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Luther had confronted the cardinal legate Cajetan, had passed | Rillerschaft or knights of the Empire. This class was subject through his famous controversy at Leipzig with Johann Eck, and only to the emperor, but its members lacked the territorial
was about to burn the bull of excommunication. possessions which gave power to the princes; they were Charles V.
SickleAfter this daring step retreat was impossible, and with partly deprived of their employment owing to the keen excitement both the reformer's followers and suppression of private wars, and they had suffered rising
his enemies waited for the new sovereign to declare through the substitution of Roman law for the ancient himself on one side or on the other. Charles soon made feudal laws and customs. They had no place in the conup his mind about the general lines of his policy, although stitution or in the government of Germany, and they had he was completely ignorant of the strength of the feeling which already paralysed the administration by refusing to pay the tales. had been aroused. He fancied that he had to deal with a mere They were intensely jealous of the princes, and it occurred to monkish quarrel; at one time he even imagined that a little Hutten and Sickingen that the Reformation might be used to money would set the difficulty at rest. It was not likely, however, improve the condition of the knights and to effect a lotal in any case that he would turn against the Roman Church, change in the constitution of the Empire. No general reform, and that for various reasons. He was by far the most important they maintained, either in church or state, could be secured ruler of the time, and the peoples under his direct sway were still while the country was divided into a number of principalities, adherents of the old faith. He was king of Spain, of Sicily, and their plan was to combine with all those who were disof Naples and of Sardinia; he was lord of the Netherlands, of contented with the existing order to attack the princes and to the free county of Burgundy and of the Austrian archduchies; place the emperor at the head of a united nation. Sickingen, he had at his command the immense resources of the New World; who has been compared to Wallenstein, and who doubtless hoped and he had been chosen king of Germany, thus gaining a title to secure a great position for himself, had already collected to the imperial crown. Following the example set by Maxi- a large army, which by its very presence had contributed somemilian he called himself emperor without waiting for the formality what to the election of Charles at Frankfort in 1519. He had of a coronation at Rome. Now the protection of the Church also earned renown by carrying on feuds with the citizens of had always been regarded as one of the chief functions of the Worms and of Metz, and now, with a view to realizing his larger emperors; Charles could not, therefore, desert it when it was ambitions, he opened the campaign (August 1522) by attacking so greatly in need of his services. Like his predecessors he the elector of Trier, who, as a spiritual prince, would not, it reserved to himself the right to resist it in the realm of politics; was hoped, receive any help from the religious reformers. For in the realm of faith he considered that he owed to it his entire a moment it seemed as if Hutten's dream would be realized, allegiance. Moreover, he intended to undertake the subjugation but it was soon evident that it was too late to make so great a of northern Italy, a task which had baffled his imperial grand-change. Luther and other persons of influence stood aloof father, and in order to realize this scheme it was of the highest from the movement; on the other hand, several princes, includ. importance that he should do nothing to offend the pope. Thus ing Philip, landgrave of Hesse, united their forces against the it came about that at the diet of Worms, which met in January knights, and in May 1523 Sickingen was defeated and slain. 1521, without any thorough examination of Luther's position, A few weeks later Hutten died on an island in the lake of Zürich. Charles issued the famous edict, drawn up by Cardinal Aleandro, This war was followed by another of a much more serious which denounced the reformer and his followers. This was nature. The German peasants had grievances compared with accepted by the diet and Luther was placed under the imperial which those of the knights and lesser barons were
imaginary. For about a century several causes had causes When Charles was chosen German king he was obliged to tended to make their condition worse and worse. of the make certain promises to the electors. Embodied in a Wahl-While taxes and other burdens were increasing the Charles
ka pitulation, as it was called, these were practically power of the king to protect them was decreasing; and the the conditions on which the new sovereign was allowed with or without the forms of law they were plundered by every
to take the crown, and the precedent was followed other class in the community; their traditional privileges were at subsequent elections. At the diet of Worms steps withdrawn and, as in the case of the knights, their position had
were taken to carry these promises into effect. By suffered owing to the introduction of Roman law into Germany. his Wahlka pilulation Charles had promised to respect the freedom in the west and south-west of the country especially, opportuniof Germany, for the princes looked upon him as a foreigner. He ties of migration and of expansion had been gradually reduced, was neither to introduce foreign troops into the country, nor to and to provide for their increasing numbers they were compelled allow a foreigner to command German soldiers; he must use to divide their holdings again and again until these patches of the German language and every diet must meet on German soil. land became too small for the support of a household. Thus, An administrative council, a new Reichsregiment, must be solely under the influence of social and economic conditions, established, and other reforms were to be set on foot. The various risings of the peasants had taken place during the latter constitution and powers of this Reichsregiment were the chief part of the 15th century, the first one being in 1461, and at times subject of difference between Charles and the princes at the the insurgents had combined their forces with those of the diet. Eventually it was decided that this council should consist lower classes in the towns, men whose condition was hardly of twenty-two members with a president named by the emperor; more satisfactory than their own. In the last decade of the but it was only to govern Germany during the absence of the 15th and the first decade of the 16th century there were several sovereign, at other times its functions were merely advisory. insurrections in the south-west of Germany, each of which was The imperial chamber was restored on the lines laid down called a Bundschuh, a shoe fastened upon a pole serving as the by Bertold of Mainz in 1495 (it survived until the dissolution standard of revolt. In 1514 Württemberg was disturbed by the of the Empire in 1806), and the estates undertook to aid the rising of “poor Conrad," but these and other similar revolts emperor by raising and paying an army. In April 1521 Charles in the neighbourhood were suppressed by the princes. These invested his brother Ferdinand, afterwards the emperor Fer-movements, however, were only preludes to the great revolution, dinand I., with the Austrian archduchies, and soon afterwards which is usually known as the Peasants' War (Bauernkrieg). he left Germany to renew his long struggle with Francis 1. of The Renaissance and the Reformation were awakening extraFrance.
vagant hopes in the minds of the German peasants, and it is While the emperor was thus absent great disturbances took still a matter of controversy among historians to what
The place in Germany. Among Luther's friends was one, Ulrich von extent Luther and the reformers were responsible for Hutten, at once penetrated with the spirit of the Renaissance their rising. It may, however, be stated with some War. and emphatically a man of action. The class to which Hutten and certainty that their condition was sufficiently wretched his friend, Franz von Sickingen, a daring and ambitious Rhenish to drive them to revolt without any serious pressure from outside. baron, helonged, was that of the small feudal tenants in chief, the | The rising was due primarily neither to religious nor to political,
movemest for reform.
but to economic causes. The Peasants' War, properly so called, vigorous and violent polemic literature, opposition to Rome broke out at Stühlingen in June 1522. The insurgents found a was growing on every side. Instigated by George of Saxony leader in Hans Müller of Bulgenbach, who gained some support the Romanist princes formed a defensive league at Dessau in in the surrounding towns, and soon all Swabia was in revolt. 1525; the reforming princes took a similar step at
Progress Quickly the insurrection became general all over central and Gotha in 1526. Such were the prevailing conditions of the southern Germany. In the absence of the emperor and of his when the diet met at Spires in June 1526 and those Reformabrother, the archduke Ferdinand, the authorities in these parts who were still loyal to the Roman Church clamoured dos. of the country were unable to check the movement and, aided for repressive measures. But on this occasion the reformers were by many knights, prominent among whom was Götz von Ber- decidedly in the ascendant. Important ecclesiastical reforms lichingen, the peasants were everywhere victorious, while another were approved, and instructions forbidding all innovations and influential recruit, Ulrich, the dispossessed duke of Württemberg, calling upon the diet to execute the edict of Worms, sent by the joined them in the hope of recovering his duchy. Ulrich's emperor from Spain, were brushed aside on the ground that attempt, which was made early in 1525, was, however, a failure, in the preceding March when this letter was written Charles and about the same time the peasants drew up twelve articles and the pope were at peace, while now they were at war. Before embodying their demands. These were sufficiently moderate. its dissolution the diet promulgated a decree providing that, They asked for a renewal of their ancient rights of fishing and pending the assembly of a national council, each prince should hunting freely, for a speedier method of obtaining justice, and order the ecclesiastical affairs of his own slate in accordance for the removal of new and heavy burdens. In many places the with his own conscience, a striking victory for the reformers lords yielded to these demands, among those who granted con- and incidentally for separatist ideas. The three years which cessions being the elector palatine of the Rhine, the bishops of elapsed between this diet and another important diet which Bamberg and of Spires, and the abbots of Fulda and of Hersfeld. met in the same city are full of incident. Guided by Luther and But meanwhile the movement was spreading through Franconia Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of to northern Germany and was especially formidable in Thuringia, the reformers prevailed-electoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse where it was led by Thomas Münzer. Here again success attended and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and the rebel standards. But soon the victorious peasants became Augsburg-began to carry out measures of church reform. so violent and so destructive that Luther himself urged that they | The Romanists saw the significance of this movement and, should be sternly punished, and a number of princes, prominent fortunately for them, were able to profit by the dissensions among whom was Philip of Hesse, banded themselves together which were breaking out in the ranks of their opponents, especito crush the rising. Münzer and his followers were defeated at ally the doctrinal differences between the followers of Luther Frankenhausen in May, the Swabian League gained victories and those of Zwingli. Persecutions for heresy had begun, in the area under its control, successes were gained elsewhere by the feeling between the two great religious parties being further the princes, and with much cruelty the revolt of the peasants embittered by some revelations made by Otto von Pack (9.v.) was suppressed. The general result was that the power of the to Philip of Hesse. Pack's stories, which concerned the existence territorial lords became greater than ever, although in some cases, of a powerful league for the purpose of making war upon the especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants reformers, were proved to be false, but the soreness occasioned was somewhat improved. Elsewhere, however, this was not thereby remained. The diet met in February 1529 and soon the case; many of the peasants suffered still greater oppression receive orders from the emperor to repeal decree of 1526. and some of the immediate nobles were forced to submit to a The supporters of the older faith were now predominant and, detested yoke.
although they were inclined to adopt a somewhat haughty Before the suppression of this rising the Reichsregiment had attitude towards Charles, they were not averse from taking met with very indifferent success in its efforts to govern Germany. strong measures against the reformers. The decree of the diet,
Meeting at Nuremberg early in 1522 it voted some formulated in April, forbade the reformers to make further
slight assistance for the campaign against the invading religious changes, while the toleration which was conceded to regimeal Turks, but the proposals put forward for raising the Romanists in Lutheran states was withheld from Lutherans in
necessary funds aroused much opposition, an opposition Romanist states. This decree was strongly resented by the which came mainly from the large and important cities. The reforming princes and cities. They drew up a formal protest citizens appealed to Charles V., who was in Spain, and after some against it (hence the name“ Protestant "), which they presented hesitation the emperor decided against the Reichsregiment. to the archduke Ferdinand, setting forward the somewhat novel Under such disheartening conditions it is not surprising that this theory that the decree of 1526 could not be annulled by a succeed. body was totally unable to cope with Sickingen's insurrection, ing diet unless both the parties concerned assented thereto. and that a few weeks after its meeting at Nuremberg in 1524 By this decree they declared their firm intention to abide. it succumbed to a series of attacks and disappeared from the The untiring efforts of Philip of Hesse to unite the two wings history of Germany. But the Reichsregiment had taken one step, of the Protestant forces met with very little success, and the although this was of a negative character. It had shown some famous conference at Marburg in the autumn of 1529, sympathy with the reformers and had declined to put the edict for which he was responsible, revealed the fact that it of Worms into immediate execution. Hardly less lukewarm, was practically impossible for the Lutherans and the the imperial diet ordered the edict to be enforced, but only as far Zwinglians to act together even when threatened by as possible, and meanwhile the possibilities of accommodation a common danger, while a little later the alliance between the between the two great religious parties were becoming more and Lutheran states of north Germany and the Zwinglian cities of more remote. A national assembly to decide the questions at the south was destroyed by differences upon points of doctrine. issue was announced to meet at Spires, but the emperor forbade In 1530 the emperor, flushed with success in Italy and at peace this gathering. Then the Romanists, under the guidance of Car- with his foreign foes, came to Germany with the express intention dinal Campeggio and the archduke Ferdinand, met at Regens- of putting an end to heresy. In June he opened the diet at burg and decided to take strong and aggressive measures to Augsburg, and here the Lutherans submitted a summary of destroy Lutheranism, while, on the other hand, representatives their doctrines, afterwards called the Augsburg Confession. of the cities met at Spires and at Ulm, and asserted their inten-Drawn up by Melanchthon, this pronouncement was intended tion of forwarding and protecting the teaching of the reformed to widen the breach between the Lutherans and the Zwinglians, doctrines. All over the country and through all classes of the and to narrow that between the Lutherans and the Romanists; people men were falling into line on one side or the other, and from this time it was regarded as the chief standard of the everything was thus ready for a long and bitter religious war. Lutheran faith. Four Zwinglian cities, Strassburg, Constance,
During these years the religious and political ideas of the Lindau and Memmingen, replied with a confession of their own Reformation were rapidly gaining ground, and, aided by a and the Romanists also drew up an answer. The period of
of Augs. burg
negotiation which followed served only to show that no accom- enough to declare that they did not regard the decisions of the modation was possible. Charles himself made no serious effort Reichskammergericht as binding upon them. About this time to understand the controversy; he was resolved, whether the Germany witnessed three events of some importance. Through Lutherans had right on their side or not, that they should submit, the energy of Philip of Hesse, who was aided by Francis I., and he did not doubt but that he would be able to awe them Ulrich of Württemberg was forcibly restored to his duchy. into submission by an unwonted display of power. But to his The members of the Romanist league recently founded at Halle surprise the Lutheran princes who attended the diet refused to would not help the Habsburgs, and in June 1534, by the treaty give way. They were, however, outnumbered by their enemies, of Cadan, King Ferdinand was forced to recognize the restoration and it was the Romanist majority which dictated the terms of as a fait accompli; at the same time he was compelled to promiso the decree, which was laid before the diet in September, enjoining that he would stop all proceedings of the Reichskammergericht a return to religious conformity within seven months. The against the members of the league of Schmalkalden. The two Protestant princes could only present a formal protest and other events were less favourable for the new religion, or rather leave Augsburg. Finally the decree of the diet, promulgated for its orthodox manifestations. After a struggle, the Anain November, ordered the execution of the edict of Worms, baptists obtained control of Münster and for a short time the restoration of all church property, and the maintenance governed the town in accordance with their own peculiar ideas, of the jurisdiction of the bishops. The duty of enforcing the while at Lübeck, under the burgomaster Jürgen Wullenweber, decree was especially entrusted to the Reichskammergericht; a democratic government was also established. But the bishop thus by the processes of law the Protestant princes were to be of Münster and his friends crushed the one movement, and after deprived of much of their property, and it seemed probable interfering in the affairs of Denmark the Lübeckers were comthat if they did not submit the emperor would have recourse peiled to revert to their former mode of government. The to arms.
outbreak of the war between the Empire and France in 1536 For the present, however, fresh difficulties with France and almost coincided with the enlargement of the league of Schmal. an invasion by the Turks, who had besieged Vienna with an kalden, the existence of which was prolonged for ten years.
immense army in the autumn of 1529, forced Charles All the states and cities which subscribed to the confession league of to mask his designs. Meanwhile some of the Lutherans, of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number
angered and alarmed by the decisions of the Reichs- of Protestants, including the duchies of Württemberg and
kammergericht, abandoned the idea that resistance Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured to the imperial authority was unlawful and, meeting in December a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichskamme1530, laid the foundation of the important league of Schmalkalden, gericht, which the league again repudiated. Among the new among the first members of the confederation being the rulers members of the confederation was Christian III., king of Denmark. of Saxony and Hesse and the cities of Bremen and Magdeburg. About the same time (May 1536) an agreement between the The league was soon joined by other strong cities, among them Lutherans and the Zwinglians was arranged by Martin Bucer, Strassburg, Ulm, Constance, Lübeck and Goslar; but it was not and was embodied in a document called the Concord of Wittenuntil after the defeat and death of Zwingli at Kappel in October berg, and for the present the growing dissensions between the 1531 that it was further strengthened by the adhesion of those heads of the league, John Frederick, elcctor of Saxony, and towns which had hitherto looked for leadership to the Swiss Philip of Hesse, were checked. Thus strengthened the Protestant reformer. About this time the military forces of the league princes declared against the proposed general council at Mantua, were organized, their heads being the elector of Saxony and the while as a counterpoise to the league of Schmalkalden the imperial landgrave of Hesse. But the league had a political as well as a envoy, Mathias Held (d. 1563), persuaded the Romanist princes religious aspect. It was an alliance between the enemies of the in June 1538 to form the league of Nuremberg. But, although house of Habsburg, and on this side it gained the support of the he had made a truce with France at Nice in this very month, duke of Bavaria and treated with Francis I. of France. To this Charles V. was more conciliatory than some of his representatives, its rapid growth was partly due, but more perhaps to the fact and at Frankfort in April 1539 he came to terms with the that the Reformation in Germany was above all things a popular Protestants, not, however, granting to them all their demands. movement, and thus many princes who would not have seceded In 1539, too, the Protestants received a great accession of strength, from the Roman Church of their own accord were compelled to the Lutheran prince Henry succeeding his Romanist brother do so from political motives. They had been strong enough George as duke of Saxony. Ducal Saxony was thus completely to undermine the imperial power; they were not strong enough won for the reformed faith, and under the politic elector Joachim to resist the pressure put upon them by a majority of their II. the same doctrines made rapid advances in Brandenburg. subjects. It was early in 1532, when faced with the necessity | Thus practically all North Germany was united in supporting of resisting the Turkish advance, that Charles met the diet the Protestant cause. at Regensburg. He must have men and money for this purpose In 1542, when Charles V. was again involved in war with even at the price of an arrangement with the Protestants. But France and Turkey, who were helped by Sweden, Denmark and the Lutherans were absent from the diet, and the Romanists, Scotland, the league of Schmalkalden took advantage Successes although they voted help, displayed a very uncompromising of his occupations to drive its stubborn foe, Henry, of the temper towards their religious foes. Under these circumstances duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, from his duchy and protestthe emperor took the matter into his own hands, and his negotia- to enthrone Protestantism completely therein. But tions with the Protestants resulted in July 1532 in the religious this was not the only victory gained by the Protestants about peace of Nuremberg, a measure which granted temporary tolera- this time. The citizens of Regensburg accepted their doctrines, tion to the Lutherans and which was repeatedly confirmed which also made considerable progress in the Palatinate and in in the following years. Charles's reward was substantial and Austria, while the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann von Wied, immediate. His subjects vied with each other in hurrying and William, duke of Gelderland, Cleves and Juliers, announced soldiers to his standard, and in a few weeks the great Turkish their secession from the Roman religion. The Protestants host was in full retreat.
were now at the height of their power, but their ascendancy While the probability of an alliance between Pope Clement was about to be destroyed, and that rather by the folly and VII. and Francis I. of France, together with other international imprudence of their leaders than by the skill and valour of their
complications, prevented the emperor from following foes. The unity and the power of the league of Schmalkalden Internal affairs of up his victory over the Turks, or from reducing the were being undermined by two important events, the Germany. dissenters from the Roman religion to obedience, bigamy of Philip of Hesse, which for political reasons
dekeats. Protestantism was making substantial progress in was condoned by the Lutheran divines, and the dissenthe states, notably in Anhalt and in Pomerania, and in the sions between John Frederick, the ruler of electoral, and Maurice, cities, and in January 1534 the Protestant princes were bold | the new ruler of ducal Saxony. To save himself from the
The "in. terim."
Charles over the
consequences of his double marriage, which had provided him to surrender. The rising in the other parts of northern Germany with powerful enemies, Philip in June 1541 came to terms with the was also put down, and the two leaders of political Lutheranism emperor, who thus managed to spike the guns of the league of were prisoners in the emperor's hands. Schmalkalden, although the strength of this confederation did Unable to shake the allegiance of John Frederick to the not fail until after the campaign against Henry of Brunswick. Lutheran faith, Charles kept him and Philip of Hesse in captivity But while on the whole the fortunes of the European war, both and began to take advantage of his triumph, although in.the east and in the west, were unfavourable to the imperialists, Magdeburg was still offering a stubborn resistance Charles V. found time in 1543 to lead a powerful force against to his allies. By the capitulation of Wittenberg the William of Gelderland, who had joined the circle of his foreign electorate of Saxony was transferred to Maurice, and in the focs. William was completely crushed; Gelderland was added mood of a conqueror the emperor met the diet at Augsburg to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, while the league of in September 1547. His proposals to strengthen and reform Schmalkalden impotently watched the proceedings. This the administration of Germany were, however, not acceptable happened about a year after war between the two branches of to the princes, and the main one was not pressed; but the the Saxon house had only been averted by the mediation of Netherlands were brought under the protection of the Empire Luther and of Philip of Hesse. The emperor, however, was and some minor reforms were carried through. A serious quarrel unable, or unwilling, to make a more general attack on the with the pope, who had moved the council from Trent to Bologna, Protestants. In accordance with the promises made to them only increased the determination of Charles to establish religious at Frankfort in 1539, conferences between the leaders of the two conformity. In consultation with both Romanist and Lutheran religious parties were held at Hagenau, at Worms and at Regens- divines a confession of faith called the Interim was drawn up; burg, but they were practically futile. The diets at Regensburg this was in the nature of a compromise and was issued as an edict and at Nuremberg gave very little aid for the wars, and did in May 1548, but owing to the opposition of the Romanist nothing to solve the religious difficulties which were growing princes it was not made binding upon them, only upon the more acute with repeated delays. At the dict of Spires in 1544 Lutherans. There was some resistance to the Interim, but Charles purchased military assistance from the Protestants by force was employed against Augsburg and other recalcitrant making lavish promises to them. With a new army he marched cities, and soon it was generally accepted. Thus all Germany against the French, but suddenly in September 1544 he concluded scemed to lie at the emperor's fcet. The Reformation had the treaty of Crépy with Francis I. and left himself free to begin enabled him to deal with the princes and the imperial cities a new chapter in the history of Germany.
in a fashion such as no sovercign had dealt with them for three Charles was now nearly ready to crush the Protestants, whose centuries. influence and teaching had divided Germany and weakened Being now at the height of his power Charles wished to secure
the imperial power, and were now endangering the the succession to the imperial throne to his son Philip, altcrVictory of
supremacy of the Habsburgs in the Netherlands and wards Philip II. of Spain. This intention produced
in Alsace. His plan was to bring about the meeting dissensions among the Habsburgs, especially between imperlal league of of a general council to make the necessary reforms in the emperor and his brother Ferdinand, and other Schmal
the church, and then at whatever cost to compel the causes were at work, moreover, to undermine the kaldeo.
Protestants to abide by its decisions. While Pope former's position. The Romanist princes were becoming alarmed Paul III., somewhat reluctantly, summoned the council which at his predominance, the Protestant princes resented his arbitrary ultimately met at Trent, Charles made vigorous preparations measures and disliked the harsh treatment meted out to John for war. Having made peace with the Turks in October 1545 Frederick and to Philip of Hesse; all alike, irritated by the he began to secure allies. Assistance was promised by the pope; presence of Spanish soldiers in their midst, objected strongly the emperor purchased the neutrality of Duke William of Bavaria, to take Philip for their king and to any extension of Spanish and at a high price the active aid of Maurice of Saxony; he influence in Germany. Turkey and France were again threatenmanaged to detach from the league of Schmalkalden those ing war, and although the council had returned to Trent it members who were without any cnthusiasm for the Protestant seemed less likely than ever to satisfy the Protestants. The cause and also those who were too timid to enter upon a serious general discontent found expression in the person of The struggle. Meanwhile the league was inactive. Its chicís difiered Maurice of Saxony, a son-in-law of Philip of Hesse, revolt of on questions of policy, one section believing that the emperor whose services to Charles against the league of Schmal- Maurice of
Saxoay. did not intend to proceed to extremities, and for some time no kalden had made him very unpopular in his own measures were taken to meet the coming peril. At last, in June country. Caring little or nothing about doctrinal disputes, but 1546, during the meeting of the diet at Regensburg, Philip and a great deal about increasing his own importance, Maurice now John Frederick of Saxony realized the extent of the danger and took the lead in plotting against the emperor. He entered into began to muster their forces. They were still much more powerful an alliance with John, margrave of Brandenburg-Custrin, with than the emperor, but they did not work well together, or with another Hohenzollern prince, Albert Alcibiades of Bayreuth, Sebastian Schärtlin von Burtenbach, who led their troops in and with other Lutheran leaders, and also with Henry II. of South Germany. In July 1546 they were placed under the France, who cagerly seized this opportunity of profiting by the imperial ban, and the war began in the valley of the Danube. dissensions in the Empire and who stipulated for a definite Charles was aided by soldiers hurried from Italy and the Nether- reward. Charles knew something of these proceedings, but his lands, but he did not gain any substantial successes until after recent victory had thrown him partly off his guard. The treaty October 1546, when his ally Maurice invaded electoral Saxony with France was signed in January 1552; in March Henry II. and forced John Frederick to march northwards to its defence. invaded Germany as the protector of her liberties, while Maurice The Lutheran cities of southern and central Germany, among seized Augsburg and marched towards Innsbruck, where the emthem Strassburg, Augsburg, Ulm and Frankfort, now submitted peror was residing, with the intention of making him a prisoner. to the emperor, while Ulrich of Württemberg and the elector An attempt at accommodation failed; Charles fled into palatine of the Rhine, Frederick II., followed their example. Carinthia; and at one stroke all the advantages which he had Having restored Roman Catholicism in the archbishopric of gained by his triumph at Mühlberg were lost. Masters of the Cologne and seen Henry of Brunswick settled in his duchy early situation, Maurice and his associates met their opponents au in 1547, Charles led his men against his principal enemies, Philip Passau in May 1552 and arranged terms of peace, although the of Hesse and John Frederick, who had quickly succeeded in emperor did not assent to them until July. The two cap'ıve driving Maurice from his electorate. At Muhlberg in April 1547 princes were released, but the main point agreed upon was that he overtook the army of the Saxon elector. His victory was a diet should be called for the purpose of settling the religious complete. John Frederick was taken prisoner, and a little later difficulty, and that in the meantime the Lutherans were to enjoy Philip of Hesse, after vainly prolonging the struggle, was induced I full religious liberty.
The peace of
End of the reiga.
Delayed by the war with France and Turkey, the diet for the changes the imperial diet was becoming more useless and unsettlement of the religious difficulty did not meet at Augsburg wieldy, and the electors were gaining power, owing partly to
until February 1555. Ferdinand represented his the Wahlkapitulation, by which on election they circumscribed
brother, and after a prolonged discussion conditions the power of each occupant of the imperial throne. Augsburg. of peace were arranged. Romanists and Lutherans Ferdinand's son and successor, the emperor Maximilian II.,
were placed upon an equal footing, but the toleration was a man of tolerant views; in fact at one time he was suswhich was granted to them was not extended to the Calvinists. pected of being a Lutheran, a circumstance which Each secular prince had the right to eject from his land all those greatly annoyed the Habsburgs and delayed his own who would not accept the form of religion established therein; election as king of the Romans. However, having thus the principle of cujus regio ejus religio was set up. Although given to the electors assurances of his fidelity to the Roman the Lutherans did not gain all their demands, they won solid Church, he was chosen king in November 1562, and became advantages and were allowed to keep all ecclesiastical property ruler of Germany on his father's death nearly two years later. secularized before the peace of Passau. A source of trouble, Like other German sovereigns Maximilian pursued the phantom however, was the clause in the treaty usually called the eccles- of religious union. His first diet, which met at Augsburg in iastical reservation. This required an ecclesiastical prince, if 1566, was, however, unable, or unwilling, to take any steps in he accepted the teaching of the confession of Augsburg, or in this direction, and while the Roman Catholics urged the enforceother words became a Lutheran, forthwith to resign. his princi- ment of the decrees of the council of Trent the serious differences pality. The Lutherans denied the validity of this clause, and among the Protestants received fresh proof from the attempt notwithstanding the protests of the Roman Catholics several made to exclude the Calvinist prince Frederick III., elector prelates became Lutheran and kept their territories as secular palatine of the Rhine, from the benefits of the peace of Augsburg. possessions. The peace of Augsburg can hardly be described After this Frederick and the Calvinists looked for sympathy as a satisfactory settlement. Individual toleration was not more and more to the Protestants in France and the Netherlands, allowed, or only allowed in unison with exile, and in the treaty whom they assisted with troops, while the. Lutherans, whose there was abundant material for future discord.
chief prince was Augustus, elector of Saxony, adopted a more After Maurice of Saxony had made terms with Charles at cautious policy and were anxious not to offend the emperor. Passau he went to help Ferdinand against the Turks, but onc | There were, moreover, troubles of a personal and private nature
of his allies, Henry II. of France, continued the war between these two electors and their families, and these embiltered in Germany while another, Albert Alcibiades, entered their religious differences. But these divergences of opinion
upon a wild campaign of plunder in Franconia. The were not only between Roman Catholic and Lutheran or between French king seized Metz, which was part of the spoil promised Lutheran and Calvinist, they were, in electoral and ducal to him by his allies, and Charles made an attempt to regain the Saxony at least, between Lutheran and Lutheran. Thus the city. For this purpose he took Albert Alcibiades into his Protestant cause was weakened just when it needed strengthenservice, but after a stubborn fight his troops were compelled ing, as, on the other side, the Roman Catholics, especially Albert, to retreat in January 1553. Albert then renewed his raids, and duke of Bavaria, were eagerly forwarding the progress of the these became so terrible that a league of princes, under Maurice older faith, which towards the end of this reign was restored of Saxony, was formed to crush him; although Maurice lost in the important abbey of Fulda. In secular affairs Maximilian his life at Sievershausen in July 1553, this purpose was accom- had, just after his accession, to face a renewal of the Turkish plished, and Albert was driven from Germany. After the peace war. Although his first diet voted liberal assistance for the of Augsburg, which was published in September 1555, the defence of the country, and a large and splendid army was emperor carried out his intention of abdicating. He entrusted collected, he had gained no advantage when the campaign ended. Spain and the Netherlands to Philip, while Ferdinand took over The diet of Spires, which met in 1570, was mainly occupied the conduct of affairs in Germany, although it was not until in discussing measures for preventing the abuses caused by 1558 that he was formally installed as his brother's successor. the enlistment by foreigners of German mercenary troops, but
Ferdinand I., who like all the German sovereigns after him nothing was done to redress this grievance, as the estates were was recognized as emperor without being crowned by the pope, unwilling to accept proposals which placed more power in the
made it a prime object of his short reign to defend emperor's hands. Maximilian sound time to make earnest but and enforce the religious peace of Augsburg for which unavailing efforts to mediate between his cousin, Philip II.
he was largely responsible. Although in all probability of Spain, and the revolled Netherlands, and also to interfere numerically superior at this time to the Romanists, the Pro- in the affairs of Poland, where a saction elected him as their testants were weakened by divisions, which were becoming king. He was still dealing with this matter and hoping to gain daily more pronounced and more serious, and partly owing to support for it from the diet of Regensburg when he died (October this fact the emperor was able to resist the de
hands of each 1576). party and to moderate their excesses. He was continually Maximilian's successor was his son, Rudolph II., who had been harassed by the Turks until peace was made in 1562, and con- chosen king of the Romans in October 1575, and who in his nected therewith were troubles in Bohemia and especially in later years showed marked traces of insanity. The Hungary, two countries which he had acquired through marriage, new emperor had little of his father's tolerant spirit,
Rudolph while North Germany was disturbed by the wild schemes of and under his secble and erratic rule religious and Wilhelm von Grumbach (q.v.) and his associate John Frederick, political considerations alike tended to increase the disorder duke of Saxony. With regard to the religious question efforts in Germany. The death of the Calvinist leader, the elector were made to compose the differences among the Protestants; palatine Frederick III., in October 1576 and the accession of but while these ended in failure the Roman Catholics were his son Louis, a prince who held Lutheran opinions, obviously gaining ground. Ferdinand sought earnestly to reform the afforded a favourable opportunity for making another attempt church from within, and before he dicd in July 1564 the Counter- to unite the Protestants. Under the guidance of Augustus of Reformation, fortified by the entrance of the Jesuits into Germany Saxony a Lutheran confession of faith, the Formula concordice, and by the issue of the decrees of the council of Trent, had was drawn up; but, although this was accepted by si princes begus.
and 35 towns, others-like the landgraves of Hesse and the Under Ferdinand's rule there were some changes in the cities of Madgeburg and Strassburg-refused to sign it, and thus administration of the Empire. Lutherans sat among the judges it served only to emphasize the divisions among the Protestants.
of the Reichskammergericht, and the Aulic Council, or Moreover, the friendship between the Saxon and the Palatine
Hofral, established by Maximilian I. for the Austrian houses was soon destroyed; for, when the elector Louis died changes. lands, extended its authority over the Empire in 1583, he was succeeded by a minor, his son Frederick IV., and was known as the Reichshofral. Side by side with these who was under the guardianship of his uncle John Casimir