Page images

that it required a coalition of the two strongest political parties, characterizes his compositions as artificial and almost uniformly to prevent his election. He received 68,000 votes, against dull. 90,000 for the coalition candidate. His death on the 29th of Complete works in J. P. Migne, Petrologia Graeca, xcii.; see also October 1897 was followed by one of the greatest demonstrations De Georgii Pisidae apud Theophanem aliosque historicos reliquiis. of popular feeling and general respect that ever attended the the first time from a Paris MS. in Wiener Studien, xiii., xiv. (1891

(1900), by S. L. Sternbach, who has edited several new poems for funeral of any strictly private citizen in American history. 1892); C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischer Litteratur The fundamental doctrine of Henry George, the equal right of (1897); C. F. Bähr in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopedie. all men to the use of the earth, did not originate with him; but GEORGE, LAKE, a lake in the E. part of New York, U.S.A., his clear statement of a method by which it could be enforced, among the S.E. foothills of the Adirondack Mountains. without increasing state machinery, and indeed with a great extends from N.N.E. to S.S.W:about 34 m., and varies in width simplification of government, gave it a new form. This method from 2 to 4 m. It has a maximum depth of about 400 ft., and is he named the Single Tax. His doctrine may be condensed as

323 ft. above the sea and 227 ft. above Lake Champlain, into follows: The land of every country belongs of right to all the which it has an outlet to the northward through a narrow channd people of that country. This right cannot be alienated by one

and over falls and rapids. The lake is fed chicfly by mountain generation, so as to affect the title of the next, any more than brooks and submerged springs; its bed is for the most part men can sell their yet unborn children for slaves. Private covered with a clean sand; its clear water is coloured with ownership of land has no more foundation in morality or reason beautiful tints of blue and green; and its surface is studded with than private ownership of air or sunlight. But the private about 220 islands and islets, all except nineteen of which belong occupancy and use of land are right and indispensable. Any to the state and constitute a part of its forest reserve. Near the attempt to divide land into equal shares is impossible and un

head of the lake is Prospect Mountain, rising 1736 st. above the desirable. Land should be, and practically is now, divided for sea, while several miles farther down the shores is Black Mountain, private use in parcels among those who will pay the highest price | 2661 ft. in height. Lake George has become a favourite summer for the use of each parcel. This price is now paid to some persons

resort. Lake stcamers ply between the village of Lake George annually, and it is called rent. By applying the rent of land, (formerly Caldwell) at the southern end of the lake and Baldwin, exclusive of all improvements, to the equal benefit of the whole whence there is rail connexion with Lake Champlain steamers. community, absolute justice would be done to all. As rent is Lake George was formed during the Glacial period by glacial always more than sufficient to defray all necessary expenses of drift which clogged a pre-existing valley. According to Prof. J. F. government, those expenses should be met by a tax upon rent Kemp the valley occupied by Lake George was a low pass before alone, to be brought about by the gradual abolition of all other the Glacial period; a dam of glacial drist at the southern end taxes. Landlords should be left in undisturbed possession and and of lacustrine clays at the northern end formed the lake which nominal ownership of the land, with a sufficient margin over the has submerged the pass, Icaving higher parts as islands. Before tax to induce them to collect their rents and pay the tax. They the advent of the white man the lake was a part of the war-path would thus be transformed into mere land agents. Obviously over which the Iroquois Indians frequently, made their way this would involve absolute free trade, since all taxes on imports, northward to attack the Algonquins and the Hurons, and during manufactures, successions, documents, personal property, build- the struggle between the English and the French for supremacy ings or improvements would disappear. Nothing made by man in America, waterways being still the chief means of communicawould be taxed at all. The right of private property in all things tion, it was of great strategic importance (see CHAMFLAIN, Lake). made by man would thus be absolute, for the owner of such Father Isaac Jogues, René Goupil and Guillaume Couture things could not be divested of his property, without full com- seem to have been the first white men to see the lake (on the oth pensation, even under the pretence of taxation. The idea of of August 1642) as they were being taken by their Iroquois concentrating all taxes upon ground-rent has found followers captors from the St Lawrence to the towns of the Mohawks, in Great Britain, North America, Australia and New Zealand. and in 1646 Father Jogues, having undertaken a half-religious, In practical politics this doctrine is confined to the “Single Tax, half-political mission to the Mohawks; was again at tbe lake, Limited,” which proposes to defray only the needful public to which, in allusion to his having rcached it on the eve of Corpus expenses from ground-rent, leaving the surplus, whatever it Christi, he gave the name Lac Saint Sacrement. This name may be, in the undisturbed possession of land-owners.

it bore until the summer of 1755, when General William Johnson The principal books by Henry George are: Progress and Poverly renamed it Lake Gcorge in honour of King George II. (1879). The Irish Land Question (1881), Social Problems (1884), Protection or Free Trade (1886), The Condition of Labor (1897), colonists and Indians sent against the French at Crown Point on

General Johnson was at this time in command of a force of A Perplexed Philosopher (1892), Political Economy (1898). His son, Henry George (b. 1862), has written a Life (1900). For the Single

Lake Champlain. The expedition, however, had proceeded Tax theory see Shearman's Natural Taxation (1899). (T. G. S.) no farther than to the head of Lake George when Johnson was

GEORGE PISIDA (GEORGIOS PISIDES), Byzantine poet, born in informed that a force of French and Indians under Baron Ludwig Pisidia, flourished during the 7th century A.D. Nothing is known August Dieskau was pushing on from Crown Point to Fort of him except that he was a deacon and chartophylax (keeper Lyman (later Fort Edward), 14 m. to the S. of their encampment. of the records) of the church of St Sophia. His earliest work, Accordingly, on the morning of the Sth of September a detachin three cantos (åkpokoels), on the campaign of the emperor ment of 1000 colonials under Colonel Ephraim Williams (1715Heraclius against the Persians, scems to be the work of an eye-1755) and 200 Indians under Hendrick, a Mohawk chief, was witness. This was followed by the Avarica, an account of a sent to aid Fort Lyman, but when about 3 m. S. of the lake this futile attack on Constantinople by the Avars (626), said to have detachment fell into an ambuscade prepared for it by Dieskau been repulsed by the aid of the Virgin Mary; and by the Heraclias, and both Williams and Hendrick were killed. The survivors a general survey of the exploits of Heraclius both at home and were pursued to their camp, and then followed on the same day abroad down to the final overthrow of Chosroes in 627. George the main battle of Lake George, in which 1000 colonials fighting Pisida was also the author of a didactic poem, Hexaëmeron or at first behind a hastily prepared barricade defeated about 1400 Cosmourgia, upon the creation of the world; a treatise on the French and Indians. Both commanders were wounded; Dieskau vanity of life, after the manner of Ecclesiastes; a controversial was captured; the French lost about 300; and the colonials composition against Severus, bishop of Antioch; two short poems nearly the same (including those who sell. earlier in the day). upon the resurrection of Christ and on the recovery of the sacred Johnson now built on the lake shore, near the battlefield, a fort crucifix stolen by the Persians. The metre chicsy used is the of gravel and logs and called it Fort William Henry (the site was iambic. As a versifier Pisida is correct and even elegant; as a occupied by the Fort William Henry Hotel till it was burned chronicler of contemporary events he is exceedingly useful; | in 1909). In the meantime the French entrenched them. and later Byzantine writers enthusiastically compared him with, selves at Ticonderoga at the foot of the lake. In March 1757 and even preferred him to Euripides. Recent criticism, however, | Fort William Henry successfully withstood an attack of 1600 men sent out by the marquis de Vaudreuil, governor of Canada, | shoe and harness making were tried for a few years. There is but on the 9th of August of the same year its garrison, after an efficient preparatory and high school, from which students being reduced to desperate straits, surrendered to the marquis de enter directly leading colleges. The religious influence is strong, Montcalm. By the terms of surrender the garrison was to be wholesome and unsectarian; students in Auburn Theological allowed to march out with the honours of war and was to be Seminary have assisted in the religious work; Roman Catholic escorted to Fort Edward, but the guard provided by Montcalm and Hebrew services are also held; and attendance at church was inadequate to protect them from his Indian allies and on the services is compulsory only on convicts and prisoners. day following the surrender many were massacred or taken There are “Woman's Aid” societies in New York City, prisoners. The fort was razed to the ground. In 1758 General Ithaca, Syracuse, Buffalo, Boston and elsewhere, to promote James Abercrombie proceeded by way of Lake George against the work of the Republic. A “republic" for younger boys, Fort Ticonderoga, and in 1759 Baron Jeffrey Amherst, while on begun at Freeville, was established in Litchfield, Connecticut; his way to co-operate with General James Wolfe against Quebec, and a National Junior Republic near Annapolis Junction, built near the site of Fort William Henry one bastion of a fort Maryland, and a Carter Junior Republic at Readington, near since known as Fort George, the ruins of which still remain. Easton, Pennsylvania, are modelled on the George Junior

A monument commemorative of the battle of Lake George Republic. In 1908–1910 new states were established at was unveiled on the 8th of September 1903, on the site of the Chino, California, Grove City, Pennsylvania, and Flemington battle, and within the state reservation of 35 acres known as Junction, New Jersey. In February 1908 the National AssociaFort George Battle Park. Horicon is a name that was given tion of Junior Republics was formed with Mr George (its founder) to the lake by James Fenimore Cooper The Indian name of as its director, its aims being to establish at least one“ republic the lake was Andia-ta-roc-te.

in each state of the Union, and in other countries similar instituSee Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe (Boston, 1884), and tions for youth and miniature governments modelled on that of E. E. Seelye, Lake George in History (Lake George, 1897).

the country in which each“ state "is established, and to establish GEORGE JUNIOR REPUBLIC, an American industrial colonies for younger children, to be sent at the age of fifteen institution, situated near the small village of Freeville, in Tomp- to the Junior Republic. At the time of its formation the National kins county, New York, U.S.A., 9 m. E.N.E. of Ithaca, at the Association included the "states" at Freeville, N.Y , Litchfield, junction of the Sayre-Auburn and the Elmira-Cortland branches Conn., and Annapolis Junction, Md.; others joined the federaof the Lehigh Valley railway. The George Junior Republic tion later. forms a miniature state whose economic, civic and social condi- See William R. George, The Junior Republic: ils History and tions, as nearly as possible, reproduce those of the United States, Ideals (New York, 1910); The Junior Republic Citizen (Freeville, and whose citizenship is vested in young people, especially those 1895 sqq.), written and printed by " citizens "; Nothing Without who are neglected or wayward, who are thus taught self-reliance, J. R. Commons, " The Junior Republic," in The American Journal

Labor, George Junior Republic (7th ed., Freeville, 1909), a manual; self-control and morality. The founder, William Reuben George Of Sociology (1898); D. F. Lincoln, The George Junior Republic,” (b. 1866), was a native of West Dryden, a village near Freeville, in The Coming. Ag! (1900); and Lyman Abbott, "A Republic who as a business man in New York City became interested in within a Republic, '" in the Outlook for February 15, 1908. the Fresh Air Fund charity supervised by the New York Tribune, GEORGETOWN, the capital of British Guiana (see GUIANA), took charge of summer outings for city children (1890–1894), and the seat of the colonial government, situated on the left and, becoming convinced that such charities tended to promote bank of the Demerara river at its mouth, in 6° 29' 24" N. and pauperism and crime among the older of their protégés, devised 58° 11' 30" W. It was known during the Dutch occupation first (1894) the plan of requiring payment by the children in as Stabroek, and was established as the seat of government labour for all they received during these summer jaunts, then of the combined colonies of Essequibo and Demerara (now with (1895) self-government for a summer colony near Freeville, Berbice forming the three counties of British Guiana) in 1784, and finally a permanent colony, in which the children stay for its name being changed to Georgetown in 1812. It is one of several years. The Republic was founded on the roth of July the finest towns in this part of the world, the streets being wide 1895; the only check on the powers of executive, representative and straight, intersecting each other at right angles, several and judicial branches of the government lies in the veto of the having double roadways with lily-covered canals in the centre, superintendent. “Nothing without labour” is the motto of the grass banks on either side carrying rows of handsome shade the community, so strictly carried out that a girl or boy in the trees. In Main Street, the finest street in Georgetown, the canal Republic who has not money' to pay for a night's lodging must has been filled in to form a broad walk, an obvious precedent slcep in jail and work the next day for the use of the cell. The for the treatment of the other canals, which (however beautiful) legislative body, originally a House of Representatives and a are useless and merely act as breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Senais, in 1899 became more like the New England town meeting. The principal residences, standing in their own gardens surrounded The respect for the law that follows its enactment by the citizens by foliage and flowers, are scattered over the town, as are also themselves is remarkable in a class so largely of criminal tend- the slums, almost the worst of which abut on the best residential encies; and it is particularly noticeable that positions on the quarters. Water Street, the business centre, runs parallel to police force are eagerly coveted. Fifteen is the age of majority; the river for about 2} m. and contains the stores of the wholesale suffrage is universal, children under fifteen must be in charge of a and retail merchants, their wharves running out into the river citizen guardian. The average age of citizens was seventeen in to allow steamers to come alongside. Most of the houses and 1908. The proportion of girls to boys was originally small, but public buildings are constructed of wood, the former generally gradually increased; in 1908 there were about 70 girls and 90 boys. raised on brick pillars some 4 ft. to 10 ft. from the ground, the The tendency is to admit only those aged at least sixteen and bright colouring of the wooden walls, jalousies and roofs adding physically well equipped. In the Republic's earlier years the to the beauty of the best streets. The large structure known citizens lived in boarding-houses of different grades, but later in as the Public Buildings in the centre of the city, containing family groups in cottages (there were in 1910 twelve cottages) the offices of the executive government and the hall of the under the care of “ house-mothers." The labour of the place is court of policy, was erected between 1829 and 1834. It is a divided into sewing, laundry work, cooking and domestic service handsome, E-shaped, brick-plastered building of considerable for the girls, and furniture making, carpentry, farm work, baking size, with deep porticos and marble-paved galleries carried on bread and wafers (the business of an Auburn biscuit factory was cast-iron columns. The law courts, built in the 'eighties, have bought in 1903), plumbing and printing for the boys. Masonry and a ground floor of concrete and iron, the upper storey being of

1 The "government " issued its own currency in tin and later hardwood. Among other public buildings are the town hall, in aluminium, and " American " money could not be passed within

the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several handsome the 48 acres of the Republic until 1906, when depreciation forced the Republic's coinage out of use and American coin was made legal churches, the local banks and insurance offices, and the almshouse. tender.

The public hospital consists of several large blocks. The Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society has a large reading-room burying-ground containing the graves of John Howard Payne, and lending library. The assembly rooms, above and owned the author of “Home, Sweet Home," Edwin McMasters Stanton by the Georgetown club, has a good stage and is admirably, and Joseph Henry. On the bank of the Potomac is a brick house adapted to dramatic and musical entertainments. A museum which was for several years the home of Francis Scott Key, author (free), belonging to the Royal Agricultural and Commercial of “ The Star-Spangled Banner "; on Analostan Island in the Society, is chicfly devoted to the fauna of British Guiana, but river was a home of James Murray Mason; Georgetown Heights also contains an instructive collection of local economic, minera- was the home of the popular novelist, Mrs Emma Dorothy logical and botanical exhibits, a miscellaneous collection of Eliza Nevitte Southworth (1819–1899). Before the advent of foreign birds and mammals, and an interesting series of views railways Georgetown had an important commerce by way of the of the colony. The botanical gardens to the east of the city Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, by which considerable coal as well are of considerable extent and admirably laid out. The nurseries as some grain is still brought hither, and of which Georgetown cover a large area and are devoted chiefly to the raising of plants is now a terminus; the canal formerly crossed the Potomac of economic importance which can be purchased at nominal at this point on an aqueduct bridge (1446 ft. long), but in 1887 rates. The collections of ferns and orchids are very fine. In the the crossing was abandoned and the old bridge was purchased gardens are also located the fields of the board of agriculture, by the United States government, which in 1889 constructed where experimental work in the growth of sugar-cane, rice, a new steel bridge upon the old masonry piers. Chief among the cotton and all tropical plants of economic importance is carried manufactories are several large flour mills-Georgetown flour on. Other popular resorts are the sea wall and the promenade was long noted for its excellence. There is a very large fishgardens in the centre of the city.

market here. Georgetown was settled late in the 17th century, The local government of Georgetown is vested in a mayor and was laid out as a town in 1751, chartered as a city in 1789, town council elected under a very restricted franchise. The merged in the District of Columbia in 1871, and annexed city is divided into fourteen wards each with one representative. to the city of Washington in 1878. In the early days of A councillor must possess, either personally or through his wife, Washington it was a social centre of some importance, where premises within the city of the appraised value of at least $1500. many members of Congress as well as some cabinet officers A voter must either own house property of the appraised value and representatives of foreign countries lived and the President of $250 or occupy premises of an annual rental of $240. There gave state dinners; and here were the studio, for two years, of are indeed only 297 municipal voters in a population of nearly Gilbert Stuart, and “Kalorama," the residence of Joel Barlow. 50,000. The revenue, just over £50,000 annually, is mainly GEORGETOWN, a city and the county-seat of Scott county, derived from a direct rate on house property. The colonial Kentucky, U.S.A., about 11 miles N. of Lexington. Pop. government pays rates on its property and also gives a grant- (1900) 3823 (1677 negroes); (1910) 4533. Georgetown is served in-aid towards the upkeep of the streets. The expenditure is by the Cincinnati Southern (Queen & Crescent Route), the principally on sanitation, fire brigade, streets, water-supply, Frankfort & Cincinnati, and the Southern railways, and is street lighting and drainage. Street lighting is carried out under connected with Lexington by an electric line. It is the seat contract by the Demerara Electric Company, which has a of Georgetown College (Baptist, co-educational), chartered in monopoly of private lighting and works an excellent tram service. 1829 as the successor of Rittenhouse Academy, which was founded Water for public and domestic purposes is taken from the con- in 1798. Georgetown is situated in the Blue Grass region of servancy of the east coast and is delivered by pumping throughout Kentucky, and the surrounding country is devoted to agriculture the city, but drinking-water is collected in tanks attached to and stock-raising. One of the largest independent oil refineries the dwellings from the rain falling on the roofs. The fire brigade in the country (that of the Indian Refining Co.) is in Georgetown, is a branch of the police force, half the cost being borne by the and among manufactures are bricks, flour, ice, bagging and hemp. rates and half by the general revenue. There is an excellent | The remarkable "Royal Spring," which rises near the centre service of telephones, a branch of the post office, and halspenny of the city, furnishes about 200,000 gallons of water an hour postage within the city boundaries. There are in Georgetown for the city's water supply, and for power for the street railway iwo well-equipped foundries, a dry dock, and factories for the and for various industries. The first settlement was made in manufacture of rice, cigars, soap, boots, chocolate, candles, 1775, and was named McClellan's, that name being changed to aerated waters and ice. Georgetown is connected by rail and Lebanon a few years afterwards. In 1790 the place was incorferry with New Amsterdam, by ferry and rail with the west porated as a town under its present name (adopted in honour coast of Demerara, and by steamer with all the country districts of George Washington), and Georgetown was chartered as a city along the coast and up the navigable reaches of the principal of the fourth class in 1894. Bacon College, which developed into rivers.

(A. G. B.*) Kentucky (now Transylvania) University (see LEXINGTON, Ky.), GEORGETOWN, formerly a city of the District of Columbia, was established here by the Disciples of Christ in 1836, but in U.S.A., and now part (sometimes called West Washington) 1839 was removed to Harrodsburg. of the city of Washington, U.S.A., at the confluence of the GEORGETOWN, a city, a port of entry and the county-seat Potomac river and Rock Creek, and on the Chesapeake and Ohio of Georgetown county, South Carolina, U.S.A., at the head of Canal, about 21 m. W.N.W. of the National Capitol. Pop. Winyah Bay, and at the mouth of the Pedee river, about 15 m. (1890) 14,046; (1900) 14,549. The streets are old-fashioned, from the Atlantic Ocean, and about 55 m. N.E. of Charleston. narrow and well shaded. On the “Heights ” are many fine Pop. (1890) 2895; (1900) 4138 (2718 negroes); (1910) 5530. residences with beautiful gardens; the Monastery and Academy Georgetown is served by the Georgetown & Western railway, (for girls) of Visitation, founded in 1799 by Leonard Neale, has steamship communication with Charleston, Wilmington, second archbishop of Baltimore; and the college and the New York City and other Atlantic ports, and, by the Pedee astronomical observatory (1842) oi Georgetown University. river and its tributaries (about 1000 m. of navigable streams), The university was founded as a Roman Catholic Academy in has trade connexions with a large area of South Carolina and part 1789, was opened in 1791, transferred to the Society of Jesus of North Carolina. The principal public buildings are the post in 1805, authorized in 1815 by Congress to confer college or office and custom house. Among the city's manufactures are university degrees, and by the Holy See in 1833 to confer degrees lumber, foundry and machine-shop products, naval stores and in philosophy and theology, incorporated as Georgetown College oars; and there are shad and sturgeon fisheries. The growing by Act of Congress in 1844, and began graduate work about of cotton and truck-gardening are important industries in the 1856. The college library includes the historical collection of neighbouring region, and there is considerable trade in such James Gilmary Shea. A school of medicine was opened in 1851, products. The first settlement bere was made about 1700; a dental school in 1901 and a school of law in 1870. In 1909- and the town was laid out a short time before 1734. The Winyah 1910 the university had an enrolment of 859 students. Rising Indigo Society grew out of a social club organized about 1740, in terraces from Rock Creek is Oak Hill Cemetery, a beautiful I and was founded in 1757 by a group of planters interested in

summer resort.

raising indigo; it long conducted a school (discontinued during springs in north-east Georgia within a stone's throw of each other the Civil War) which eventually became part of the city's public that send out

their waters to Savannah, Ga., to Apalachicola, Fla., school system. In 1780 Georgetown was occupied by a body Powing into the Atlantic and those flowing into the Gulf extends of Loyalist troops, with whom the American troops had several from this point first S.E. for a few miles, then turns S.W. to Atlanta, skirmishes, but on the roth of August 1781 General Francis and from there extends S.S.E. to the Florida line. West of where Marion forced the evacuation of the town and took possession the escarpment dies out, the Great Valley Region and a considerable of it. A few days later, an American named Manson, who had | Coosa, the Tallapoosa and their tributaries, into Mobile Bay, but joined the British forces, attacked the town from an armed the Cumberland Plateau, like that part of the Appalachian Mounvessel, and burned about forty houses, the small body of militia tains Region which lies directly N. of the Blue Ridge escarpment, being unable to make an effective resistance. General Lafayette of the state

are the Chattahoochee and the Flint, which

unite in first landed on American soil at George wn on the 24th of April the S.W. corner to form the Apalachicola: the Ocmulgee (whose 1777. Georgetown was incorporated as a town in 1805, and was western tributary, the Towaliga, falls 96 st. in less than a quarter chartered as a city in 1895.

of a mile), and the Oconee, which unite in the S.E. to form the GEORGETOWN, a city and the county-seat' of Williamson Altamaha; and the Savannah, which forms the boundary between county, Texas, U.S.A., on the San Gabriel river, about 25 m. N. Georgia and South Carolina. All of these rise in the upper part of the

Piedmont Plateau, through which they pursue a rapid course over by E. of Austin. Pop. (1890) 2447; (1900) 2790 (608 negroes); rocky beds, and are navigable only south of the fall-line," at (1910) 3096. The city is served by the International which and north of which they furnish an abundance of water-power. & Great Northern, and the Missouri, Kansas & Texas rail

The upper Savannah river first flows S.W., then turns abruptly ways. Georgetown is the seat of the Southwestern University |tinues S.W. This is because the upper Savannah

S.E., while the Chattahoochee river rises near this point and con.

was formerly (Methodist Episcopal, South, co-educational), formed in 1873 part of the Chattahoochee, but was captured and turned S.E. by (chartered 1875) by the combination of Ruterville College headward growth of the Savannah. As a result of the capture (Methodist Episcopal, at Ruterville, Texas, chartered in 1840, branch called the Tallulah river and the upper Tallulah, in a series and closed in 1850), McKenzie College (at Clarksville, Texas, of cascades, 2} m. long, falls 525 ft. from the former higher level founded in 1841 and closed in 1872), Wesleyan College at San down to the main bed of the upper Savannah, at Tallulah Falls, a Augustine (chartered in 1844, burned a few years later, and not rebuilt), and Soule University at Chapel Hill (chartered in 1856,

The sauna and flora have no distinctive features. (See UNITED but closed in 1870). The university includes a fitting school

STATES.) at Georgetown, and a medical department at Dallas, Texas;

Climate and Soils.—The climate of Georgia, though temperate, in 1909 it had an enrolment of 1037 students. The principal differs considerably in different parts of the state. All the ninc manufactures of Georgetown are cotton and cotton-seed oil, climate belts in the United States, except that of southern and planing-mill products. In Page Park are mineral springs, Florida, are represented within its borders. The lowest mean whose waters have medicinal qualities similar to the famous

annual temperature, 40° F. and below, is that of some of the Karlsbad waters. The first settlement was made here in 1848; mountain tops of northern Georgia; from the mountain-sides and Georgetown was incorporated as a town in 1866, and was

to the Piedmont Plateau this mean temperature varies from chartered as a city in 1890.

45° to 60°; on the Piedmont Plateau from 60° to 65°; and on the GEORGIA, a southern state of the United States of America, Coastal Plain from 60° to 70°. The July isotherm of 80° crosses one of the thirteen original states, situated between 30° 31' 39' | the state a little N. of Augusta and Macon, touching the W. and 35° N., and between 81° and 85° 53' 38" W. It is bounded boundary at West Point, Troup county. The mean July temperaN. by Tennessee and North Carolina, E. by South Carolina and

ture for the whole state is 81.8°; for the part S. of the 80° the Atlantic Ocean, S. by Florida, and w. by Alabama. The isotherm the average temperature for July is between 80° and total area of the state is 59,265 sq. m., of which 540 sq. m. are 85o. The average rainfall for the state is 49.3 in.; the maximum water surface.

is 71.7 in., at Rabun Gap in the extreme N.E. part of the state; The surface of Georgia is divided into five physiographic zones.

the minimum is 39.4 at Swainsboro, Emanuel county, a little S.E. From the sea coast, which is skirted by fertile, semi-tropical islands of the centre of the state. a plain of 35,000 sq. m., known as South Georgia, extends northward Georgia is also notable for the variety of its soils. In the to the "fall-line passing from Augusta, through Milledgeville Cumberland Plateau and Great Valley Regions are a red or brown and Macon, to Columbus. This is a part of the great Atlantic Coastal Plain. For 20 m. from the coast its clevation is 10 it., loam, rich in decomposed limestone and calcareous shales, and then it rises abruptly 70 ft. higher, and 20 m. farther N. another sandy or gravelly loams. In the Piedmont Plateau and Appalaelevation begins, which reaches 575 ft. at Milledgeville, the average

chian Mountains Regions the surface soil is generally sandy, but elevation of the entire region being 250 ft. North of the line men- in considerable areas the subsoil is a red clay derived largely tioned, and collectively known as North Georgia, are the four other

from the decomposition of hornblende. By far the greatest regions, each with well-defined characteristics. The largest and southernmost, a broad belt extending from the “fall-line

variety of soils is found in the Coastal Plain Region. Here the line passing through Clarkesville, Habersham county, Cartersville, Central Cotton Belt, extending from the “ fall-line as far S. Bartow county and Buchanan, Haralson county (approximately), as a line bisecting Early county in the W. and passing through is known as the Piedmont Belt or Plateau, being a region of faint Baker, Worth, Dooly, Dodge, Laurens, Johnson, Jefferson relief eroded on highly complicated crystalline rocks. The Blue Ridge escarpment, a striking topographic feature in Virginia and and Burke counties, has three distinct kinds of soil; a sand, the Carolinas, extends into Georgia along the north-eastern border forming what is known as the sand-hill region; red clay derived of this belt, but is less strongly developed here than elsewhere, from silicious rock in the red hills; and grey, sandy soils with dying out entirely towards the south-west. North of the Piedmont Belt lie the Appalachian Mountains Region and the Great Valley

a subsoil of yellow loam. South of the Cotton Belt is the Lime Region, the former to the east, the latter to the west of a dividing Sink Region, which includes Miller, Baker, Mitchell, Colquitt line from Cartersville northward. The former region consists of and Worth counties, the northern portions of Decatur, Grady, detached mountain masses of crystalline rocks, not yet eroded Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes, the eastern parts of Dooly and down to the level of the Piedmont Belt. In Towns county, in the Lee, and the eastern portions of Berrien, Irwin, Wilcox, Dodge, also called Enota Mountain (4768 ft.). The Great Valley Region and some parts of Burke, Screven and Bulloch. The soft limeconsists of folded sedimentary rocks, extensive erosion having stone underlying this region is covered, in the uplands, with removed the soft layers to form valleys, leaving the hard layers grey, sandy soils, which have a subsoil of loam; in the lowlands as ridges, both layers running in a NE.-S.W. direction. extreme north-west corner of the state is a small part of the Cumber- region are the pinc barrens, which extend S. to a line passing

the surface soils are loams, the subsoils clays. Adjoining this On the Blue Ridge escarpment near the N.E. corner of the state through the northern portions of Pierce, Wayne, Liberty, Bryan is a water-parting separating the waters which find their way " According to the usual nomenclature, the branch flowing S.W. respectively N.W. to the Tennessee river, S.W. to the Gulf of Mexico is called the Chattooga; this unites with the Tallulah to form the and s.E. to the Atlantic Ocean; indeed, according to B. M. and Tugaloo, which in turn unites with the Kiowee to form the Savannah M, R. Hall (Water Resources of Georgia, p. 2),

there are three proper.

to a

In the

and Effingham counties. Here the prevailing soils are grey and Copper was mined in Fannin and Cherokee counties before the Civil sandy with a subsoil of loam, but they are less fertile than those War. In 1906 the copper mined was valued at $5957. Corundum

was discovered on Laurel Creek in Rabun county in 1871, and was of the Lime Sink or Cotton Belts. The coast counties of the S.E. worked there and at Trackrock, Union county, especially between and generally those on the Florida frontier are not suitable for 1880 and 1893, but in later years low prices closed most of the mines. cultivation, on account of the numerous marshes and swamps, The limestone formations furnished most of the lime for domestic Okefinokee Swamp being 45 m. long and approximately 30 m.

use. Sandstone, ochre, slate, soapstone, graphite are also mined, wide; but the southern portions of Decatur, Grady, Thomas and discovered but not exploited.

and lead, zinc, barytes, sypsum and even diamonds have been Brooks counties are sufficiently elevated for agriculture, and the

Agriculture.—The principal occupation in Georgia is agriculislands off the coast are exceedingly productive.

ture, which in 1900 engaged seven-tenths of the land surface of the Minerals.-The mineral resources of Georgia are as varied as its state and the labour of three-fifths of the population, ten years climate and soils, a total of thirty-nine different mineral products old and over, who are employed in profitable occupations. The being found within its borders. The most important is stone: in 1905 the value of the granite quarried in the state was $971,207 products are so diversified that, with the exception of some (Georgia ranking fifth in the United States), of the marble $774,550 tropical fruits of California and Florida, almost everything (Georgia ranking third in the United States, Vermont and New York cultivated in the United States can be produced. The chief being hirst and second); in 1908 the granite was valued at $970,832 staple is cotton, of which a valuable hybrid called the Floradora $916,281

(Georgia ranking second in the United States, Vermont being a cross of long and short staple, has been singularly successful. first). Generally more than one-fourth of the granite is used for

pay. Cotton is raised in all counties of the state except Rabun, Towns ing; curb, building and monument stone are next in importance in and Fannin in the extreme north, and about one-third of the the order named. Stone Mountain (1686 st.) in De Kalb county near Atlanta is a remarkable mass of light-coloured muscovite granite: In 1899-1904 the crop exceeded that of the other cotton-produc

total cultivated land of the state was devoted to it in 1900-1907. was first quarried about 1850; it is extensively used as building ing states except Texas, and in 1899, 1900 and 1903 Mississippi, material in Georgia and other southern states. A laminated granite, averaging 1,467,121 commercial bales per annum; the crop otherwise like the Stone Mountain granite, is found in De Kalb, in 1904 was 1,991,719 bales, and in 1907-1908 the crop was Rockdale and Gwinnett counties, and is used for curbing and building. Biotite granites, which take a good polish and are used for 1,815,834 bales, second only to the crop of Texas. The cause of monuments and for decoration, are quarried in Oglethorpe and this

tensive cultivation of cotton is not a high average yield Elbert counties. Georgia marble was first quarried on a large scale per acre, but the fact that before 1860 “ Cotton was King." in Pickens county in 1884; the pure white marble of this county and that the market value of the staple when the Civil War had been worked for tombstones near Tate, the centre of the marble belt, in 1840: after its commercial exploitation it was used in the closed was so high that farmers began io cultivate it to the ex. capitol buildings of Georgia, Rhode Island, Mississippi and Minne- clusion of the cereals, whose production, Indian corn excepted, sota, in the Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D.C., and in St showed a decline during each decade from 1879 to 1899. But Luke's Hospital, New York City: It is sometimes used for the in the 'nineties the price of the cotton fell below the cost of prothan the snowy white are found in the main marble belt of the duction, owing to the enormous supply, and this was accompanied state, which runs from Canton, Cherokee county, 60 m. generally by economic depression. These conditions have caused some N. to the northern boundary of the state. Other deposits, less well diversification of crops, and successful experiments in cattleknown, are the dark brown and light grey marbles of Whitfield raising, movements encouraged by the Department of Agriculture Limestone and slate are quarried at Rock Mart, Polk county, and and the leading newspapers. there are cement quarries at Cement, near Kingston, Bartow county. The principal cereals cultivated are Indian corn (product, Iron deposits occur in Bartow, Polk and Floyd counties, where are 53,750,000 bushels in 1908) and wheat; the cultivation of the the more important brown ores, and (red ores) in Walker and latter, formerly remunerative, declined on account of the comChattooga counties. The quantity of iron ore mined in Georgia declined from 1890 to 1900 it was 200,842 long tons in 1905 and petition of the Western States, but revived after 1899, largely 321,060 long tons in 1908, when 319,812 tons were brown haematite owing to the efforts of the Georgia Wheat Growers' Association and 1248 tons were red haematite. Before the discovery of gold (organized in 1897), and in 1908 the yicld was 2,208,000 bushels. in California the Georgia " placers " were very profitable, the earliest The sugar-cane crop declined in value after 1890, and each mining being in 1829 by placer miners from the fields of Burke county, North Carolina, who began work in what is now White year more of it was made into syrup. In 1908 the tobacco crop county, and went thence to Habersham and Lumpkin counties. was 2,705,625 tb, and the average farm price was 35 cents, Dahlonega and Auraria, the latter named by John C. Calhoun, who being nearly as high as that of the Florida crop; Sumatra leaf owned a mine there, were the centres of this early gold mining. for wrappers is grown successfully. The acreage and product of Work was summarily stopped by, Federal troops enforcing the

tobacco and peanuts increased from 1890 to 1900 respectively governor's proclamation in 1831, because of the disorder in the mining region; but it was soon renewed and a mint was established 188% and 319.2%, and 92 6% and 129.9%, and in the proat Dahlonega in 1838. After the discovery of gold in California, duction of sweet potatoes Georgia was in 1809 surpassed only mining in Georgia was not renewed on anything but the smallest by North Carolina. Alfalfa and grasses grow well. Truck scale until the early 'eighties. . In 1908 the gold product was valued farming and the cultivation of orchard and small fruits have at $56,207 (it was $96,910 in 1905) and the silver product at 8106. Up to 1909 the gold product of Georgia (see State Gcol.long been remunerative occupations; the acreage devoted to Survey Bulletin 19) was about $17.500,000. Extensive clay deposits peaches doubled between 1890 and 1900. Pecan nuts are an occur in all parts of the state, and are remarkable for their com- increasingly important crop. parative freedom from impurities and for their high fusion point, the most valuable are sedimentary, and form a belt several miles

Agriculture in Georgia was in a state of transition at the beginning wide across the middle of the state from Augusta to Columbus.

of the 20th century. Owing to the abundance of land and to negro In 1908 the clay products of the state were valued at $1,928,611. slavery, exploitative methods of cultivation were employed before More asbestos has been found in Georgia than in any other state of

the Civil War, and such methods, by which lands after being worked the Union; it occurs in the amphibole form throughout the N. part abandoned. One reason for this was that, according to the census

to exhaustion are deserted for new fields, had not yet been altogether of the state, and most of the country's domestic supply comes from the Sall Mountain mine in White county. Manganese ores, found

of 1900, 36.9% of the farms were operated by negroes, of whom in Bartow, Polk and Floyd counties, were formerly important; without regard to the care of the soil. Consequently there were

86% were tenants who desired to secure the greatest possible product in 1896 4096 long tons were mined, in 1905 only. 150 tons, and in large tracts of untilled waste " land: but these rapidly responded 1908 none. Bauxite was found in Georgia first of the United States, near Rome, in 1887; the output, principally from Floyd, Bartow

to fertilization and rotation of crops, often yielding 800 to 1200 lb and Polk counties, was the entire product of the United States until of cotton per acre, and Georgia in 1899 used more fertilizers than any 1891, and in 1902 was more than half the country's product, but in other state in the Union. Another feature of agriculture in Georgia 1908, even when combined with the Alabama output, was less than

was the great increase in the number of farms, the average size of the amount mined in Arkansas. Coal is not extensively found, but plantations having declined from 440 acres in 1860 to 117.5 in 1900, the mine on Sand Mountain, in Walker county, was one of the first

or almost 75%, while the area in cultivation increased only 15.6% opened S. of the Ohio river; i 1908 the value of the coal mined in the

between 1850 and 1900. The tenantry system was also undergoing a state was $364,279 (264,822 short tons), the value of coke at the ovens

change-the share system which developed in the years succeeding was $137.524 (39,422 short tons), and the value of ammonium sul

the Civil War being replaced by a system of cash rental. phate, coal tar, illuminating gas and gas coke was more than $800,000. Monufactures.-Although excelled by Alabama in the

« PreviousContinue »