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gained upon him. “Mr Fox," said the king, "I little thought

The numerous contemporary memoirs and diaries are full of the that you and I should ever meet again in this place; but I have best material for a picture of George III.'s reign, apart from the

standard histories. Thackeray's Four Georges must not be trusted no desire to look back upon old grievances, and you may rest so far as historical judgment is concerned; Jesse's Memoirs of the assured I never shall remind you of them.” On the 13th of Life and Reign of George 111. (2nd ed., 1867) is chiefly concerned with September Fox died, and it was not long before the king and the personalities See also Beckles Willson, George III., as Man, ministry were openly in collision. The ministry proposed a

Monarch and Statesman (1907). measure enabling all subjects of the crown to serve in the army GEORGE IV. (George Augustus Frederick] (1762-1830), king and navy in spite of religious disqualifications. The king objected of Great Britain and Ireland, eldest son of George III., was born even to so slight a modification of the laws against the Catholics at St James's Palace, London, on the 12th of August 1762. He and Dissenters, and the ministers consented to drop the bill. was naturally gifted, was well taught in the classics, learnt to The king asked more than this. He demanded a written and speak French, Italian and German fluently, and had considerable positive engagement that this ministry would never, under any taste for music and the arts; and in person he was remarkably circumstances, propose to him “any measure of concession to handsome. His tutor, Bishop Richard Hurd, said of him when the Catholics, or even connected with the question.” The fifteen years old that he would be “either the most polished ministers very properly refused to bind themselves for the future. gentleman or the most accomplished blackguard in EuropeThey were consequently turned out of office, and a new ministry possibly both "; and the latter prediction was only too fully was formed with the duke of Portland as first lord of the treasury justified. Reaction from the strict and parsimonious style of and Mr Perceval as its real leader. The spirit of the new ministry his parents' domestic life, which was quite out of touch with the was distinct hostility to the Catholic claims. On the 27th of April gaiety and extravagance of London "society," had its natural 1807 a dissolution of parliament was announced, and a majority effect in plunging the young prince of Wales, flattered and in favour of the king's ministry was returned in the elections courted as he was, into a whirl of pleasure-seeking. At the outset which speedily followed.

his disposition was brilliant and generous, but it was essentially The elections of 1807, like the elections of 1784, gave the unstable, and he started even before he came of age on a career of king the mastery of the situation. In other respects they were dissipation which in later years became wholly profligate. He the counterpart of one another. In 1784 the country declared, had an early amour with the actress Mary (“ Perdita ") Robinson, though perhaps without any clear conception of what it was and in the choice of his friends he opposed and annoyed the king, doing, for a wise and progressive policy. In 1807 it declared with whom he soon became (and always remained) on the worst for an unwise and retrogressive policy, with a very clear under of terms, by associating himself with Fox and Sheridan and the standing of what it meant. It is in his reliance upon the prejudices Whig party, When in 1783 he came of age, a compromise and ignorance of the country that the constitutional significance between the coalition ministry and the king secured him an of the reign of George III. appears. Every strong government income of £50,000 from the Civil List, and £60,000 was voted derives its power from its representative character. At a time by parliament to pay his debts and start his separate establishwhen the House of Commons was less really representative than ment at Carlton House. There, under the auspices of C. J. Fox at any other, a king was on the throne who represented the and Georgiana, duchess of Devonshire, he posed as a patron of country in its good and bad qualities alike, in its hatred of Whig politics and a leader in all the licence and luxury of gay revolutionary violence, its moral sturdiness, its contempt of society-the “ First gentleman in Europe," as his fatterers foreigners, and its defiance of all ideas which were in any way described him as years went on. And at this early age he fell strange. Therefore it was that his success was not permanently seriously in love with the famous Mrs Fitzherbert. injurious to the working of the constitution as the success of His long connexion with this lady may most conveniently Charles I. would have been. If he were followed by a king be summarized here. It was indeed for some time the one reless English than himself, the strength of representative deeming and restraining factor in his life, though her devotion power would pass into other hands than those which held and self-sacrificing conduct were in marked contrast with his the sceptre.

unscrupulousness and selfishness. Mary Anne (or as she always The overthrow of the ministry of All the Talents was the last called herself, Maria) Fitzherbert (1756-1837) was the daughter political act of constitutional importance in which George III. of Walter Smythe, the second son of Sir John Smythe, Bart., Look part. The substitution of Perceval for Portland as the of Acton Burnell Park, Shropshire, and came of an old Roman nominal head of the ministry in 1809 was not an event of any Catholic family. Educated at a French convent, she married real significance, and in 1811 the reign practically came to an end. first in 1775 Edward Weld, who died within the year, and The king's reason finally broke down after the death of the secondly in 1778 Thomas Fitzherbert, who died in 1781, leaving princess Amelia, his favourite child; and the prince of Wales his widow with a comfortable fortune. A couple of years later (see GEORGE IV.) became prince regent. The remaining nine she became a prominent figure in London society, and her beauty years of George III.'s life were passed in insanity and blindness, and charm at once attracted the young prince, who wooed her and he died on the 29th of January 1820.

with all the ardour of a violent passion. She herself was distracted His wife, Charlotte Sophia (1744-1818), was a daughter of between her desire to return his love, her refusal to contemplate Charles Louis of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1816), and was married becoming his mistress, and her knowledge that state reasons to the king in London on the 8th of September 1761. After a made a regular marriage impossible. The Act of Settlement peaceful and happy married life the queen died at Kew on the (1689) entailed his forfeiture of the succession if he married a 17th of November 1818.

Roman Catholic, apart from the fact that the Royal Marriage George III. had nine sons. After his successor came Frederick, Act of 1772 made any marriage illegal without the king's consent, duke of York and Albany (1763-1827); William Henry, duke which was out of the question. But after trying for a while of Clarence, afterwards King William IV. (1765-1837); Edward to escape his attentions, her scruples were overcome. In Mrs Augustus, duke of Kent (1767-1825), father of Queen Victoria; Fitzherbert's eyes the state law was, after all, not everything. Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland, afterwards king of To a Roman Catholic, and equally to any member of the Christian Hanover (1771-1851); Augustus Frederick, duke of Sussex church, a formal marriage ceremony would be ecclesiastically (1773-1843); Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge (1774- and sacramentally binding; and after a period of passionate 1850); Octavius (1779-1783); Alfred (1780-1782). He had importunacy on his part they were secretly married by the Rev. also six daughters-Charlotte Augusta (1766-1828), married in R. Burt, a clergyman of the Church of England, on the 15th 1797 to Frederick, afterwards king of Württemberg; Augusta of December 1785. There is no doubt as to Mrs Fitzherbert's Sophia (1768-1840); Elizabeth (1770-1840), married Frederick, belief, supported by ecclesiastical considerations, in her correct landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, 1818; Mary (1776-1857), married to William Frederick, duke of Gloucester, 1816; Sophia (1777-see W. H. Wilkins, Mrs Fitzherbert and Gcorge IV. (1905), chs. vi.

For a discussion of the ecclesiastical validity of the marriage 1848); Amelia (1783-1810).

(S. R. G.) and vii.

and binding, though admittedly illegal, relationship to the prince sented to a marriage with a German Protestant princess, because as his canonical wife; and though that relationship was not, and his father would not pay his debts on any other terms, and his for political reasons could not be, publicly admitted, it was in cousin, Princess Caroline of Brunswick, was brought over from fact treated by their intimates on the footing of a morganatic Germany and married to him in 1795. Her behaviour was marriage. The position nevertheless was inevitably a false one; light and flippant, and he was brutal and unloving. The illMrs Fitzherbert had promised not to publish the evidence of the assorted pair soon parted, and soon after the birth of their marriage (which, according to a strict interpretation of the Act only child, the princess Charlotte, they were formally separated. of Settlement might have barred succession to the crown), and with great unwillingness the House of Commons voted fresh the rumours which soon got about led the prince to allow it to be sums of money to pay the prince's debts. disavowed by his political friends. He lived in the most extra- In 1811 he at last became prince regent in consequence of his vagant way, became heavily involved in debt, and as the king father's definite insanity. No one doubted at that time that it would not assist him, shut up Carlton House, and went to live was in his power to change the ministry at his pleasure. He had with Mrs Fitzherbert at Brighton. In 1787 a proposal was always lived in close connexion with the Whig opposition, and brought before the House of Commons by Alderman Newnham he now empowered Lord Grenville to form a ministry. There for a grant in relief of his embarrassments. It was on this soon arose differences of opinion between them on the answer occasion that Fox publicly declared in the House of Commons, to be returned to the address of the Houses, and the prince as on the prince's own authority, in answer to allusions to the regent then informed the prime minister, Mr Perceval, that he marriage, that the story was a malicious falsehood. A little should continue the existing ministry in office. The ground later Sheridan, in deference to Mrs Fitzherbert's pressure and alleged by him for this desertion of his friends was the fear lest to the prince's own compunction, made a speech guardedly his father's recovery might be rendered impossible if he should modifying Fox's statement; but though in private the denial was come to hear of the advent of the opposition to power. Lord understood, it effected its object, the House voting a grant of Wellesley's resignation in February 1812 made the reconstruction £221,000 to the prince and the king adding £10,000 to his income; of the ministry inevitable. As there was no longer any hope of and Mrs Fitzherbert, who at first thought of severing her the king's recovery, the former objection to a Whig administration connexion with the prince, forgave him. Their union-there was no longer existed. Instead of taking the course of inviting no child of the marriage-was brutally broken off in June 1794 the Whigs to take office, he asked them to join the existing by the prince, when further pressure of debts (and the influence of administration. The Whig leaders, however, refused to join, a new Egeria in Lady Jersey) made him contemplate his official on the ground that the question of the Catholic disabilities was marriage with princess Caroline; in 1800, however, it was too important to be shelved, and that their difference of opinion renewed, after urgent pleading on the prince's part, and after with Mr Perceval was too glaring to be ignored. The prince Mrs Fitzherbert had obtained a formal decision from the pope regent was excessively angry, and continued Perceval in office pronouncing her to be his wife, and sanctioning her taking him till that minister's assassination on the irth of May, when be back; her influence over him continued till shortly before the was succeeded by Lord Liverpool, after a negotiation in which prince became regent, when his relations with Lady Hertford the proposition of entering the cabinet was again made to the brought about a final separation. For the best years of his life Whigs and rejected by them. In the military glories of the he had at least had in Mrs Fitzherbert the nearest approach to following years the prince regent had no share. When the a real wife, and this was fully recognized by the royal family.' allied sovereigns visited England in 1814, he played the part of But his dissolute nature was entirely selfish, and his various host to perfection., So great was his unpopularity at home that liaisons ended in the dominance of Lady Conyngham, the“ Lady hisses were heard in the streets as he accompanied bis guests Steward ”of his household, from 1821 till his death.

into the city. The disgust which his profligate and luxurious Notorious as the prince of Wales had become by 1788, it life caused amongst a people suffering from almost universal was in that year that his father's first attack of insanity made distress after the conclusion of the war rapidly increased. ID his position in the state one of peculiar importance. Fox main- 1817 the windows of the prince regent's carriage were broken tained and Pitt denied that the prince of Wales, as the heir- as he was on his way to open parliament. apparent, had a right to assume the regency independently The death of George III. on the 29th of January 1820, gave to of any parliamentary vote. Pitt, with the support of both his son the title of king without in any way altering the position Houses, proposed to confer upon him the regency with certain which he had now held for nine years. Indirectly, however, restrictions. The recovery of the king in February 1789 put an this change brought out a manifestation of popular feeling such end, however, to the prince's hopes. In 1794 the prince con- as his father had never been subjected to even in the early days .: Mrs Fitzherbert herself, after her final separation from the prince, of his reign, when mobs were burning jack-boots and petticoats

. with an annuity of £6000 a year, lived an honoured and more or less

The relations between the new king and his wife unavoidably retired life mainly at Brighton, a town which owed its rapid develop- became the subject of public discussion. In 1806 à charge ment in fashionable popularity and material wealth to its selection against the princess of having given birth to an illegitimate by the prince and herself as a residence from the earliest years of their union; and there she died, seven years after the death of

child had been conclusively disproved, and the old king bad George IV., in 1837. William IV. on his accession offered to create consequently refused to withdraw her daughter, the princess her a duchess, but she declined; she accepted, however, his per Charlotte, from her custody. When in the regency the prince mission to put her servants in royal livery. William IV. in fact did was able to interfere, and prohibited his wife from seeing her all he could, short of a public acknowledgment (which the duke of daughter more than once a fortnight. On this, in 1813, the as his brother's widow. Charles Greville, writing of her after her princess addressed to her husband a letter setting forth her death, says in his Diary," She was not a clever woman, but of a very complaints, and receiving no answer published it in the Morning noble spirit, disinterested, generous, honest and affectionate.' Chronicle. The prince regent then referred the letter, together The actual existence of a marriage tie and the documentary evidence with all papers relating to the inquiry of 1806, to a body of of her rights were not definitely established for many years; but in 1905, a sealed packet, deposited at Coutts's bank in 1833; was at twenty-three privy councillors for an opinion whether it was fit length opened by royal permission, and the marriage certificate that the restrictions on the intercourse between the princess and other conclusive proofs therein contained were published in Charlotte and her mother should continue in force. All except Mr W. H. Wilkins's Mrs Fitzherbert and George IV. 'In 1796 the prince had made a remarkable will in Mrs Fitzherbert's favour,

two answered as the regent wished them to answer. But if the which he gave her in 1799, and it is included among these documents official leaning was towards the husband, the leaning of the general (now in the private archives at Windsor). In this he speaks of her public was towards the wife of a man whose own life had not been emphatically throughout as my wife.". It also contained directions such as to justify him in complaining of her whom he had thrust that at his death a locket with her miniature, which he always wore; from him without a charge of any kind. Addresses of sympathy should be interred with him; and Mrs Fitzherbert was privately assured, on the duke of Wellington's authority, that when the king were sent up to the princess from the city of London and was buried at Windsor the miniature was on his breast.

other public bodies. The discord again broke out in 1814 in consequence of the exclusion of the princess from court during the personally, but he was opposed to Canning's policy. Yet after visit of the allied sovereigns. In August in that year she left some hesitation he accepted Canning as prime minister; and England, and after a little time took up her abode in Italy. The when, after Canning's death and the short ministry of Lord accession of George IV. brought matters to a crisis. He ordered Goderich, the king in 1828 authorized the duke of Wellington to that no prayer for his wife as queen should be admitted into the form a ministry, he was content to lay down the principle that the Prayer Book. She at once challenged the accusation which was members of it were not expected to be unanimous on the Catholic implied in this omission by returning to England. On the 7th of question. When in 1829 the Wellington ministry unexpectedly June she arrived in London. Before she left the continent she proposed to introduce a Bill to remove the disabilities of the had been informed that proceedings would be taken against her Catholics, he feebly strove against the proposal and quickly for adultery if she landed in England. Two years before, in 1818, withdrew his opposition. The worn-out debauchee had ncither commissioners had been sent to Milan to investigate charges the merit of acquiescing in the change nor the courage to against her, and their report, laid before the cabinet in 1819, resist it. was made the basis of the prosecution. On the day on which George IV. died on the 26th of June 1830, and was succeeded she arrived in London a message was laid before both Houses by his brother, the duke of Clarence, as William IV His only recommending the criminating evidence to parliament. A child by Queen Caroline, the princess Charlotte Augusta, was secret committee in the House of Lords after considering this married in 1816 to Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, afterwards king of evidence brought in a report on which the prime minister founded the Belgians, and died in childbirth on the 6th of November a Bill of Pains and Penalties to divorce the queen and to deprive 1817. her of her royal title. The bill passed the three readings with George IV. was a bad king, and his reign did much to disgust the diminished majorities, and when on the third reading it obtained country with the Georgian type of monarchy; but libertine and only a majority of nine, it was abandoned by the Government. profligate as he became, the abuse which has been lavished on his

personal character has hardly taken into sufficient consideration The king's unpopularity, great as it had been before, was now

the loose morals of contemporary society, the political position of greater than ever. Public opinion, without troubling itself the Whig party, and his own ebullient temperament. Thackeray, to ask whether the queen was guilty or not, was roused to in his Four Georges, is frequently unfair in this respect. The just indignation by the spectacle of such a charge being brought by a

condemnation of the moralist and satirist requires some qualification husband who had thrust away his wife to fight the battle of life and diaries of the time, such as Greville's, Croker's, Creevey's, Lord

in the light of the picture of the period handed down in the memoirs alone, without protection or support, and who, whilst surrounding Holland's, Lord Malmesbury's, &c. Among later works see The her with spics to detect, perhaps to invent, her acts of infidelity, First Gentleman of Europe, by Lewis Melville (1906), a book for the was himself notorious for his adulterous life. In the following general reader.

(S. R. G.; H. CH.) year (1821) she attempted to force her way into Westminster GEORGE V. (GEORCE FREDERICK ERNEST ALBERT), king of Abbey to take her place at the coronation. On this occasion Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the popular support failed her; and her death in August relieved the Seas, emperor of India (1865- ), second son of King the king from further annoyance.

Edward VII., was born at Marlborough House, London, on the Immediately after the death of the queen, the king set out for 3rd of June 1865. When four years old, he and his elder brother, Ireland. He remained there but a short time, and his effusive Prince Albert Victor, two years his senior, were placed under declaration that rank, station, honours were nothing compared the tuiorship of John Neale Dalton, then curate of Sandwith the exalted happiness of living in the hearts of his Irish ringham. In 1877 the two princes became naval cadets on the subjects gained him a momentary popularity which was beyond

“Britannia at Spithead, where they passed through the his attainment in a country where he was better known. His ordinary curriculum, and in 1879 they joined H.M.S. reception in Dublin encouraged him to attempt a visit to Edin- chante" under the command of Captain Lord Charles Scott, burgh in the following year (August 1822). Since Charles II. making a voyage to the West Indies, in the course of which had come to play the sorry part of a covenanting king in 1650 they were rated midshipmen. After a month at home in 1880 no sovereign of the country had set foot on Scottish soil. Sir they returned to the ship to make another prolonged cruise in Walter Scott took the leading part in organizing his reception. H.M.S.“ Bacchante," in the course of which they visited South The enthusiasm with which he was received equalled, if it did America, South Africa, Australia, the Fiji Islands, Japan, Ceylon, not surpass, the enthusiasm with which he had been received in Egypt, Palestine and Greece. A narrative of this voyage, Dublin. But the qualities which enabled him to fix the fleeting The Cruise of H.M.S.Bacchanle," compiled from the letters, sympathies of the moment were not such as would enable him diaries and notebooks of the princes, was published in 1886. to exercise the influence in the government which had been At the close of this tour in 1882 the brothers separated. Prince indubitably possessed by his father. He returned from Edin- George, who remained in the naval service, was appointed to burgh to face the question of the appointment of a secretary of H.M.S. “ Canada,” commanded by Captain Durrant, on the state which had been raised by the death of Lord Londonderry North American and West Indian station, and was promoted (Castlereagh). It was upon the question of the appointment of sub-lieutenant. On his return home he passed through the ministers that the battle between the Whigs and the king liad Royal Naval College at Greenwich and the gunnery and torpedo been fought in the reign of George III. George IV. had neither schools, being promoted lieutenant in 1885. A year later he the firmness nor the moral weight to hold the reins which his was appointed to H.M.S. “ Thunderer" of the Mediterranean father had grasped. He disliked Canning for having taken his squadron, and was subsequently transferred to H.M.S.“ Dreadwife's side very much as his father had disliked Fox for taking nought” and H.M.S. Alexandra.” In 1889 he joined the bis own. But Lord Liverpool insisted on Canning's admission flagship of the Channel squadron, H.M.S. “Northumberland," to office, and the king gave way. Tacitly and without a struggle and in that year was in command of torpedo boat No. 79 for the constitutional victory of the last reign was surrendered. the naval manæuvres. In 1890 he was put in command of But it was not surrendered to the same foe as that from which the gunboat H.M.S.“ Thrush "for service on the North American it had been won. The coalition ministry in 1784 rested on the and West Indian station. After his promotion as commander great landowners and the proprietors of rotten boroughs. Lord in 1891 he commissioned H.M.S. “Melampus," the command Liverpool's ministry had hitherto not been very enlightened, of which he relinquished on the death of his brother, Albert and it supported itself to a great extent upon a narrow constitu- Victor, the duke of Clarence, in January 1892, since his duties edcy. But it did appeal to public opinion in a way that the as eventual heir to the crown precluded him from devoting coalition did not, and what it wanted itself in popular support himself exclusively to the navy. He was promoted captain would be supplied by its successors. What one king had gained in 1893, rear-admiral in 1901, and vice-admiral in 1903. He . from a clique another gave up to the nation. Once more, on was created duke of York, earl of Inverness, and Baron Killarney Lord Liverpool's death in 1827, the same question was tried in 1892, and on the 6th of July 1893 he married Princess Victoria with the same result. The king not only disliked Canning Mary (b. 26th May 1867), daughter of Francis, duke of Teck,

« Bac

and Princess Mary Adelaide, duchess of Teck, daughter of equal to nearly £1,500,000, which had been sent to England Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge. Their eldest son, before the Prussian invasion of Hanover. The crown jewels Prince Edward Albert, was born at White Lodge, Richmond, had also been secretly conveyed to England. His valuable on the 23rd of June 1894; Prince Albert Frederick George was plate, which had been hidden at Herrenhausen, was restored born at Sandringham on the 14th of December 1895; Princess to him in 1867; his palace at Herrenhausen, near Hanover, Victoria Alexandra on the 25th of April 1897; Prince Henry was reserved as his property; and in 1867 the Prussian governWilliam Frederick Albert on the 31st of March 1900; Princement agreed to compensate him for the loss of his landed estates, George Edward Alexander Edmund on the 20th of December but owing to his continued hostility the payment of the in1902; and Prince John Charles Francis on the 12th of July 1905. terest on this sum was suspended in the following year (see The duke and duchess of York visited Ireland in 1899, and HANOVER). it had been arranged before the death of Queen Victoria that See O. Klopp. König Georg V. (Hanover, 1878); 0. Theodor, they should make a tour in the colonies. On the accession of Erinnerungen an Georg. V. (Bremerhaven, 1878); and O. Meding, King Edward VII. (1901) this plan was confirmed. They sailed Memoiren zur Zeilgeschichte (Leipzig, 1881-188.4). in the “Ophir " on the 16th of March 1901, travelling by the GEORGE I., king of the Hellenes (1845- ), second son of ordinary route, and landed at Melbourne in May, when they King Christian IX. of Denmark, was born at Copenhagen op opened the first parliament of the Commonwealth. They then the 24th of December 1845. After the expulsion of King Otho proceeded to New Zealand, returning by way of South Africa in 1862, the Greek nation, by a plebiscite, elected the British and Canada. An official account of the tour was published by prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh (subsequently duke of Coburg), Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace as The Web of Empire (1902). In to the vacant throne, and on his refusal the national assembly November 1901 the duke was created prince of Wales. On the requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate. The choice death of Edward VII. (May 6, 1910) he succeeded to the Crown of the British government sell on Prince Christian William as George V., his consort taking the style of Queen Mary. Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg

GEORGE V., king of Hanover (1819–1878), was the only son Glücksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the of Ernest Augustus, king of Hanover and duke of Cumberland, title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863). and consequently a grandson of the English king George III. The sister of the new sovereign, Princess Alexandra, had a few Born in Berlin on the 27th of May 1819, his youth was passed months before (10th March) married the prince of Wales, afterin England and in Berlin until 1837, when his father became wards King Edward VII., and his father succeeded to the crown king of Hanover and he took up his residence in that country of Denmark in the following November. Another sister, Princess He lost the sight of one eye during a childish illness, and the Dagmar, subsequently married the grand duke Alexander other by an accident in 1833. Being thus totally blind there Alexandrovitch, afterwards Emperor Alexander III, of Russia. were doubts whether he was qualified to succeed to the govern-On his accession, King George signed an act resigning his right ment of Hanover; but his father decided that he should do so, of succession to the Danish throne in favour of his younger as the law of the dissolved empire only excluded princes who brother Prince Waldemar. He was received with much enthusiasm were born blind. This decision was a fatal one to the dynasty. by the Greeks. Adopting the motto, "My strength is the love Both from his father and from his maternal uncle, Charles of my people,” he ruled in strict accordance with constitutional Frederick, prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1785-1837), one of principles, though not hesitating to make the fullest use of the the most influential men at the Prussian court, George had learned royal prerogative when the intervention of the crown seemed to to take a very high and autocratic view of royal authority. His be required by circumstances. For the events of his reign see blindness prevented him from acquiring the shrewdness and GREECE: History. knowledge of the world which had assisted his father, and he King George married, on the 27th of October 1867, the grand easily fell into the hands of unwise, and perhaps dishonest and duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia, who became distinguished disloyal, advisers. A man of deep religious feeling, he formed in Greece for her activity on behalf of charitable objects. Their a fantastic conception of the place assigned to the house of Guelph children were Prince Constantine, duke of Sparta (b. 1868), who in the divine economy, and had ideas of founding a great Guelph married in 1889 Princess Sophia of Prussia, daughter of the state in Europe. It is, therefore, not surprising that from the emperor Frederick, and granddaughter of Queen Victoria; time of his accession in November 1851 he was constantly Prince George (b. 1869), from November 1898 to October 1906 engaged in disputes with his Landtag or parliament, and was high commissioner of the powers in Crete; Prince Nicholas consequently in a weak and perilous position when the crisis (b. 1872), who married in 1902 the grand duchess Helen-V'ladi. in the affairs of Cermany came in 1866. Having supported mirovna of Russia; Prince Andrew (b. 1882), who married in Austria in the diet of the German confederation in June 1866, 1903 Princess Alice of Battenberg; Prince Christopher (b. 1888); he refused, contrary to the wishes of his parliament, to assent and a daughter, Princess Marie (b. 1876), who married in 1900 to the Prussian demand that Hanover should observe an unarmed the grand duke George Michailovich of Russia. neutrality during the war. As a result his country and his GEORGE, king of Saxony (1832-1904), the youngest son of capital were at once occupied by the Prussians, to whom his King John of Saxony (d. 1873) and Queen Amelia, was born at army surrendered on the 29th of June 1866, and in the following Dresden on the 8th of August 1832. From an early age he September Hanover was formally annexed by Prussia. From received a careful scientific and military training, and in 1846 his retreat at Hietzing near Vienna, George appealed in vain entered the active army as a lieutenant of artillery. In 1840to the powers of Europe; and supported by a large number of 1850 he was a student at the university of Bonn, but soon returned his subjects, an agitation was carried on which for a time caused to military life, for which he had a predilection. In the Austrosome embarrassment to Prussia. All these efforts, however, Prussian War of 1866 he commanded a Saxon cavalry brigade, to bring about a restoration were unavailing, and the king passed and in the early part of the war of 1870-71 a division, but the remainder of his life at Gmünden in Austria, or in France, later succeeded to the supreme command of the XII. (Saxon) refusing to the last to be reconciled with the Prussian government. army corps in the room of his brother, the crown prince Albert Whilst visiting Paris for medical advice he died in that city on (afterwards king) of Saxony. His name is inseparably associated the 12th of June 1878, and was buried in St George's chapel, with this campaign, during which he showed undoubied military Windsor. In February 1843 he had married Marie, daughter ability and an intrepidity which communicated itself to all of Joseph, duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by whom he left a son and ranks under his command, notably at the battles of St Privat two daughters. His son, Ernest Augustus, duke of Cumberland and Beaumont, in which he greatly distinguished himself. On (b. 1845), continued to maintain the claim of his house to the his brother succeeding to the throne he became commander-in; kingdom of Hanover.

chief of the Saxon army, and was in 1888 made a Prussian By the capitulation of 1866 the king was allowed to retain field marshal by the emperor William I. He married in 1859 his personal property, which included money and securities the infanta Maria, sister of King Louis of Portugal, and King " with a

Albert's marriage being childless, succeeded on his death in 1902 See G. Voigt. Die Wiederbelebung des klassischen Altertums (1893): to the throne of Saxony. He died on the 15th of October 1904, padit. For a complete list of his numerous works, consisting of

and article by C. F. Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encykloat Pillnitz.

translations from Greck into Latin (Plato, Aristotle and the Fathers) GEORGE OF LAODICEA in Syria, often called “the Cappa- and original essays in Greek (chiefly, theological) and Latin (gram. docian,” from 356 to 361 Arian archbishop of Alexandria, was matical and rhetorical), see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed. born about the beginning of the 4th century. According to Harles), xii. Ammianus (xxii. 11), he was a native of Epiphania, in Cilicia.

GEORGE THE MONK (GEORGIOS MONACHOS), called HamarGregory Nazianzen tells us that his father was a fuller, and that tolos (Greek for“ sinner "), Byzantine chronicler, lived during he himself soon became notorious as a parasite of so mean a

the reign of Michael III. (842-867). He wrote a Chronicle of type that he would "sell himself for a cake.” After many

events, in four books, from the creation of the world to the death wanderings, in the course of which he seems to have amassed of the emperor Theophilus (842), whose widow Theodora restored a considerable fortune, first as an army-contractor and then as

the worship of images in the same year. It is the only original a receiver of taxes, he ultimately reached Alexandria. It is not contemporary authority for the years 813-842, and therefore known how or when he obtained ecclesiastical orders; but, so far indispensable; the early parts of the work are merely a after Athanasius had been banished in 356, George was pro compilation. In the introduction the author disclaims all premoted by the influence of the then prevalent Arian faction to the tensions to literary style, and declares that his only object was vacant see. His theological attitude was that known as semi

to relate such things as were “ useful and necessary Arian or Homoiousian, and his associates were Eustathius of strict adherence to truth. Far too much attention, however, Sebaste and Basil of Ancyra. At George's instigation the is devoted to religious matters; the iconoclasts are fiercely second Sirmian formula (promulgated by the third council of attacked, and the whole is interlarded with theological discussions Sirmium 357), which was conciliatory towards strict Arianism, and quotations from the fathers. The work was very popular, was opposed at the council of Ancyra in 358 (Harnack, Hist. and translations of it served as models for Slavonic writers. of Dogma, iv. 76). His persecutions and oppressions of the

The MSS. give a continuation down to 948, the author of which orthodox ultimately raised a rebellion which compelled him to

is indicated simply as “the logothete," by whom probably flee for his life; but his authority was restored, although with Symeon Metaphrastes (second half of the 10th century) is meant. difficulty, by a military demonstration. Untaught by experience, In this religious questions are relegated to the background, he resumed his course of selfish tyranny over Christians and

more attention is devoted to political history, and the language heathen alike, and raised the irritation of the populace to such is more popular. Still further continuations of little value go a pitch that when, on the accession of Julian, his downfall was

down to 1143. The large circulation of the work and its subproclaimed and he was committed to prison, they dragged him sequent reissues, with alterations and interpolations, make it thence and killed him, finally càsting his body into the sea

very difficult to arrive at the original text. (24th of December 361). With much that was sordid and Patrologia Graeca, cx.; C. de Boor (in Teubner series, 1904

EDITIONS: E. de Muralt (St Petersburg, 1859); J. P. Migne,

). brutal in his character George combined a highly cultivated See F. Hirsch, Byzantinische Studien (1876): C. de Boor in Hisliterary taste, and in the course of his chequered career he had torische Untersuchungen (in honour of Arnold Schäfer, Bonn, 1882); found the means of collecting a splendid library, which Julian C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (1897). ordered to be conveyed to Antioch for his own use. An


anonymous work against the Manicheans discovered by Lagarde in Constantinople, Byzantine chronicler and ecclesiastic, lived 1859 in a MS. of Titus of Bostra has been attributed to him.

at the end of the 8th and the beginning of the oth century A.D. The original sources for the facts of the life of George of Laodicea

He was the syncellus (cell-mate, the confidential campanion are Ammianus, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius and Athanasius. assigned to the patriarchs, sometimes little more than å spy; His character has been drawn with graphic fidelity by Gibbon in see SYNCELLUS) or private secretary of Tara(u)sius, patriarch the 23rd chapter of the Decline and Fall; but the theory, accepted of Constantinople (784-806), after whose death he retired to a now rejected (see GEORGE, SAINT). See C. S. Hulst, St George of convent, and wrote his Chronicle of events from Adam to DioCappadocia in Legend and History (1910).

cletian (285). At his earnest request, the work, which he doubtGEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher less intended to bring down to his own times, was continued after and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the his death by his friend Theophanes Confessor. The Chronicle, Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived which, as its title implies, is rather a chronological table (with his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were notes) than a history, is written with special reference to prefrom Trebizond. At what period he came to Italy is not certain; Christian times and the introduction of Christianity, and exhibits according to some accounts he was summoned to Venice about the author as a staunch upholder of orthodoxy. But in spite of 1430 to act as amanuensis to Francesco Barbaro, who appears its religious bias and dry and uninteresting character, the fragto have already made his acquaintance; according to others he

ments of ancient writers and apocryphal books preserved in it did not visit Italy till the time of the council of Florence (1438– render it specially valuable. For instance, considerable portions 1439). He learned Latin from Vittorino da Feltre, and made of the original text of the Chronicle of Eusebius have been such rapid progress that in three years he was able to teach restored by the aid of Syncellus. His chief authorities were Latin literature and rhetoric. His reputation as a teacher and Annianus of Alexandria (5th century) and Panodorus, an a translator of Aristotle was very great, and he was selected as Egyptian monk, who wrote about the year 400 and drew largely secretary by Pope Nicholas V., an ardent Aristotelian. The from Eusebius, Dexippus and Julius Africanus. needless bitterness of his attacks upon Plato (in the Comparatio hist. Byz., by W. Dindori (1829). See also H. Gelzer, Sextus Julius

Editio princeps, by ). Goar (1652); in Bonn Corpus scriptorum Aristotelis et Platonis), which drew forth a powerful response Africanus, ií. 1 (1885); C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byżantinischen from Bessarion (9.0.), and the manifestly hurried and inaccurate Lilleratur (1897). character of his translations of Plato, Aristotle and other classical GEORGE, HENRY (1839-1897), American author and political authors, combined to ruin his fame as a scholar, and to endanger economist, was born in Philadelphia, Penn., on the 2nd of Sephis position as a teacher of philosophy. The indignation against tember 1839. He settled in California in 1858; removed to him on account of his first-named work was so great that he New York, 1880; was first a printer, then an editor, but finally would probably have been compelled to leave Italy had not devoted all his life to economic and social questions. In 1871 Alphonso V. given him protection at the court of Naples. He he published Our Land Policy, which, as further developed in subsequently returned to Rome, where he died in great poverty 1879 under the title of Progress and Poverty, speedily attracted on the 12th of August 1484. He had long outlived his the widest attention both in America and in Europe. In 1886 reputation, and towards the end of his life his intellect failed him. he published Protection or Free Trade. Henry George had no From all accounts he was a man of very disagreeablc character, political ambition, but in 1886 he received an independent conceited and quarrelsome.

nomination as mayor of New York City, and became so popular

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