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on the ground that they had been fraudulently and corruptly courtesy due to a sovereign nation, and held that the United States made, as was probably the case, and the rescindment was em- had done all that was required to meet the obligation assumed bodied in the Constitution of 1798. In the meantime the United in 1802. The Georgia legislature, however, contended that the States Senate had appointed a committee to inquire into Georgia's United States had not acted in good faith, declared that all claim to the land in question, and as this committee pronounced land within the boundaries of the state belonged to Georgia, that claim invalid, Congress in 1800 established a Territorial and in 1828 extended the jurisdiction of Georgia law to the government over the region. The legislature of Georgia remon- Cherokee lands. Then President Jackson, holding that Georgia strated but expressed a willingness to cede the land to the United was in the right on the Indian question, informed the Cherokees States, and in 1802 the cession was ratified, it being stipulated that their only alternative to submission to Georgia was emigraamong other things that the United States should pay to the tion. Thereupon the chiefs resorted to the United States state $1,250,000, and should extinguish" at their own expense, Supreme Court, which in 1832 declared that the Cherokees for the use of Georgia, as soon as the same can be peaceably formed a distinct community " in which the laws of Georgia obtained on reasonable terms,” the Indian title to all lands have no force," and annulled the decision of a Georgia court within the state of Georgia. Eight years later the Supreme that had extended its jurisdiction into the Cherokee country Court of the United States decided in the case of Flelcher v. Peck (Worcester v. Georgia). But the governor of Georgia declared (6 Cranch 87) that such a rescindment as that in the new state that the decision was an attempt at usurpation which would constitution was illegal, on the ground that a state cannot meet with determined resistance, and President Jackson refused pass a law impairing the obligation of contracts; and at an to enforce the decree. The President did, however, work for expense of more than four millions of dollars the Federal govern- the removal of the Indians, which was effected in 1838. ment ultimately extinguished all claims to the lands.

On account of these conflicts a majority of Georgians adopted This decision greatly irritated the political leaders of Georgia, the principles of the Democratic Republican party, and early and the question of extinguishing the Indian titles, on which in the 19th century the people were virtually unanimous in there had long been a disagreement, caused further and even more their political ideas. Local partisanship centred in two factions: serious friction between the Federal and state authorities. The one, led by George M. Troup, which represented the interests National government, until the administration of President of the aristocratic and slave-holding communities; the other, Jackson, regarded the Indian tribes as sovereign nations with formed by John Clarke (1766–1832) and his brother Elijah, whom it alone had the power to treat, while Georgia held that the found support among the non-slave-holders and the frontiersmen. tribes were dependent communities with no other right to the The cleavage of these factions was at first purely personal; soil than that of tenants at will. In 1785 Georgia made treaties but by 1832 it had become one of principle. Then the Troup with the Creeks by which those Indians ceded to the state their faction under the name of States Rights party, endorsed the lands S. and W. of the Altamaha river and E. of the Oconee nullification policy of South Carolina, while the Clarke faction, river, but after a remonstrance of one of their half-brced chiefs calling itself a Union party, opposed South Carolina's conduct, Congress decided that the cessions were invalid, and the National but on the grounds of expediency rather than of principle. government negotiated, in 1790, a new treaty which ceded only On account, however, of its opposition to President Jackson's the lands E. of the Oconee. The state appealed to the National attitude toward nullification, the States Rights party affiliated government to endeavour to secure further cessions, but none with the new Whig party, which represented the national had been made when, in 1802, the United States assumed its feeling in the South, while the Union party was merged into obligation to extinguish all Indian titles within the state. Several the Democratic party, which emphasized the sovereignty of cessions were made between 1802 and 1824, but the state in the states. the latter year remonstrated in vigorous terms against the The activity of Georgia in the slavery controversy was importdilatory manner in which the National government was discharg- ant. As early as 1835 the legislature adopted a resolution ing its obligation, and the effect of this was that in 1825 a treaty which asserted the legality of slavery in the Territories, a principle was negotiated at Indian Springs by which nearly all the Lower adopted by Congress in the Kansas Bill in 1854, and in 1847 Creeks agreed to exchange their remaining lands in Georgia ex-Governor Wilson Lumpkin (1783–1870) advocated the for equal territory beyond the Mississippi. But President organization of the Southern states to resist the aggression of J. Q. Adams, learning that this treaty was not approved by the the North. Popular opinion at first opposed the Compromise entire Creek nation, authorized a new one, signed at Washington of 1850, and some politicians demanded immediate secession from in 1826, by which the treaty of 1825 was abrogated and the the Union; and the legislature had approved the Alabama Creeks kept certain lands W. of the Chattahoochee. The Georgia Platform of 1848. But Congressmen Robert Toombs, Alexander government, under the leadership of Governor George M. Troup H. Stephens, Whigs, and Howell Cobb, a Democrat, upon their (1780-1856), had proceeded to execute the first treaty, and the return from Washington, contended that the Compromise was legislature declared the second treaty illegal and unconstitutional. a great victory for the South, and in a campaign on this issue In reply to a communication of President Adams carly in 1827 secured the election of such delegates to the state convention that the United States would take strong measures to enforce its (at Milledgeville) of 1850 that that body adopted on the roth policy, Governor Troup declared that he felt it his duty to resist of December, by a vote of 237 to 19, a series of conciliatory to the utmost any military attack which the government of the resolutions, since known as the “ Georgia Platform,” which United States should think proper to make, and ordered the declared in substance: (1) that, although the state did not military companies to prepare to resist "any hostile invasion wholly approve of the Compromise, it would " abide by it as a of the territory of this state." But the strain produced by these permanent adjustment of this sectional controversy," to preserve conditions was relieved by information that new negotiations the Union, as the thirteen original colonies had found compromise had been begun for the cession of all Creek lands in Georgia. necessary for its formation; (2) that the state“ will and ought These negotiations were completed late in the year.

to resist, even (as a last resort) to the disruption of every tie There was similar conflict in the relation of the United States that binds her to the Union," any attempt to prohibit slavery and Georgia with the Cherokees. In 1785 the Cherokees of in the Territories or a refusal to admit a slave state. The adoption Georgia placed themselves under the protection of the Federal of this. platform was accompanied by a party reorganization, government, and in 1823 their chiefs, who were mostly half-breeds, those who approved it organizing the Constitutional Union party, declared: " It is the fixed and unalterable determination of this and those who disapproved, mostly Democrats, organizing the nation never again to cede one foot more of land," and that they Southern Rights party; the approval in other states of the could not " recognize the sovercignty of any state within the Georgia Platform in preference to the Alabama Platform (sce limits of their territory”; in 1827 they framed a constitution ALABAMA) caused a reaction in the South against secession. and organized a representative government. President Monroe | The reaction was followed for a short interval by a return to and President J. Q. Adams treated the Cherokees with the approximately the former party alignment, but in 1854 the rank and file of the Whigs joined the American or Know-Nothing party | But both the convention and legislature incurred the suspicion while most of the Whig leaders went over to the Democrats. and ill-will of Congress; the convention had congratulated the The Know-Nothing party was nearly destroyed by its crushing president on his policy, memorialized him on behalf of Jefferson defeat in 1856 and in the next year the Democrats by a large Davis, and provided pensions for disabled Confederate soldiers majority elected for governor Joseph Emerson Brown (1821- and the widows of those who had lost their lives during the war, 1894), who by three successive re-elections was continued in while the legislature passed apprenticeship, labour and vagrancy that office until the close of the Civil War. Although Governor laws to protect and regulate the negroes, and rejected the Brown represented the poorer class of white citizens he had Fourteenth Amendment. Although the civil rights were contaken a course in law at Yale College, had practised law, and at ferred upon the freedmen, Congress would not tolerate the the time of his election was judge of a superior court; although political incapacity and social inferiority which the legislature he had never held slaves he believed that the abolition of had assigned to them, and therefore Georgia was placed under slavery would soon result in the ruin of the South, and he was military government, as part of the third military district, by the a man of strong convictions. The Kansas question and the Reconstruction Act of the end of March 1867. Under the auspices attitude of the North toward the decision in the Dred Scott of the military authorities registration of electors for a new state case were arousing the South when he was inaugurated the first convention was begun and 95,168 negroes and 96,333 whites time, and in his inaugural address he clearly indicated that he were registered. The acceptance of the proposition to call the would favour secession in the event of any further encroachment convention and the election of many conscientious and intelligent on the part of the North. In July 1859 Senator Alfred Iverson delegates were largely due to the influence of ex-Governor (1798-1874) declared that in the event of the election of a Free- Brown, who was strongly convinced that the wisest course for Soil president in 1860 he would favour the establishment of an the South was to accept quickly what Congress had offered. independent confederacy; later in the same year Governor The convention met in Atlanta on the oth of December 1867 Brown expressed himself to a similar effect and urged the improve and by March 1868 had revised the constitution to meet the ment of the military service. On the 7th of November following requirements of the Reconstruction Acts. The constitution the election of President Lincoln the governor, in a special was duly adopted by popular vote, and elections were held for message to the legislature, recommended the calling of a con- the choice of a governor and legislature. Rufus Brown Bullock vention to decide the question of secession, and Alexander H. (b. 1834), Republican, was chosen governor, the Senate had a Stephens was about the only prominent political leader who majority of Republicans, but in the House of Representatives contended that Lincoln's election was insufficient ground for a tie vote was cast for the election of a speaker. On the 21st of such action. On the 17th of November the legislature passed July the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified, and a section of an act directing the governor to order an election of delegates the state constitution (which denied the power of state courts on the 2nd of January 1861 and their meeting in a convention to entertain against any resident of the state suits founded on on the 16th. On the 19th this body passed an ordinance of contracts existing on the 15th of June 1865) was repealed by the secession by a vote of 208 to 89. Already the first regiment of legislature in pursuance of the congressional “Omnibus Bill" Georgia Volunteers, under Colonel Alexander Lawton (1818–of the 25th of June 1868, and as evidence of the restoration of 1896) had seized Fort Pulaski at the mouth of the Savannah Georgia to the Union the congressmen were seated on the 25th river and now Governor Brown proceeded to Augusta and scized of July in that year. the Federal arsenal there. Toward the close of the same year, But in September of the same year the Democrats in the however, Federal warships blockaded Georgia's ports, and early state legislature, being assisted by some of the white in 1862 Federal forces captured Tybee Island, Fort Pulaski, Republicans, expelled the 27 negro members and seated their St Mary's, Brunswick and St Simon Island. Georgia had defeated white contestants, relying upon the legal theory that responded freely to the call for volunteers, but when the Con- the right to hold office belonged only to those citizens designated federate Congress had passed, in April 1862, the Conscript Law by statute, the common law or custom. In retaliation the 41st which required all white men (except those legally exempted Congress excluded the state's representatives on a technicality, from service) between the ages of 18 and 35 to enter and, on the theory that the government of Georgia was a prothe Confederate service, Governor Brown, in a correspondence visional organization, passed an act requiring the ratification of with President Davis which was continued for several months, the Fifteenth Amendment before the admission of Georgia's offered serious objections, his leading contentions being that senators and representatives. The war department now conthe measure was unnecessary as to Georgia, unconstitutional, cluded that the state was still subject to military authority, and subversive of the state's sovereignty, and therefore “at war placed General A. H. Terry in command. With his aid, and that with the principles for the support of which Georgia entered of Congressional requirements that all members of the legislature into this revolution."

must take the Test Oath and none be excluded on account of In 1863 north-west Georgia was involved in the Chattanooga colour, a Republican majority was secured for both houses, campaign. In the following spring Georgia was invaded from and the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified. Georgia was now Tennessee by a Federal army under General William T. Sherman; finally admitted to the Union by Act of Congress, on the 15th of the resistance of General Joseph E. Johnston and General J. B. July 1870. Hood proved inefiectual; and on the ist of September Atlanta The Reconstruction period in Georgia is remarkable for its was taken. Then Sherman began his famous “march to the sea,” comparative moderation. Although there was great political from Atlanta to Savannah, which revealed the weakness of the excitement, there was not as much extravagance in public Confederacy. In the spring of 1865, General J. H. Wilson with administration as there was in other Southern States, the a body of cavalry entered the state from Alabama, seized state debt increasing approximately from $6,600,000 to Columbus and West Point on the 16th of April, and on the roth $16,000,000. The explanation lies in the fact that there were of May captured Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, comparatively few “ carpet-baggers" or adventurers in the at Irwinville in Irwin county.

state, and that a large number of conservative citizens, under the In accord with President Andrew Johnson's plan for reorganiz- leadership of ex-Governor Brown, supported the Reconstruction ing the Southern States, a provisional governor, James Johnson, policy of Congress and joined the Republican party. was appointed on the 17th of June 1865, and a state convention The election of 1871 gave the Democrats a majority in the resotmed the constitution to meet th new conditions, rescinding legislature; Governor Bullock, fearing impeachment, resigned, the ordinance of secession, abolishing slavery and formally and at a special election James M. Smith was chosen to fill the repudiating the state debt incurred in the prosecution of the war. unexpired term. After that the control of the Democrats was A governor and legislature were elected in November 1865, the complete. In 1891 the Populist party was organized, but it legislature ratified the Thirteenth Amendment on the oth of never succeeded in securing a majority of the votes in the December and five days later the governor-elect was inaugurated. I state.

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the Department of Agriculture, which include weekly and monthly List of GOVERNORS

Bulletins, biennial Reports and a volume entitled Georgia, Historical I. Administration of the Trustees.

and Industrial (Atlanta, 1901). The Reports of the United States James Edward Oglethorpe !


Census (especially the Twelfth Census for 1900 and the special census William Stephens 2


of manufactures for 1905) should be consulted, and Memoirs of Henry Parker 2


Georgia (2 vols., Atlanta, Ga., 1895) contains chapters on industrial Patrick Graham ·



The principal sources for public administration are the annual II. Royal Administralion.

reports of the state officers, philanthropic institutions, the prison John Reynolds


commission and the railroad commission, and the revised Code of Henry Ellis


Georgia (Atlanta, 1896), adopted in 1895; see also L. F. SchmeckeSir James Wright


bier's "Taxation in Georgia" (Johns Hopkins University Studies, vol. III. Provincial Administration,

xviii.) and “ Banking in Georgia " (Banker's Magazine, vol. xlviii.). William Ewen 3

Education and social conditions are treated in C. E. Jones's History

1775 Archibald Bulloch 4

of Education in Georgia (Washington, 1890), the Annual Reports of 1776

the School Commissioner, and various magazine articles, such as Button Gwinnett

1777 Jonathan Bryan •

Georgia Cracker in the Cotton Mill" (Century Magazine, vol. xix.) 1777

and " À Plea for Light" (South Atlantic Quarterly, vol. i.). The IV. Georgia as a Slate.

view of slavery given in Frances A. Kemble's Journal of a Residence John A. Treutlen 5


on a Georgia Plantation in 1838-1839 (New York, 1863) should becom. John Houston


pared with R. Q. Mallard's Plantation Life before Emancipation John Wercat 6


(Richmond, Va., 1897), and with F. L. Olmsted's A Journey in the George Walton


Seaboard Slave Stales (New York, 1856).
Richard Hawley


The best book for the entire ficld of Georgia history is Lawton Stephen Heard's


B. Evans's A Student's History of Georgia (New York, 1898), a textMyrick Davies


book for schools. This should be supplemented by C. C. Jones's Nathan Brownson


Antiquities of the Southern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes John Martin


(New York, 1873), for the aborigines; W. B. Stevens's History of Lyman Hall


Georgia to 1793 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1847-1859) and C.C. Jones, jun., Samuel Elbert


History of Georgia (2 vols., Boston, 1883) for the Colonial and RevoluEdward Teliair


tionary periods; C. H. Haskins's The Yazoo Land Companies George Matthews


(Washington, 1891); the excellent monograph (mentioned above) George Handley


by U. B. Phillips for politics prior to 1860; Miss Annie H. Abel's George Walton 1789-1790 Democratic Republican

monograph “ The History of Events Resulting in Indian Consolida. Edward Teilair 1790-1793

tion West of the Mississippi," in vol. i. of the Annual Report of the

American Historical Association for 1900 (Washington, 1908), for a George Matthews

1793-1796 Jared Irwin 1796-1798

good account of the removal of the Indians from Georgia; the James Jackson 1798-1801

judicious monograph by E. C. Woolley, Reconstruction in Georgia David Emanuel

(New York, 1901); and I. W. Avery's History of Georgia from 1850 1801 Josiah Tattnall 1801-1802

1o 1881 (New York, 1881), which is marred by prejudice but contains John Milledge 1802-1806

material of value. The Confederale Records of the State of Georgia were Jared Irwin 1806-1809

published at Atlanta in 1909. See also: E. J. Harden's Life of George David B. Mitchell 1809-1813

M. Troup (Savannah, 1840): R. M. Johnston and W. H. Browne, Life Peter Early

Alexander H. Stephens (Philadelphia, 1878), and Louis Pendleton, 1813-1815 David B. Mitchell

1815-1817 William Rabun ?

Róbert Toombs (New York, 1892); H. Fielder's Life, Times and 1817-1819 Matthew Talbot ? 1819

Speeches of Joseph E. Brown (Springfield, Mass., 1883) and C. C. John Clarke 1819-1823

Jones, jun., Biographical Sketches of Delegates from Georgia to the George M. Troup

Continental Congress (New York, 1891). There is much valuable 1823-1827 John Forsyth 1827-1829

material, also, in the publications (beginning with 1840) of the George R. Gilmer 1829-1831 National Republican

Georgia Historical Society (see the list in vol. ii. of the Report of the Wilson Lumpkin

American Historical Association for 1905). 1831-1835 Democratic-Republican William Schley 1835-1837 Union

GEORGIA, a former kingdom of Transcaucasia, which existed George Gilmer 1837-1839 Democrat

historically for more than 2000 years. Its earliest name was Charles J. McDonald 1839-1843 Union George W. Crawford.

Karthli or Karthveli; the Persians knew it as Gurjistan, the 1843-1817 Whig George W. B. Towns 1847-1851 Democrat

Romans and Greeks as Iberia, though the latter placed Colchis Howell Cobb

1851-1853 Constitutional Union also in the west of Georgia. Vrastan is the Armenian name and Herschell V. Johnson · 1853-1856 Democrat

Gruzia the Russian. Georgia proper, which included Karthli Joseph E. Brown 1857-1865

and Kakhetia, was bounded on the N. by Ossetia and Dagbestan, James Johnson

1865 Charles J. Jenkins 1865-1868

on the S. by the principalities of Erivan and Kars, and on the Thomas H. Ruger

W. by Guria and Imeretia; but the kingdom also included at Rufus B. Bullock . 1868-1871 Republican

different times Guria, Mingrelia, Abkhasia, Imeretia and Dag. Benjamin Conley? 1871-1872

hestan, and extended from the James M. Smith

Caucasus range on the N. to the 1872-1876 Democrat Alfred H. Colquitt 1876-1882

Aras or Araxes on the S. It is now divided between the Russian Alexander H. Stephens 1882-1883

governments of Tiflis and Kutais, under which headings further James S. Boynton ? 1883

geographical particulars are given. (See also CAUCASIA.) Henry D. McDaniel. 1883-1886

History.–According to traditional accounts, the Georgian John B. Gordon

1886-1890 W. J. Northen 1890-1894

(Karthlian), Kakhetian, Lesghian, Mingrelian and other races of W. Y. Atkinson. 1894-1898

Transcaucasia are the descendants of Thargamos, great-grandson A. D. Candler 1898-1902

of Japheth, son of Noah, though Gen. x. 3 makes Togarmah to Joseph M. Terrell 1902-1907

be the son of Gomer, who was the son of Japheth. These various Hoke Smith

1907-1909 Joseph M. Brown • 1909-1911

races were subsequently known under the general name Hoke Smith • 1911

Tharga mosides. Karthlos, the second son of Thargamos, is the A brief bibliography, chiefly of historical materials, is given by eponymous king of his race, their country being called Karthli U. B. Phillips in his monograph "Georgia and State Rights," in after him. Mtskhet hos, son of Karthlos, founded the city of vol. ii. of the Annual Report of the American Historical Association Mtskhetha (the modern Mtskhet) and made it the capital of his for 1901 (Washington, 1902). resources and products of the state is given in the publications of kingdom. We come, however, to firmer historic ground when * De facto.

we read that Georgia was conquered by Alexander the Great,

· President of the Colony. or rather by one of his generals. The Macedonian yoke was * President of the Council of Safety. * President of Georgia. *First Governor under a State Constitution.

shaken off by Pharnavaz or Pharnabazus, a prince of the royal President Executive Council and de facto Governor.

race, who ruled from 302 to 237 B.C. All through its history President of Senate.

Georgia, being on the outskirts of Armenia and Persia, both of

* Provisional.

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them more powerful neighbours than itself, was at times more made his power felt far beyond the frontiers of his hereditary or less closely affected by their destinies. In this way it was dominions, until his kingdom extended from the Black Sea sometimes opposed to Rome, sometimes on terms of friendship to the Caspian, while Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kirman all with Byzantium, according as these were successively friendly paid him tribute. Not only did he encourage learning and or hostile to the Armenians and the Persians. In the end of the patronize the fine arts, but he built, in 1003, the cathedral at 2nd century B.c. the last Pharnavazian prince was dethroned Kutais, one of the finest examples extant of Georgian architecture. by his own subjects and the crown given to Arsaces, king of During the reign of Bagrat IV. (1027-1072) the Seljuk Turks Armenia, whose son Arshag, ascending the throne of Georgia more than once burst, after 1048, into the country from Asia in 93 B.C., established there the Arsacid dynasty. This close Minor, but they were on the whole successfully repulsed, although association with Armenia brought upon the country an invasion they plundered Tiflis. During the reign of the next king, George (65 B.C.) by the Roman general Pompey, who was then at war II., they again devastated Tiflis. But once more fortune changed with Mithradates, king of Pontus and Armenia; but Pompey after the accession of David II. (1089-1125), surnamed the did not establish his power permanently over Iberia. A hundred Renovator, one of the greatest of Georgian kings. With the help and eighty years later the Emperor Trajan penetrated (A.D. 114) of the Kipchaks, a Mongol or Turkish race, from the steppe into the heart of the country, and chastised the Georgians; yet lands to the north of the Caucasus, whom he admitted into his his conquest was only a little more permanent than Pompey's. country, David drove the Seljuks out of his domains and forced During one of the internecine quarrels, which were not infrequent them back over the Armenian mountains. Under George III. in Georgia, the throne fell to Mirhan or Mirian (265-342), a son (1156-1184), a grandson of David II., Armenia was in part of the Persian king, who had married a daughter of Asphagor, conquered, and Ani, one of its capitals, laken. George's daughter the last sovereign of the Arsacid dynasty.

Thamar or Tamara, who succeeded him, reigned over the kingdom With Mirian begins the Sassanian dynasty. He and his subjects as left by David II. and further extended her power over were converted to Christianity by a nun Nuno (Nino), who had Trebizond, Erzerum, Tovin (in Armenia) and Kars. These escaped from the religious persecutions of Tiridates, king of successes were continued by her son George IV. (1212-1223), Armenia. Mirian erected the first Christian church in Georgia on who conquered Ganja (now Elisavetpol) and repulsed the attacks the site now occupied by the cathedral of Mtskhet. In or about of the Persians; but in the last years of his reign there appeared the year 371 Georgia was overrun by the Persian king Shapur (1220 and 1222) the people who were to prove the ruin of Georgia, or Sapor II., and in 379 a Persian general built the stronghold namely the Mongol hosts of Jenghiz Khan, led by his sons. of Tphilis (afterwards Tiflis) as a counterpoise to Mtskhet. The George IV. was succeeded by his sister Rusudan, whose capital Persian grasp upon Georgia was loosened by Tiridates, who was twice captured by the Persians and her kingdom overrun reigned from 393 to 405. One of Mirian's successors, Vakhtang and fearfully devastated by the Mongols in 1236. Then, after a (446-499), surnamed Gurgaslan or Gurgasal, the Wolf-Lion, period of wonderful recovery under George V. (1318-1346), established a patriarchate at Mtskhet and made Tphilis his who conquered Imeretia and reunited it to his crown, Georgia capital. This sovereign, having conquered Mingrelia and was again twice (1386 and 1393-1394) desolated by the Mongols Abkhasia, and subdued the Ossetes, made himself master of a under Timur (Tamerlane), prince of Samarkand, who on the large part of Armenia. Then, co-operating for once with the second occasion laid waste the entire country with fire and king of Persia, he led an army into India; but towards the sword, and crushed it under his relentless heel until the year end of his reign there was enmity between him and the Persians, 1403. Alexander I. (1413-1442) freed his country from the last against whom he warred unsuccessfully. His son Dachi or of the Mongols, but at the end of his reign divided his territory Darchil (499-514) upon ascending the throne transferred the between his three sons, whom he made sovereigns of Imeretia, seat of government permanently from Mtskhet to Tphilis (Tiflis). Kakhetia and Karthli (Georgia) respectively. The first menAgain Persia stretched out her hand over Georgia, and proved a tioned remained a separate state until its annexation to Russia formidable menace to the existence of the kingdom, until, owing in 1810; the other two were soon reunited. to the severe pressure of the Turks on the one side and of the Political relations between Russia and Georgia began in the Byzantine Greeks on the other, she found it expedient to relax end of the same century, namely in 1492, when the king of her grasp. The Georgians, seizing the opportunity, appealed Kakhetia sought the protection of Ivan III. during a war between (571) to the Byzantine emperor, Justin II. who gave them a king the Turks and the Persians. In the 17th century the two in the person of Guaram, a prince of the Bagratid family of states were brought into still closer relationship. In 1619, Armenia, conserring upon him the title, not of king, but of viceroy. when Georgia was harried by Shah Abbas of Persia, Theimuraz Thus began the dynasty of the Bagratids, who ruled until 1803. (1629-1634), king of Georgia, appealed for help to Michael,

This was not, however, the first time that Byzantine influence the first of the Romanov tsars of Russia, and his example was had been effectively exercised in Georgia. As early as the followed later in the century by the rulers of other petty Thargareign of Mirian, in the 3rd century, the organizers of the early mosid or Caucasian states, namely Imeretia and Guria. In Georgian church had looked to Byzantium, the leading Christian 1638 the prince of Mingrelia took the oath of allegiance to the power in the East, for both instruction and guidance, and the Russian tsar, and in 1650 the same step was taken by the prince connexion thus begun had been strengthened as time went on. of Imeretia. Vakhtang VI. of Georgia put himself under the From this period until the Arab (i.e. Mahommedan) invasions protection of Peter the Great early in the 18th century. When began, the authority of Byzantium was supreme in Georgia. Persia fell into the grip of the Asghans early in the 18th century Some seventy years after the Bagratids began to rule in Georgia the Turks seized the opportunity, and, ousting the Persians from the all-conquering Arabs appeared on the frontiers of the country, Georgia, captured Tiflis and compelled Vakhtang to abdicate. and for the next one hundred and eighty years they frequently But in 1735 they renounced all claim to supremacy over the devastated the land, compelling its inhabitants again and again Caucasian states. This left Persia with the predominating to accept Islam at the sword's point. But it was not until the influence, for though Peter the Great extorted from Persia death of the Georgian king Ashod (787-826) that they completely (1722) her prosperous provinces beside the Caspian, he left subdued the Caucasian state and imposed their will upon it. the mountaineers to their own dynastic quarrels. Heraclius II. Nevertheless they were too much occupied elsewhere or too of Georgia declared himself the vassal of Russia in 1783, and when, indifferent to its welfare to defend it against alien aggressors, twelve years later, he was hard pressed by Agha Mahommed, for in 842 Bogha, a Turkish chief, invaded the country, and early shah of Persia, who seized Tiflis and laid it in ruins, he appealed in the 10th century the Persians again overran it. But a period to Russia for help. The appeal was again renewed by the next of relief from these hostile incursions was afforded by the reign king of Georgia, George XIII., in 1798, and in the following of Bagrat III. (980-1014). During his father's lifetime he had year he renounced his crown in favour of the tsar, and in 1801 been made king of Abkhasia, his mother belonging to the royal Georgia was converted into a Russian province. The state of house of that land, and after ascending the Georgian throne he | Guria submitted to Russia in 1829.

(J. T. BE.)

Ethnology. Of the three main groups into which the Caucasian , mental qualities, and is especially noted for personal courage and races are now usually divided, the Georgian is in every respect a passionate love of music. The people, however, are described the most important and interesting. It has accordingly largely as fierce and cruel, and addicted to intemperance, though Max occupied the attention of Orientalists almost incessantly from von Thielmann (Journey in the Caucasus, &c., 1875) speaks of the days of Klaproth. Yet such are the difficulties connected them as “rather hard drinkers than drunkards." Physically with the origin and mutual relations of the Caucasian peoples they are a fine athletic race of pure Caucasian type; hence that its affinities are still far from being clearly established. during the Moslem ascendancy Georgia supplied, next to CirAnton von Schiefner and P. V. Uslar, however, arrived at some cassia, the largest number of female slaves for the Turkish negative conclusions valuable as starting-points for further harems and of recruits for the Osmanli armies, more especially research. In their papers, published in the Memoirs of the St for the select corps of the famous Mamelukes. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Sciences and elsewhere (1859 The social organization rested on a highly aristocratic basis, et seq.), they finally disposed of the views of Bopp and and the lowest classes were separated by several grades of Brosset (1836), who attempted on linguistic grounds to connect vassalage from the highest. But since their incorporation the Georgians with the Indo-European family. They also clearly with the Russian empire, these relations have become greatly show that Max Müller's “Turanian” theory is untenable, modified, and a more sharply defined middle class of merchants, and they go a long way towards proving that the Georgian, traders and artisans has been developed. The power of lise with all the other Caucasian languages except the Ossetian, and death, formerly claimed and freely exercised by the nobles forms a distinct linguistic family absolutely independent of all over their serfs, has also been expressly abolished. The Georgians others. This had already been suspected by Klaproth, and are altogether at present in a fairly well-to-do condition, and the same conclusion was arrived at by Fr. Müller and Zagarelli. under Russian administration they have become industrious,

Uslar's “ Caucasian Family” comprises the following three and have made considerable moral and material progress. great divisions:

Missionaries sent by Constantine the Great introduced Chris. 1. Western Group. Typical races: Circassians and Abkhasians. tianity about the beginning of the 4th century. Since that time 2. Eastern Group. Typical races: Chechens and Lesghians. the people have, notwithstanding severe pressure from sur3. Southern Group. Typical race: Georgians.

rounding Mahommedan communities, remained faithful to the Here the term “family” must be taken in a far more elastic principles of Christianity, and are still amongst the most devoted sense than when applied, for instance, to the Indo-European, adherents of the Orthodox Greek Church. Indeed it was their Semitic or Eastern Polynesian divisions of mankind. Indeed attachment to the national religion that caused them to call in the three groups present at least as wide divergences as are found the aid of the Christian Muscovites against the proselytizing to exist between the Semitic and Hamitic linguistic families. attempts of the Shiite Persiansma step which ultimately brought Thus, while the Abkhasian of group 1 is still at the agglutinating, about their political extinction., the Lesghian of group 2 has fairly reached the inflecting stage, As already stated, the Karthli language is not only fundaand the Georgian seems still to waver between the two. In mentally distinct from the Indo-European linguistic family, consequence of these different stages of development, Uslar but cannot be shown to possess any clearly ascertained affinities hesitated finally to fix the position of Georgian in the family, with either of the two northern Caucasian groups. It resembles regarding it as possibly a connecting link between groups 1 and them chiefly in its phonetic system, so that according to Rosen 2, but possibly also radically distinct from both.

(Sprache der Lazen) all the languages of central and western Including all its numerous ramifications, the Georgian or Caucasus might be adequately rendered by the Georgian alphabet. southern group occupies the greater part of Transcaucasia, Though certainly not so harsh as the Avar, Lesghian and other reaching from about the neighbourhood of Batum on the Black Daghestan languages, it is very far from being euphonious, and Sea eastwards to the Caspian, and merging southwards with the the frequent recurrence of such sounds as is, ds, iz, kh, khk, sk Armenians of Aryan stock. It comprises altogether nine sub- (Arab. 3), 9 (Arab. 3), for all of which there are distinct divisions, as in the subjoined table:

1. The GEORGIANS PROPER, who are the Iberians of the ancients characters, renders its articulation rather more energetic and and the Grusians of the Russians, but who call themselves Karthlians, rugged than is agreeable to ears accustomed to the soiter tones and who in medieval times were masters of the Rion and Upper of the Iranian and western Indo-European tongues. It presents Kura as far as its confluence with the Alazan.

great facilities for composition, the laws of which are very 2. The IMERETIANS, west of the Suram mountains as far as the regular. Its peculiar morphology, standing midway between river Tskheniz-Tskhali. 3. The GURIANS, between the Rion and Lazistan.

agglutination and true inflexion, is well illustrated by its simple 4. The Lazis of Lazistan on the Black Sea.

declension common to noun, adjective and pronoun, and its 5. The SVANETIANS, Suvans or SWANIANS, on the Upper Ingur more intricate verbal conjugation, with its personal endings. and Tskheniz-Tskhali rivers. 6. The MiNGRELIANS, between the rivers Tskheniz-Tskhali, Rion, object, all showing decided progress towards the inflecting

seven tenses and incorporation of pronominal subject and Ingur and the Black Sea. 7. The TUSHES or MOSOKS about the headstreams of the

structure of the Indo-European and Semitic tongues. 8. The PSHAVS or Ph'CHAVY 9. The KuEVSURS

Alazan and Yora rivers.

Georgian is written in a native alphabet obviously based on

the Armenian, and like it attributed to St Mesropius (Mesrop), The representative branch of the race has always been the who flourished in the 5th century. Of this alphabet there Karthlians. It is now pretty well established that the Georgians are two forms, differing so greatly in outline and even in the are the descendants of the aborigines of the Pambak highlands, number of the letters that they might almost be regarded as two and that they found their way to their present homes from the distinct alphabetic systems. The first and oldest, used exclusively south-east some four or five thousand years ago, possibly under in the Bible and liturgical works, is the square or monumental pressure from the great waves of Aryan migration flowing from Khutsuri, i.e. “sacerdotal,” consisting of 38 letters, and approachthe Iranian tableland westwards to Asia Minor and Europe. ing the Armenian in appearance. The second is the Mkhedrali The Georgians proper are limited on the east by the Alazan, on khēli, i.e. “soldier's hand,” used in ordinary writing, and the north by the Caucasus, on the west by the Meskes hills, consisting of 40 letters, neatly shaped and full of curves, hence separating them from the Imeretians, and on the south by the at first sight not unlike the modern Burmese form of the Pali. Kura river and Kara-dagh and Pambak mountains. South- Of the Karthli language there are several varieties; and, besides wards, however, no hard and fast ethnical line can be drawn, those comprised in the above table, mention should be made for even immediately south of Tiflis, Georgians, Armenians and of the Kakhetian current in the historic province of Kakhetia. Tatars are found intermingled confusedly together.

A distinction is sometimes drawn between the Karthlians proper The Georgian race, which represents the oldest elements of and the Kakhetians, but it rests on a purely political basis, civilization in the Caucasus, is distinguished by some excellent having originated with the partition in 1424 of the ancient Iberian

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