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manufacture of mineral products, and by North Carolina and therincrease of 20.6%*; in 1910, 2,609,121. Of the 1900 population, South Carolina in the number and output of cotton mills, in 190053-3% were whites and 46.7% were negroes, the centre of the and in 1905 Georgia surpassed each of those states in the total black population being a little south of the “ fall line.” Here the value of factory products, which was, however, less than the value negroes increased, from 1890 to 1900, faster than the whites in of the factory products of Louisiana and Virginia among the eighteen counties, but in northern Georgia, where the whites southern states. The chief features of this industrial activity are in the majority, the negro population declined in twelve are its early beginning and steady, constant development. . As countics. Also the percentage of negro illiteracy is higher far back as 1850 there were 1522 manufacturing establishments in northern Georgia than in other parts of the state, the per(35 of which were colton mills) in the state, whose total product centage of negro male illiterates of yoting age being 38.3% in was valued at $7,082,075. Despite the Civil War, there was Atlanta in 1900, and in Savannah only 30-7%. The population some advance during each succeeding decade, the most prosperous of Georgia has a very slight foreign-born element (-6% in 1900) relatively being that from 1880 to 1890. In 1900 the number of and a small percentage (1-7% in 1900) of people of foreign establishments was 7504, an increase of 75.1% over the number parentage. The urban population (i.c. the population in places in 1890; the capital invested was $89,789,656, an increase of of 2500 inhabitants and over) was 15.6% of the total in 1900, 57.7%, and the value of products ($106,654,527) was 54.8% and the number of incorporated cities, towns and villages was more than in 1890. Of the 7504 establishments in 1900, 3015 372. Of these only forty had a population exceeding 2000, and were conducted under the “ factory system,” and had a capital thirteen exceeding 5000. The largest city in 1900 was Atlanta, of $79,303,316 and products valued at $94,532,368. In 1905 the capital since 1868 (Louisville, Jefferson county, was the there were 3219 factories, with a capital of $135,211,551 (an capital in 1795-1804, and Milledgeville in 1804-1868), with increase of 70.5% over 1900), and a gross product valued at 89,872 inhabitants.

Savannah ranked second with 54,244, $151,040,455 (59.8% greater than the value of the factory and Augusta third with 39,441. In 1900 the other cities in the product in 1900).

state with a population of more than 5000 were: Macon (23,272), The most important manufacturing industries are those that Columbus (17,614), Athens (10,245), Brunswick (9081), Americus valued at $26,521,757: In that years there were 67 mills engaged (5613), and Thomasville (5322). depend upon cotton for raw material, with a gross product in 1900 (7674), Rome (7291), Griffin (6857), Waycross (5919), Valdosta in the manufacture of cotton goods, with a capital of $24,958,159, and they yielded a gross product valued at $18,457,645; the increase

The total membership of the churches in 1906 was about between 1900 and 1905 was actually much larger (and proportion- 1,029,037, of whom 596,319 were Baptists, 349,079 were Metho ately very much larger) than between 1890 and 1900; the number dists, 24,040 were Presbyterians, 19,273 were Roman Cathoof factories in 1905 was 103 (an increase of 53.7% over 1900); lics, '12,703 were Disciples of Christ, 9790 were Protestant gross product was valued at $35,174,248 (an increase of 90.6% since Episcopalians, and 5581 were Congregationalists. 1900). The rank of Georgia among the cotton manufacturing Government. The present constitution, which was adopted states was seventh in 1900 and fourth in 1905. Cotton-seed oil and in 1877, provides for a system of government similar in general cake factories increased in number from 17 to 43 from 1890 to 1900, and to 112 in 1905, and the value of their product increased from Officials are elected for a term of two years, and the judges of

to that of the other states (see UNITED STATES). The executive $1,670,196 to $8,064,112, or 382.8% in 1890-1900, and to $13.539,899 in 1905, or an increase of 67.9% over 1900, and in 1900 and in 1905 the Supreme Court and of the court of appeals for six years, the state ranked second (to Texas) in this industry in the United while those of the superior court and of the ordinaries and the States. This growth in cotton manufactures is due to various justices of the peace are chosen every four years. Before 1909 causes, among them being the proximity of raw material, convenient water-power, municipal exemption from taxation and the cheapness all male citizens of the United States at least twenty-one years of labour. The relation between employer and employee is in the of age (except those mentioned below), who had lived in the state main far more personal and kindly than in the mills of the Northern for one year immediately preceding an election and in the county States. The forests of Georgia, next to the fields, furnish the largest From the suffrage and the holding of office are excluded idiots

six months, and had paid their taxes, were entitled to vote. amount of raw material for manufactures. The yellow pines of the southern part of the state, which have a stand' of approximately and insane persons and all those who have been convicted of 13.778,000 ft., yielded in 1900 rosin and turpentine valued at treason, embezzlement, malfeasance in office, bribery or larceny, $8,110,468 (more than the product of any other state in the Union)

or any crime involving moral turpitude and punishable under and in 1905 valued at $7.705,643 (second only to the product of Florida). From the same source was derived most of the lumber the laws of the state by imprisonment in the penitentiary-this product valued ? in 1900 at $13.341,160 (more than double what it last disqualification, however, is removable by a pardon for was in 1890) and in 1905 at $16,716,594. The other important the offence. Before 1909 there was no constitutional discriminawoods are cypress, oak and poplar.

tion aimed against the exercise of the suffrage by the negro, Fourth in value in 1905 (hirst, cotton goods; second, lumber and but in fact the negro vote had in various ways been greatly timber; third, cotton-seed oil and cake) were fertilizers, the value of which increased from $3,367,353 in 1900 to $9,461,415 in 1905, when reduced. By a constitutional amendment adopted by a large the state ranked first of the United States in this industry; in 1900 majority at a oecial election in October 1908, new requirements it had ranked sixth.

for suffrage, designed primarily to exclude negroes, especially Communications.--Means of transportation for these products illiterate negroes, were imposed (supplementary to the requireare furnished by the rivers, which are generally navigable as far north as the fall line" passing through Augusta, Milledgeville, ments mentioned above concerning age, residence and the Macon and Columbus; by occan steamship lines which have piers payment of taxes), the amendment coming into effect on the at St Mary's, Brunswick, Darien and Savannah; and by railways ist of January 1909: in brief this amendment requires that whose mileage in January 1909 was 6,871.8 m. The most important the voter shall have served in land or naval forces of the United of the railways are the Central of Georgia, the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air Line, the Georgia and the Georgia States or of the Confederate States or of the state of Georgia Southern & Florida. In 1878 a state railway commission was estab- in time of war, or be lawfully descended from some one who did lished which has mandatory power for the settlement of all traffic so serve; or that he be a person of good character who proves problems and makes annual reports.

to the satisfaction of the registrars of elections that he underPopulation. The population of Georgia in 1880 was 1,542,180; stands the duties and obligations of a citizen; or that he read in 1890 1,837,353, an increase of 19'1%; in 1900 2,216,331, a fur correctly in English and (unless physically disabled) write any

paragraph of the Federal or state constitution; or that he own ! The manufacturing statistics for 1900 which follow are not those given in the Twelfth Census, but are taken from the Census

40 acres of land or property valued at $500 and assessed for of Manufactures, 1905, the 1900 figures here given being only for : The population of the state was 82,548 in 1790, 162,686 in 1800,

establishments on a factory basis," and thus being comparable 252,433 in 1810, 340,989 in 1820, 516,823 in 1830, 691,392 in 1840, with those of 1905. In 1890 there were 53 mills with a capital of 906,185 in 1850, 1,057,286 in 1860, and 1,184,100 in 1870. $17,664,675 and a product valued at $12,035,629.

* This negro percentage includes 211 Chinese, Japanese and In these valuations for 1900 and for 1905 the rough lumber Indians. | dressed or remanufactured in planing mills enters twice into the value • The state has had four other constitutions-those of 1777, 1789, of the product.

1798 and 1868. XL 13

la

taxation. After the ist of January 1915 no one may qualify | also a number of private charitable institutions, the oldest being as a voter under the first or second of these clauses (the “grand- the Bethesda orphan asylum, near Savannah, founded by George father and “ understanding ” clauses); but those who shall Whitefield in 1739. The Methodist, Baptist, Roman Catholic have registered under their requirements before the ist of and Protestant Episcopal Churches, and the Hebrews of the state January 1915 thus become voters for life.

also support homes for orphans. A penitentiary was established The governor, who receives a salary of $5000, must be at least in 1817 at Milledgeville. In 1866 the lease system was introduced, thirty years old, must at the time of his election have been a by which the convicts were leased for a term of years to private citizen of the United States for fifteen years and of the state for individuals. In 1897 this was supplanted by the contract six years, and “shall not be eligible to re-election after the system, by which a prison commission accepted contracts for expiration of a second term, for the period of four years." In convict labour, but the prisoners were cared for by state officials. case of his “ death, removal or disability,” the duties of his But the contract system for convicts and the peonage system office devolve in the first instance upon the president of the (under which immigrants were held in practical slavery while Senate, and in the second upon the speaker of the House of they “worked out " advances made for passage-money, &c.) Representatives. The governor's power of veto extends to were still sources of much injustice. State laws made liable separate items in appropriation bills, but in every case his veto to prosecution for misdemeanour any contract labourer who, may be overriden by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. An having received advances, failed for any but good cause to amendment to the constitution may be proposed by a two- fulfil the contract; or any contract labourer who made a second thirds vote of the legislature, and comes into effect on receiving contract without giving notice to his second employer of a prior a majority of the popular vote. Members of the Senate must and unfulfilled contract; or any employer of a labourer who had be at least twenty-five years old, must be citizens of the United not completed the term of a prior contract. In September 1908, States, and must, at the time of their election, have been citizens after an investigation which showed that many wardens had of the state for four years, and of the senatorial district for one been in the pay of convict lessces and that terrible cruelly had year; representatives must be at least twenty-one years old, been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature and must, at the time of their election, have been citizens of the practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; state for two years. By law, in Georgia, lobbying is a felony. the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909,

Habitual intoxication, wilful desertion for three years, cruel the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be treatment, and conviction for an offence the commission of leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased which involved moral turpitude and for which the offender at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands has been sentenced to imprisonment for at least two years, are for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to recognized as causes for divorce. All petitions for divorce receive its pro rala share on a population basis, and to satisfy must be approved by two successive juries, and a woman holds all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour in her own name all property acquired before and after marriage. for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, Marriage between the members of the white and negro races and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory is prohibited by law.

established by this law. As the result of the general campaign against child labour, an Education.-Georgia's system of public instruction was not act was passed in 1906 providing that no child under 10 shall instituted until 1870, but as early as 1817 the legislature provided be employed or allowed to labour in or about any factory, under a fund for the education in the private schools of the state of any circumstances; after the ist of January 1907 no child children of indigent parents. The constitution of 1868 authorized under 12 shall be so employed, unless an orphan with no a thorough system of general education, to be for ever free other means of support, or unless a widowed mother or disabled to all children of the State," and in 1870 the first public school or aged father is dependent on the child's labour, in which case law was enacted. Education, however, has never been made a certificate to the facts, holding good for one year only, is compulsory. The constitution, as amended in 1905, provides required; after the ist of January 1908 no child under 14 that elections on the question of local school taxes for counties shall be employed in a factory between the hours of 7 P.M. and or for school districts may be called upon a petition signed by 6 A.M.; after the same date no child under 14 shall be employed one-fourth of the qualified voters of the county, or district, in in any factory without a certificate of school attendance question; under this provision several counties and a large for 12 weeks (of which 6 weeks must be consecutive) of number of school districts are supplementing the general fund. the preceding year; no child shall be employed without the But the principal source of the annual school revenue is a state filing of an affidavit as to age. Making a false affidavit as to tax; the fund derived from this tax, however, is not large age or as to other facts required by the act, and the violation enough. In 1908 the common school fund approximated of the act by any agent or representative of a factory or by any $3,786,830, of which amount the state paid $2,163,200 and parent or guardian of a child are misdemeanours.

about $1,010,680 was raised by local taxation. In 1908 69% In 1907 a state law was passed prohibiting after the ist of of the school population (79% of whites; 58% of negroes) January 1908 the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors; were enrolled in the schools; in 1902 it was estimated that the nine-tenths of the counties of the state, under local option laws, negroes, 52.3% of whom (10 years of age and over) were illiterates were already“ dry” at the passage of this bill. The law permits (i.e. could not write or could neither read nor write) in 1900 druggists to keep for sale no other form of alcoholic drink than (81.6% of them were illiterate in 1880), received the benefit pure alcohol; physicians prescribing alcohol must fill out a of only about a fifth of the school fund. Of the total population, blank, specifying the patient's ailment, and certifying that 10 years of age and over, 30.5% were illiterates in 1900-49.9% alcohol is necessary; the prescription must be filled the day were illiterates in 1880-and as regards the whites of native it is dated, must be served directly to the physician or to the birth alone, Georgia ranked ninth in illiteracy, in 1900, among patient, must not call for more than a pint, and may not be the states and territories of the Union. Of the illiterates about refilled.

four-fifths were negroes in 1900. In addition to the public The state supports four benevolent institutions: a lunatic schools, the state also supports the University of Georgia; and asylum for the whites and a similar institution for the negroes, in 1906 $235,000 was expended for the support of higher educaboth at Milledgeville, an institute for the deaf and dumb attion. In 1906–1907 eleven agricultural and mechanical arts Cave Spring, and an academy for the blind at Macon. There are colleges were established, one in each congressional district of

the state. Of the colleges of the university, Franklin was the 1 Owing to the custom which holds in Georgia of choosing state first state college chartered in America (1785); the Medical senators in rotation from each

of the counties making up a senatorial College of Georgia, at Augusta, was opened in 1829; the State by senators chosen from municipalities. It is believed that this fact College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts was established at contributed to the passage of the prohibition law.

Athens in 1872; the North Georgia Agricultural College, at

Dahlonega, was opened in 1873; the Georgia School of Tech- | in the colony wine grapes, hemp, silk and medical plants (barilla, nology, at Atlanta, in 1888; the Georgia Normal and Industrial kali, cubeb, caper, madder, &c.) for which England was dependent College (for women), in Milledgeville, in 1899; the Georgia upon foreign countries; they required the settlers to plant State Normal School, at Athens, in 1895; the Georgia State mulberry trees, and forbade the sale of rum, the chief commercial Industrial College for Coloured Youth, near Savannah, in 1890; staple of the colonies. They also forbade the introduction of the School of Pharmacy, at Athens, in 1903; and the School negro slaves. Land was leased by military tenure, and until of Forestry, and the Georgia State College of Agriculture, at 1739 grants were made only in male tail and alienations were Athens, in 1906. Affiliated with the university, but not receiving forbidden. The industries planned for the colony did not thrive, state funds, are three preparatory schools, the South Georgia and as sufficient labour could not be obtained, the importation Military and Agricultural College at Thomasville, the Middle of slaves was permitted under certain conditions in 1749. About Georgia Military and Agricultural College at Milledgeville, the same time the House of Commons directed the trustees and the West Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical College at to remove the prohibition on the sale of rum. In 1753 the Hamilton. Among the institutions generally grouped as denomi- charter of the trustees expired and Georgia became a royal national are-Baptist: Mercer University, at Macon (Penfield, province. 1837; Macon, 1871), Shorter College (1877) at Rome, Spelman Under the new regime the colony was so prosperous that Seminary (1881) in Atlanta for negro women and girls, and Sir James Wright (1716-1785), the last of the royal governors, Bessie Tift College, formerly Monroe College (1849) for women, declared Georgia to be “the most flourishing colony on the at Forsyth; Methodist Episcopal: Emory College (1836), at continent." The people were led to revolt against the mother Oxford, and Wesleyan Female College (1836) at Macon, both country through sympathy with the other colonies rather than largely endowed by George Ingraham Seney (1837–1893), and through any grievance of their own. The centre of revolutionary the latter one of the earliest colleges for women in the country; ideas was St John's Parish, settled by New Englanders (chiefly Methodist Episcopal Church, South: Young Harris College from Dorchester, Massachusetts). The Loyalist sentiment was (1855) at Young Harris, Andrew Female College (1854) at so strong that only five of the twelve parishes sent repreCuthbert, and Dalton Female College (1872) at Dalton; Presby- sentatives to the First Provincial Congress, which met on the terian: Agnes Scott College at Decatur; and African Methodist 18th of January 1775, and its delegates to the Continental Episcopal: Morris Brown College (1885) at Atlanta. A samous Congress therefore did not claim seats in that assembly. But school for negroes is the non-sectarian Atlanta University six months later all the parishes sent representatives to another (incorporated in 1867, opened in 1869), which has trained many Provincial Congress which met on the 4th of July 1775. Soon negroes for teaching and other professions. Non-sectarian afterward the royal government collapsed and the administration colleges for women are: Lucy Cobb Institute (1858) at Athens, of the colony was assumed by a council of safety. Cox College (1843) at College Park, near Atlanta, and Brenau The war that followed was really a severe civil conflict, the College Conservatory (1878) at Gainesville.

Loyalist and Revolutionary parties being almost equal in Finance.—The assessed value of taxable property in 1910, was numbers. In 1778 the British seized Savannah, which they about $735,000,000. A general property tax, which furnishes about held until 1782, meanwhile reviving the British civil administrafour-fifths of the public revenue, worked so inequitably that a Board of Equalization was appointed in 1901. By the Constitution tion, and in 1779 they captured Augusta and Sunbury; but the tax rate is limited to $5 on the thousand, and, as the rate of after 1780 the Revolutionary forces were generally successful. taxation has increased faster than the taxable property, the state Civil affairs also fell into confusion. In 1777 a state constitution has been forced to contract several temporary loans since 1901, was adopted, but two factions soon appeared in the government, none of which has exceeded $200,000, the limit for each year set by led by the governor and the executive council respectively, and the Constitution. On the ist of January 1910 the bonded debt was $6,944,000, mainly incurred by the extravagance of the Re- harmony was not secured until 1781. construction administration (see History, below). Each year Georgia's policy in the formation of the United States govern$100,000 of this debt is paid off, and there are annual appropriations ment was strongly national. In the constitutional convention for the payment of interest (about $303,260 in 1910). The state owns the Western & Atlantic railway (137 m. long) from Chattanooga, of 1787 its delegates almost invariably gave their support to Tennessee, to Atlanta, which has valuable terminal facilities in both measures designed to strengthen the central government. cities, and which in 1910 was estimated to be worth $8,400,240 Georgia was the fourth state to ratify (January 2, 1788), and one (more than the amount of the bonded debt); this railway the state of the three that ratified unanimously, the Federal Constitution. built in 1841-1850, and in 1890 leased for 29 years, at an annual But a series of conflicts between the Federal government and the rental of $420,012, to the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railway.

Banking in Georgia is in a prosperous condition. The largest state government caused a decline of this national sentiment class of depositors are the farmers, who more and more look to the and the growth of States Rights theories. banks for credit, instead of to the merchants and cotton speculators. First of these was the friction involved in the case, before the Hence the number of banks in agricultural districts is increasing. The state treasurer is the bank examiner, and to him all banks musi Supreme Court of the United States, of Chisolm v. Georgia, by make a quarterly statement and submit their books for examination

which the plaintiff, one Alexander Chisolm, a citizen of South The legal rate of interest is 7%, but by contract Carolina, secured judgment in 1793 against the state of Georgia it may be 8%

(see 2 Dallas Reports 419). In protest, the Georgia House of History.-Georgia derives its name from King George II. of Representatives, holding that the United States Supreme Court Great Britain. It was the last to be established of the English had no constitutional power to try suits against a sovereign state, colonies in America. Its formation was due to a desire of the resolved that any Federal marshal who should attempt to execute British government to protect South Carolina from invasion the court's decision would be " guilty of felony, and shall suffer by the Spaniards from Florida and by the French from Louisiana, death, without benefit of clergy, by being hanged." No effort as well as to the desire of James Edward Oglethorpe (q.v.) to was made to execute the decision, and in 1798 the Eleventh found a refuge for the persecuted Protestant sects and the Amendment to the Federal Constitution was adopted, taking unfortunate but worthy indigent classes of Europe. A charter from Federal courts all jurisdiction over any suit brought was granted in 1732 to “the Trustees for establishing the colony against one of the United States by citizens of another state, of Georgia in America," and parliament gave £10,000 to the or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state." enterprise. The first settlement was made at Savannah in 1733 The position of Congress and of the Supreme Court with under the personal supervision of Oglethorpe. The early colonists reference to Georgia's policy in the Yazoo Frauds also aroused were German Lutherans (Salzburgers), Piedmontese, Scottish distrust of the Federal government. In 1795 the legislature Highlanders, Swiss, Portuguese Jews and Englishmen; but granted for $500,000 the territory extending from the Alabama the main tide of immigration, from Virginia and the Carolinas, and Coosa rivers to the Mississippi river and between 35° and did not set in until 1752. As a bulwark against the Spanish, 31°N. lat. (almost all of the present state of Mississippi and more the colony was successful, but as an economic experiment it ihan half of the present state of Alabama) to four land companies, was a failure. The trustees desired that there should be grown I but in the following year a new legislature rescinded the contracts

twice a year.

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