition of his poems was published at Pest the year after his but after the restoration of Louis XVIII. his name was, in 1816, death by F. Ney (2nd ed. 1860), and several of his poems were deleted from the list of members. After the revolution of 1830 translated by Kertbeny. he was named a member of the new Academy of Moral and See Garay János Összes költeményei (2nd ed., Pest, 1860); and Political Science. He died at Ustaritz near Bayonne, April 25, Dichtungen von Johann Garay (2nd ed., Vienna, 1856). 1833. His writings are characterized by elegance, grace and GARBLE (a'word derived from the Arab. gharbala, to sift, and variety of style, and by the highest kind of rhetorical eloquence; related to ghirbal, a sieve; the Arabic words are of foreign origin, but his grasp of his subject is superficial, and as his criticisms probably from the Lat. cribrum, a sieve), originally a medieval have no root in fixed and philosophical principles they are not commercial term in the Mediterranean ports, meaning to sort unfrequently whimsical and inconsistent. He must not be out, or to sift merchandize, such as corn, spices, &c., in order confounded with his elder brother Dominique (1735-1799), who to separate what was good from the refuse or waste; hence to was also a deputy to the states-general.
select the best of anything for retention. Similarly a "garbler " The works of Garat include, besides those already mentioned,
was an official who was appointed to sort out, or test the work of Considérations sur la Révolution Française (Paris, 1792); Mémoires sur la Révolution, ou exposé de ma conduite (1795); Mémoires sur
those who had already sorted, the spices or drugs offered for sale la vie de M. Suard, sur ses écrils, et sur le XVIII siècle (1820); in the London markets. In this original sense the word is now éloges on Joubert, Kléber and Desaix; several notices of distin obsolete, but by inversion, or rather perversion, “ garble" now guished persons; and a large number of articles in periodicals
. means to sort out or select, chiefly from books or other literary notably the police reports of Dutard, are given in W. A. Schmidt's works, or from public speeches, some portion which twists, muti. Tableaux de la Révolution Française (3 vols., Leipzig, 1867-1870). lates, or renders ineffective the meaning of the author or speaker. GARÇÃO, PEDRO ANTONIO JOAQUIM CORRÊA (1724- | followed in 1823 by his Il Fazzoletlo. In 1824 he went to London, 1772), Portuguese lyric poet, was the son of Philippe Corrêa da and thence proceeded to America (1825) with a company of Serra, a fidalgo of the royal house who held an important post in artistes, amongst whom were his son Manoel and his daughter the foreign office; his mother was of French descent. The poet's Maria, better known under her subsequent name of Malibran. health was frail, and after going through a Jesuit school in Lisbon In New York was produced his opera La Figlia dell' aria in 1827. and learning English, French and Italian at home, he proceeded in He extended his artistic tour as far as Mexico, and was on the 1742 to the university of Coimbra with a view to a legal career. point of returning to Europe in order to retire from public life He took his degree in 1748, and two years later was created when he was robbed of his well-earned wealth by brigands on his a knight of the Order of Christ. In 1751 his marriage with way to Vera Cruz. Settled again in Paris in 1829, he soon retired D. Maria Salema brought him a rich dower which enabled him from the stage, and devoted himself exclusively to teaching. Не to live in case and cultivate letters; but in later years a law-suit died in Paris on the 2nd of June 1832. His method of teaching reduced him to poverty. From 1760 to 1762 he edited the was famous, and some of the most celebrated singers of the early Lisbon Gazette. In 1756, in conjunction with Cruz e Silva and part of the century were amongst his pupils. He also wrote an others, Garção founded the Arcadio Lusilana to reform the excellent book on the art of singing called Metodo di canto, of prevailing bad taste in literature, identified with Seicentismo, which the essence was subsequently incorporated by his son which delighted in conceits, windy words and rhetorical phrases. Manoel in his admirable Trcile complet de l'art du chant (1847). The Arcadia fulfilled its mission to some extent, but it lacked His operas have not survived their day. He wrote nearly forty in creative power, became dogmatic, and ultimately died of inanition. all, but with the exception of those quoted, and El Pocta calculista, Garção was the chief contributor to its proceedings, bearing the produced when he was thirty, none are remarkable. Besides the name of “
Corydon Erimantheo;” and his orations and dis- children already mentioned, his daughter Paulina, Madame sertations, with many of his lyrics, were pronounced and read at Viardot (1821-1910), worthily continued the tradition for the its meetings. He lived much in the society of the English best singing with which his name had become associated. residents in Lisbon, and he is supposed to have conceived a His son, MANOEL GARCIA (1805-1906), who celebrated his passion for an English married lady which completely absorbed hundredth birthday in London on the 17th of March 1905, was him and contributed to his ruin. In the midst of his literary born at Madrid, and after his father's death devoted himself to activity and growing fame, he was arrested on the night of the teaching. He was a professor at the Paris Conservatoire from 9th of April 1771, and committed to prison by Pombal, whose 1830 to 1848, from that time to 1895 was a professor at the displeasure he had incurred by his independence of character. Royal Academy of Music in London. He became famous for his The immediate cause of his incarceration would appear to have invention of the laryngoscope about 1850, apart from his position been his connexion with a love intrigue between a young friend of as the greatest representative of the old “bel canto" style of his and the daughter of a Colonel Elsden, but he was never singing. brought to trial, and the matter must remain in doubt. Alter GARCÍA DE LA HUERTA, VICENTE ANTONIO (1734–1787), much solicitation, his wife obtained from the king an order for her Spanish dramatist, was born at Zafra on the oth of March 17345 husband's release on the 10th of November 1772, but it came too and was educated at Salamanca. At Madrid he soon attracted late. Broken by infirmities and the hardships of prison life, attention by his literary arrogance and handsome person; and Garção expired that very day in the Limociro, at the age of at an early age became chief of the National Library, a post from forty-seven.
which he was dismissed owing to the intrigues of his numerous Taking Horace as his model, and aided by sound judgment, enemies. The publication of his unsatisfactory collection of scholarship and wide reading, Garção set out to raise and purify Spanish plays entitled Theatro Hespanol (1785-1786) exposed him the standard of poetical taste, and his verses are characterized by to severe censures, which appear to have affected his reason. a classical simplicity of form and expression. His sonnets ad He died at Madrid on the 12th of March 1787, without carrying sodales show a charming personality; his vigorous and elegant into effect his avowed intention of reviving the national drama. odes and epistles are sententious in tone and reveal an inspired His Agamemnon vengado derives from Sophocles, his Jaire is poet and a man chastened by suffering. His two comedies in translated from Voltaire, and even his once famous Raquel, bendecasyllables, the Theatro Novo (played in January 1766) though Spanish in subject, is classic in form. and the Assemblea, are excellent satires on the social life of the GARCÍA DE PAREDES, DIEGO (1466-1534), Spanish soldier capital; and in the Cantata de Dido, included in the latter piece, and duellist, was a native of Trujillo in Estremadura, Spain. the spirit of Greek art is allied to perfection of form, making this He never commanded an army or rose to the position of a general, composition perhaps the gem of Portuguese 18th century poetry. but he was a notable figure in the wars of the end of the 15th and
Garção wrote little and spent much time on the labor limae. beginning of the 16th century, when personal prowess had still a His works were published posthumously in 1778, and the most com- considerable share in deciding the result of actions. His native plete and accessible edition is that of J. A. de Azevedo Castro (Rome,
town and district, which lie between Talavera and Madrid, 1888). An English version of the Cantata de Drdo appeared in the Academy (January 19th, 1895). See Innocencio da Silva, Diccionario produced many of the most noted conquistadores of America, bibliographico Portuguez, vol. vi. pp: 386-393, and vol. xvii. pp. 182. including the Pizarro family. Diego himself served in his youth 184; also Dr Theophilo Braga, A Arcadia Lusitana (Oporto, 1899). / in the war of Granada. His strength, daring and activity fitted
(E. PR.) him to shine in operations largely composed of night marches, GARCIA (DEL POPOLO VICENTO), MANOEL (1775-1832), escalades, surprises and hand-to-hand combats. The main Spanish singer and composer, was born in Seville on the 22nd of scene of his achievements was in Italy, and he betook himself to January 1775. He became a chorister at the cathedral of Seville, it-on his own showing-not in search of glory, but because he and studied music under the best masters of that city. At had killed a relation of his own, Ruy Sanchez de Vargas, in a street seventeen he made his debut on the stage at Cadiz, in an operetta, fight arising out of a quarrel about a horse. He fled to Rome, in which were included songs of his own composition. Soon after- then under the rule of the Borgias. Diego was a distant relation wards he appeared at Madrid in the twofold capacity of singer and to the cardinal of Santa Cruz (Carvajal), a favourite with Pope composer. His reputation being established, he proceeded to Alexander VI., who was in conflict with the barons of the Paris, where he appeared for the first time, in 1808, in Paer's Romagna and took Diego into his service. He remained a soldier opera Griselda. Here also he was received with great applause, of the pope till he killed a man in a personal quarrel and found it his style of singir.g being especially appreciated. This he further necessary to pass over to the enemy. Now he became acquainted improved by careful study of the Italian method in Italy itself, with the Colonnas, who appreciated his services. The wars where he continued his successes. His opera Il Califo di Bagdad between Ferdinand V. of Aragon (the Catholic king) and Louis was favourably received at Naples in 1812, but his chief successes XII. gave him a more creditable opening. The Spanish general were again due to his perfection as a vocalist. His opera La Gonsalvo de Córdoba, who knew his value, employed him and Morte di Tasso was produced in 1821 in Paris, where it was trusted him; and he took part in all the wars of Italy on the
frontier of Navarre, and once against the Turks on the Danube, | Sommières it forms the western boundary of the department.
His countrymen made him the hero of many The Hérault has its source and part of its course in the west of Münchausen-like stories of personal prowess. It was said that he Gard. The Canal de Beaucaire extends from the Rhone at held a bridge single-handed against 200 Frenchmen, that he Beaucaire to Aigues-Mortes, which communicates with the stopped the wheel of a water-mill, and so forth. In the “ Brief Mediterranean at Grau-du-Roi by means of the Grand-Roubine Summary" of his life and deeds attributed to him, and printed at canal. the end of the Chronicle of the Great Captain, published in 1584 at The climate is warm in the south-east, colder in the northAlcalá de Henares, he lays no claim to having done more than wcst; it is rather changeable, and rain-storms are common. The was open to a very athletic man. He was killed at Bologna in cold and violent north-west wind known as the mistral is its 1534 by a fall while engaged in a jumping-match with some of worst drawback. Les Fumades (near Allègre) and Euzet have the younger officers of the army. His body was carried to his mineral springs. The chief grain crops are wheat and oats. native town Trujillo, and buried in the church of Santa Maria Rye, barley and potatoes are also grown. Gard is famed for its Mayor in 1545.
cattle, its breed of small horses, and its sheep, the wool of which is GARCÍA GUTIÉRREZ, ANTONIO (1812-1884), Spanish of a very fine quality. In the rearing of silk-worms it ranks first dramatist, was born at Chiclana (Cadiz) on the 5th of July 1812, | among French departments. The principal fruit trees are the and studied medicine in his native town. In 1832 he removed olive, mulberry and chestnut. The vine is extensively cultivated to Madrid, and earned a scanty living by translating plays of and yields excellent red and white wines. The department is Scribe and the elder Dumas; despairing of success, he was on the rich in minerals, and the mines of coal, iron, lignite, asphalt, point of enlisting when he suddenly sprang into fame as the author zinc, lead and copper, which are for the most part situated in the of El Trovador, which was played for the first time on the 1st of neighbourhoods of Alais and La Grand'-Combe, constitute one of March 1836. García Gutiérrez never surpassed, this first effort, the chief sources of its wealth. Great quantities of salt are which placed him among the leaders of the romantic movement obtained from the salt marshes along the coast. The quarries of in Spain, and which became known all over Europe through building and other stone employ a considerable number of workVerdi's music. His next great success was Simón Bocanegra men. The fisheries are productive. The manufactures are exten(1843), but, as his plays were not lucrative, he emigrated to sive, and include those of silk, of which Alais is the chief centre, Spanish America, working as a journalist in Cuba and Alexico till cotton and woollen fabrics, hosiery, ironware, hats (Anduze), 1850, when he returned to Spain. The best works of his later liquorice, gloves, paper, leather, carthenware and glass. There period are a zarzuela entitled El Grumete (1853), La Venganza are also breweries and distilleries, and important metallurgical catalana (1864) and Juan Lorenzo (1865). He became head of works, the chief of which are those of Bessèges. The exports of the archaeological museum at Madrid, and died there on the 6th Gard include coal, lignite, coke, asphalt, building-stone, iron, of August 1884. His Pocsias (1840) and another volume of steel, silk, hosiery, wine, olives, grapes and trufes. lyrics, entitled Luz y tinicblas (1842), are unimportant; but the The department is served by the Paris-Lyon railway. It is brilliant versification of his plays, and his power of analysing divided into the arrondissements of Nimes, Alais, Uzès and Le feminine emotions, give him a foremost place among the Spanish Vigan, with 40 cantons and 351 communes. The chief town is dramatists of the 19th century.
Nimes, which is the seat of a bishopric of the province.of Avignon GARD, a department in the south of France, consisting of part and of a court of appeal. Gard belongs to the 15th military of the old province of Languedoc. Pop. (1906) 421,166. Area region, which has its headquarters at Marseilles, and to the 2270 sq. m. It is bounded N. by the departments of Lozère and académie (educational division) of Montpellier. Nimes, Alais, Ardèche, E. by the Rhone, which separates it from Vaucluse and Uzès, Aigues-Mortes, Beaucaire, Saint-Gilles, Bessèges, La Grand'Bouches-du-Rhône, S. by the Mediterranean, S.W. by Hérault Combe and Villeneuve-lès-Avignon are the principal places. and W. by Aveyron. Gard is divided into three sharply-defined Opposite the manufacturing town of Pont-St-Esprit the Rhone regions. Its north-western districts are occupied by the range of is crossed by a fine medieval bridge more than 1000 yds. long the Cévennes, which on the frontier of Lozère attain a height of built by the Pontiff brethren. Le Vigan, an ancient town with 5120 ft. The whole of this region is celebrated for its fruitful several old houses, carries on silk-spinning. valleys, its gorges, its beautiful streams, its pastures, and the GARDA, LAKE OF (the Lacus Benacus of the Romans), the chestnut, mulberry and other fruit trees with which the most easterly and the most extensive of the great Lombard mountains are often clothed to their summits. The Garrigues, a lakes, being only surpassed in the Alpine region by those of dry, hilly region of limestone, which lends itself to the cultivation Geneva and Constance. Save the extreme northern extremity of cereals, the vine and olive, stretches from the foot of the (Riva, which was secured from Venice by Tirol in 1517), the Cévennes over the centre of the department, covering about half whole lake is Italian, being divided between the provinces of its area. The southern portion, which extends to the sea, and was Verona and Brescia. Its broad basin orographically represents probably at one time covered by it, is a low plain with numerous the southern portion of the valley of the Adige, though that river lakes and marshes. Though unhealthy, it is prosperous, and now flows through a narrow trench which is separated from the comprises the best arable land and vineyards in Gard.
lake by the long narrow ridge of the Monte Baldo (7277 st.). Besides the Rhone, which bounds the department on the E., Nowadays the lake is fed by the Sarca, that flows in at its north and the Ardèche, the lower course of which forms part of its end from the glaciers of the Adamello, while at the southern boundary on the N., the principal rivers are the Cèze, Gard, extremity of the lake the Mincio flows out, on its way to join the Vidourle' and Hérault. The most northern of these is the Cèze, Po. The area of the lake is about 143 sq, m., its length is 324 m., which rises in the Cévennes, and after a course of about 50 m. in its greatest breadth is about 10 m., the height of its surface above an E.S.E. direction falls into the Rhone above Roquemaure. sea-level is 216 ft. and the greatest depth yet measured is 1916 st. The Gard, or Gardon, from which the department takes its name, Its upper or northern end is narrow, but between Garda (E.) and is also an affluent of the Rhone, and, rising in the Cévennes from Salò (W.) the lake expands gradually into a nearly circular basin, several sources, traverses the centre of the department, having a which at the southern extremity is divided into iwo parts by the length of about 60 m. In the upper part of its course it flows long low promontory of Sermione, that projects from the southern through a succession of deep mountain gorges, and from the shore between Peschiera and Desenzano. Owing to this conmelting of the snows on the Cévennes is subject to inundations, formation the lake is much exposed to sudden and violent winds, which often cause great damage. Its waters not infrequently which Virgil alludes to in his well-known line (Georg. ii. line 160): rise 18 or 20 ft. in a few hours, and its bed is sometimes increased fluctibus et fremilu assurgens, Benace, marino. The most in width to nearly a mile. Near Remoulins it is crossed by a dangerous of these winds is the Borea or Suer, that sweeps down celebrated Roman aqueduct-the Pont du Gard (see AQUEDUCT), from the north as through a funnel. In the southern portion of The Vidourle flows in a S.S.E. direction from its source near Le the lake the Vinessa, an E.S.E. wind, is most dreaded. The Ora Vigan, and after a course of about 50 m. falls into the sea. Below l.is a regular wind coming from the cast which, on reaching the lake, blows from S. to N. The steep grey limestone crags of | pagny (dated April 23rd, 1809) on the state of Persia and the Monte Baldo, on the eastern side of the lake, contrast strongly prospects of a successful invasion of India is of great interest. with the rich vegetation on the western and southern shores. He admitted the difficulties of this enterprise, but thought that The portion of the western shore that extends from Gargnano to a force of picked French troops, aided by Persians and Afghans, Salò is the most sheltered and warmest part of the region, so that might under favourable conditions penetrate into India by way of not merely does it resemble one continuous garden (producing Kandahar, or through Sind, especially if the British were dislemons, figs, mulberries, olives, &c.), but is frequented in winter, tracted by maritime attacks from Mauritius. and has been given the name of the Riviera Benacense. The See Count Alfred de Gardane, Mission du général Gardane en Perse lovely promontory of Sermione, at the southern end of the lake, (Paris, 1865); and P. A. L, de Driault, La Politique orientale de
(J. HL. R.) has also an extremely luxuriant vegetation, while it contains Napoléon: Sébastiani et Gardane (Paris, 1904).
GARDELEGEN, a town of Germany, in Prussian Saxony, on many remains of buildings of Roman and later date, having been the right bank of the Milde, 20 m. W. from Stendal, on the main the Sirmio of Catullus, who resided here and celebrated its beauties line of railway Berlin-Hanover. Pop. (1905) 8193. It has a in many of his poems. In 1827 a boat with paddles set in motion Roman Catholic and three Evangelical churches, a hospital, by horses was put on the lake, but the first steamer dates only founded in 1285, and a high-grade school. There are considerable from 1844. At the south end of the lake, E. and W. respectively manufactures, notably agricultural machinery and buttons, and of the promontory of Sermione, are the towns of Peschiera its beer has a great repute. Gardelegen was founded in the 10th (141 m. by rail from Verona on the east) and of Desenzano (17 m. by rail from Brescia on the west), which are 87 m. distant from century, and was for a long time the seat of a line of counts. It
suffered considerably in the Thirty Years' War, and in 1775 was each other. On the west shore of the lake are Salò, Toscolano, burned by the French. On the neighbouring heath Margrave Gargnano and Limone, while the rugged east shore can boast only of Bardolino and Garda. At the northern tip of the lake, Mild of Brunswick.
Louis I. of Brandenburg gained, in 1343, a victory over Otto the and in Tirol, is Riva, the most considerable town on the lake,
GARDEN (from 0. Fr. gardin, mod. Fr. jardin; this, like and 151 m. by rail from the Mori station on the main Brenner line.
(W.A. B. C.)
our words “garth," a paddock attached to a building, and
yard," comes from a: Teutonic word for an enclosure which GARDANE, CLAUDE MATTHIEU, COUNT (1766-1818),
appears in Gothic as gards and O. H. Ger. gart, cf. Dutch gaarde French general and diplomatist, was born on the 30th of January and Ger. garten), the ground enclosed and cultivated for the 1766. He entered the army and rose rapidly during the revolu- growth of fruit, flowers or vegetables (see HORTICULTURE). tionary wars, becoming captain in 1793. In May 1799 he
The word is also used for grounds laid out ornamentally, used as distinguished himself by saving a division of the French army places of public entertainment. Such were the famous Ranelagh which was about to be crushed by the Russians at the battle of Bassignana, and was named at once brigadier-general by Moreau. cal gardens, and as a name in towns for squares, terraces or
and Vauxhall Gardens in London; it is similarly used in zoologiHe incurred Napoleon's displeasure for an omission of duty streets. From the fact that Epicurus (q.v.) taught in the gardens shortly before the battle of Marengo (June 14th, 1800), but in
at Athens, the disciples of his school of philosophy were known as 1805 was appointed to be aide-de-camp of the emperor. His chief oi årð tûv KÝMWV (so Diog. Laërtius x. 10); and Cicero (De distinction, however, was to be won in the diplomatic sphere. In the spring of 1807, when Russia and Prussia were at war with finibus v: 1. 3, and elsewhere) speaks of the Horti Epicuri.
Thus as the “ Academy” refers to the Platonic and the “ Porch " France, and the emperor Alexander I. of Russia was also engaged (otoá) to the Stoic school, so the “ Garden" is the name given to in hostilities with Persia, the court of Teheran sent a mission to
the Epicurean school of philosophy. Apollodorus was known as the French emperor, then at the castle of Finkenstein in the east of Prussia, with a view to the conclusion of a Franco-Persian KMTOTÚpapvos, the tyrant of the garden. alliance. This was signed on the 4th of May 1807, at that castle; containing about sixty species of evergreen trees and shrubs,
GARDENIA, in botany, a genus of the natural order Rubiaceae, and Napoleon designed Gardane as special envoy for the cement-natives of the warmer parts of the old world. Several are ing of that alliance. The secret instructions which he drew up
grown in stoves or greenhouses for their handsome, sweet-scented for Gardane, and signed on the 30th of May, are of interest as
white flowers. The flowers are developed singly at the end of a showing the strong oriental trend of the emperor's policy. France branch or in the leaf-axils, and are funnel- or salver-shaped with was to guarantee the integrity of Persia, to recognize that
a long tube. The double forms of Gardenia florida (a native of Georgia (then being invaded by the Russians) belonged to the China) and G. radicans (a native of Japan) are amongst the most shah, and was to make all possible efforts for restoring that beautiful and highly perfumed of any in cultivation. Gardenias territory to him. She was also to furnish to the shah arms, officers and workmen, in the number and to the amount cuttings. They require plenty of heat and moisture in the grow
are grown chiefly for cut flowers, and are readily propagated by demanded by him. Napoleon on his side required Persia to ing season, and must be kept free from insects such as the mealy declare war against Great Britain, to expel all Britons from her bug, green fly, red spider and scale-insect. territory, and to come to an understanding with the Afghans
GARDINER, JAMES (1688-1745), Scottish soldier, was born at with a view to a joint Franco-Perso-Afghan invasion of India. Carriden in Linlithgowshire, on the uth of January 1688. At the Gardane, whose family was well known in the Levant, had a long age of fourteen he entered a Scottish regiment in the Dutch and dangerous journey overland, but was cordially received at service, and was afterwards present at the battle of Ramillies, Teheran in December 1807. The conclusion of the Franco.
where he was wounded. He subsequently served in different Russian treaty at Tilsit in July 1807 rendered the mission abortive. Persia longed only for help against Russia and had cavalry regiments, and in 1730 was advanced to the rank of no desire, when all hope of that was past, to attack India. The lieutenant-colonel, and in 1743 to that of colonel. He fell at the shah, however, promised to expel Britons and to grant to France circumstances of his death are described in Sir Walter Scott's
battle of Prestonpans, the 21st of September 1745. The a commercial treaty. For a time French influence completely Waverley. In his early years he was distinguished for his replaced that of England at Teheran, and the mission of Sir John Malcolm to that court was not allowed to proceed. Finally, recklessness and profligacy, but in 1719 a supernatural vision,
as he regarded it, led to his conversion, and from that time he however, Gardane saw that nothing much was to be hoped for in lived a life of great devoutness and of thorough consistency with the changed situation of European affairs, and abruptly left the his Christian profession. Dr Alexander Carlyle of Inveresk, country (April 1809). This conduct was not wholly approved by author of an autobiography, says that he was Napoleon, but be named him count and in 1810 attached him tatious" about his conversion-speaks of him as weak, and
very ostento Masséna's army in Portugal. There, during the disastrous retreat from Santarem to Almeida, he suffered a check which plainly thinks there was a great deal of delusion in Col.
Gardiner's account of his sins. brought him into disfavour. The rest of his career calls for no
His life was written by Dr Philip Doddridge and has been often notice. He died in 1818. The report which he sent to Cham- I reprinted.