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(1543-9592), a prince of very marked Calvinist sympathies and The war between them and the Empire, which was renewed in of some military experience. Just before this time much unrest 1593, lasted almost without interruption until November 1606, in the north-west of Germany had been caused by the settlement when peace was made, the tribute long paid by the emperor there of a number of refugees from the Netherlands. Spreading to the sultan being abandoned. This peace was concluded not their advanced religious views, these settlers were partly by Rudolph, but by his brother, the archdukc Matthias, who responsible for two serious outbreaks of disorder. At Aix-la- owing to the emperor's mental incapacity had just been declared Chapelle the Protestants, not being allowed freedom of worship, by his kinsman the head of the house of Habsburg. Rudolph took possession of the city in 1581. The matter came before the resented this indignity very greatly, and until his death in January diet, which was opened at Augsburg in July 1582, but the case 1612 the relations between the brothers.were very strained, but was left undecided; afterwards, however, the Reichshofrat this mainly concerns the history of Hungary and of Bohemia, declared against the insurgents, although it was not until 1598 which were sensibly affected by the fraternal discord. that Protestant worship was abolished and the Roman Catholic By this time however, there were signs of substantial progress governing body was restored. At Cologne the archbishop, on the part of the great Catholic reaction, which was to have Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, married and announced his important consequences for Germany. This was due intention of retaining his spiritual office. Had this proceeding mainly to the persistent zeal of the Jesuits.

For a passed unchallenged, the Protestants, among whom Gebhard long time the Protestants had absorbed the intellectual Reforma. now counted himself, would have had a majority in the electoral strength of the country, but now many able scholars college. The Roman Catholics, however, secured the deposition and divines among the Jesuits could hold their own with their of Gebhard and the election in his stead of Ernest, bishop of antagonists. These devoted missionaries of the church gave Liége, and war broke out in 1583. Except John Casimir, the their attention mainly to the young, and during the reign of Protestant princes showed no eagerness to assist Gebhard, who Rudolph II. they were fortunate enough to make a deep im. in a short time was driven from his see, and afterwards took up pression upon two princes, each of whom was destined to play his residence in Strassburg, where also he instigated a rebellion a great part in the events of his time. These princes were on a small scale. Thus these quarrels terminated in victories Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, and Ferdinand, archduke of for the Roman Catholics, who were successful about this time Styria, the former a member of the house of Wittelsbach, and in restoring their faith in the bishoprics of Würzburg, Salzburg, the latter of the house of Habsburg. Maximilian became proBamberg, Paderborn, Minden and Osnabrück. Another dispute minent in 1607 by executing an imperial mandate against the also ended in a similar way. This was the claim made by the free city of Donauwörth, where a religious riot had taken place, administrator of the archbishopric of Magdeburg, a Hohenzollern and afterwards treating it as his own. Rendered suspicious prince, Joachim Frederick, afterwards elector of Brandenburg, by this arbitrary act, the Protestant princes in 1608 formed a to sit and vote in the imperial dict; it was not admitted, and confederation known as the Evangelical Union, and in response the administrator retired from Augsburg, a similar fate befalling the Roman Catholics, under the guidance of Maximilian, united a similar claim made by several other administrators some in a similar confederation afterwards called the Catholic League. years later.

This was founded at Munich in July 1609. As the Union was After the death of Augustus of Saxony in February 1586 headed by the elector palatine of the Rhine, Frederick IV., there was another brief alliance between the Protestant parties, who was a Calvinist, many Lutherans, among them the elector The Pro- although on this occasion the lead was taken not by of Saxony, were by no means enthusiastic in its support. It

the Saxon, but by the Palatine prince. Less strict acquired, however, immense importance through its alliance grievo in his adherence to the tenets of Lutheranism than with Henry IV. of France, who, like Henry II., wished to profit

Augustus, the new elector of Saxony, Christian I., by the quarrels in Germany, and who interfered in the disputed sell under the influence of John Casimir. The result was that succession to the duchies of Cleves and Jülich. War seemed Protestant princes, including the three temporal electors, united about to break out between the two confederations and their in placing their grievances before the emperor; obtaining no foreign allies over this question, but after the murder of the redress they met at Torgau in 1591 and offered help to Henry French king in May 1610 the Union did not venture to fight. IV. of France, a proceeding which was diametrically opposed to Ferdinand was even more vigorous than Maximilian in defence the past policy of Saxony. But this alliance, like its forerunner, of his religion. On assuming the government of Styria he set was of very short duration. Christian I. died in 1591, and under to work to extirpate Protestantism, which had made Christian II. electoral Saxony re-established a rigid Lutheranism considerable progress in the Austrian arch-duchies. at home and pursued a policy of moderation and neutrality Soon afterwards he was selected by the Habsburgs abroad. A short time afterwards the militant party among as the heir of the childless emperor Matthias, and on coming to the. Protestants suffered a heavy loss by the death of their Vienna after the death of that sovereign in March 1619 he found leader, John Casimir, whose policy, however, was continued by himself in the midst of hopeless confusion. The Bohemians his nephew and pupil, the elector Frederick IV. But neither refused to acknowledge him as their king and elected in his desertion nor death was able to crush entirely the militant stead Frederick V., the elector palatine of the Rhine, a son-in. Protestants, among whom Christian, prince of Anhalt (1568-law of the English king James I., and the Hungarians and the 1630), was rapidly becoming the most prominent figure. They Austrians were hardly less disaffected. As Ferdinand II., made themselves very troublesome at the diet of Regensburg however, he succeeded in obtaining the imperial crown in in 1593, and also at the diet held in the same city four years August 1619, and from that time he was dominated by a fixed later, putting forward various demands for greater religious resolve to secure the triumph of his church throughout the freedom and seeking to hinder, or delay, the payment of the Empire, a resolve which cost Germany the Thirty Years' War. grant for the Turkish war. Moreover, in 1598 they put forward He began with Bohemia. Although supported by Spain he the theory that the vote of a majority in the diet was not binding could not obtain from this quarter an army sufficiently strong upon the minority; they took up the same position at Regens- lo crush the Bohemians, and for some time he remained burg in 1603, when they raised strong objections to the decisions powerless and inactive in Vienna. Then at the The con of the Reichshofral and afterwards withdrew from the diet in beginning of 1620 he came to terms with Maximilian Bohemian a body. Thus, under Maximilian of Bavaria and Christian of of Bavaria, who, after carefully securing his own Anhalt respectively the two great parties were gaining a better interests, placed the army of the League, commanded by the idea of their own needs and of each other's aims and were celebrated Tilly, at his disposal. Conditionally the Union watching vigilantly the position in the duchies of Cleves, Jülich promised assistance to Frederick, but he wasted several months and Berg, where a dispute over the succession was impending and vaguely hoped that the English king would help him out While wars and rumours of wars were disturbing the peace in of his embarrassments. Meanwhile Tilly advanced into Bohemia, the west of Germany the Turks were again harassing the east. I and in November 1620 Frederick's army was utterly routed at

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the battle of the White Hill, near Prague, and the unfortunate | Würzburg and Frankfort were among the cities which opened clector had just time to escape from the kingdom he had rashly their gates to the Swedish king as the deliverer of the Protestants; undertaken to govern. Ferdinand drove to the uttermost the several princes sought his alliance, and, making the captured advantages of his victory. The Union being destroyed and city of Mainz his headquarters, he was busily engaged for some the Bohemian revolution crushed, attention was turned to the months in resting and sirengthening his army and in negotiating hereditary lands of the elector palatine. The Spanish troops about the future conduct of the war. Early in 1632 he led his and the army of the League invaded the Rhenish Palatinate, troops into Bavaria. In April he defeated Tilly at the crossing which was defended by Frederick's remaining adherents, Christian of the Lech, the imperialist general being mortally wounded of Brunswick and Count Ernst von Mansfeld, but after several during this fight, and then he took possession of Augsburg and battles it passed completely into the possession of the imperialists. of Munich. Before, these events Ferdinand had realized how Having been placed under the imperial ban Frederick became serious had been his mistake in dismissing Wallenstein, and after an exile from his inheritance, and the electorate which he was some delay his agents persuaded the great general to emerge declared to have forfeited was conferred on Maximilian.

from his retirement. The conditions, however, upon which Thus ended the first stage of the Thirty Years' War, although Wallenstein consented to come to the emperor's aid were remarksome desultory fighting continued between the League and ably onerous, but Ferdinand had perforce to assent to them.

its opponents. The second began in 1625 with the He obtained sole command of the imperial armies, with the

formation, after much fruitless negotiation, of a power of concluding treaties and of granting pardons, and ference in Protestant combination, which had the support of he doubtless insisted on the withdrawal of the Edict of Restitu.

England, although its leading member was Christian tion, although this is not absolutely certain; in brief, the only IV., king of Denmark, who as duke of Holstein was a prince of limits to his power were the limits to the strength of his army. the Empire, and who like other Lutherans was alarmed at the Having quickly assembled this, he drove the Saxons from emperor's successes. It was in this war that Europe first became Bohemia, and then marched towards Franconia, with the familiar with the great name of Wallenstein. Unable himself intention of crossing swords with his only serious rival, Gustavus to raise and equip a strong army, and restive at his depend-Adolphus, who had left Munich when he heard that this foe ence on the League, Ferdinand gladly accepted Wallenstein's had taken the field. The Swedes and their allies occupied Nuremoffer to put an army into the field at no cost to him- berg, while the imperialists fortified a great camp and blockaded self. After Wallenstein had beaten Mansfeld at the bridge the city. Gustavus made an attempt to storm these fortifications, of Dessau in April 1626, and Tilly had defeated Christian of but he failed to make any impression on them; he failed also Denmark at Lutter in the succeeding August, the two generals in inducing Wallenstein to accept battle, and he was forced to united their forces. Denmark was invaded, and Wallenstein. abandon Nuremberg and to march to the protection of Saxony. now duke of Friedland, was authorized to govern the conquered Wallenstein followed; and the two armies faced each other at duchies of Mecklenburg and Pomerania; but his ambitious Lützen on the 16th of November 1632. Here the imperialists scheme of securing the whole of the south coast of the Baltic were beaten, but the victory was even more disastrous to the was thwarted by the resistance of the city of Stralsund, which Protestant cause than a defeat, for the Swedish king was among for five months he vainly tried to take. Denmark, however, the slain. was compelled to conclude peace at Lübeck in May 1629. The Swedes, whose leader was now the chancellor Oxenstjerna,

Intoxicated by success, Ferdinand had issued two months were stunned by this catastrophe, but in a desultory fashion before the famous Edict of Restitution. This ordered the they maintained the struggle, and in April 1633 a restoration of all ecclesiastical lands which had come new league was formed at Heilbronn between them and

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into the possession of the Protestants since the peace the representatives of four of the German circles, Heilbreas of Passau in 1552, and, as several archbishoprics while by a new agreement France continued to furnish and the and bishoprics had become Protestant, it struck monetary aid. Of this alliance Sweden was the pre

desíh of a tremendous blow at the emperor's foes and stirred among dominant member, but the German allies had a certain them intense and universal opposition. A little later, yielding voice in the direction of affairs, the military command to Maximilian and his colleagues in the League, Ferdinand being divided between the Swedish general Horn and Bernhard, dismissed Wallenstein, whose movements had aroused their duke of Saxe-Weimar. About this time some discontent arose resentment, from his service. A more inauspicious moment in the allied army, and to allay this Bernhard was granted the could not have been chosen for these two serious steps, because bishoprics of Würzburg and of Bamberg, with the title of duke in the summer of 1630 Gustavus Adolphus left Sweden at the of Franconia, but on the strange condition that he should hold head of a strong army for the purpose of sustaining the Protestant the duchy as the vassal of Sweden, not as a vassal of the Empire. cause in Germany. At first this great king was coldly received The war, thus revived, was waged principally in the valleys by the Protestants, who were ignorant of his designs and did not of the Danube and the Rhine, the Swedes, scizing Alsace while want a stranger to profit by the internal disputes of their country. Bernhard captured Regensburg. Meanwhile Wallenstein was A mistake at the outset would probably have been fatal to him, again arousing the suspicions of his nominal allies. Instead of but he saw the dangers of his position and moved so warily attacking the enemy with his accustomed vigour, he withdrew that in less than a year he had obtained the alliance of the into Bohemia and was engaged in lengthy negotiations with the elector of Saxony, a consequence of the terrible sack of Magdeburg Saxon soldier and diplomatist, Hans Georg von Arnim (1581by the imperialists in May 1631 and of the devastation of the 1641), his object being doubtless to come to terms with Saxony electorate by Tilly. He had also obtained on his own terms the and Brandenburg either with or without the emperor's consent. assistance of France, and was ready to enter upon his short but His prime object was, however, to secure for himself a great brilliant campaign.

territorial position, possibly that of king of Bohemia, and it is Having captured Frankfort-on-Oder and forced the hesitating obvious that his aims and ambitions were diametrically opposed elector of Brandenburg, George William, to grant him some assist to the ends desired by Ferdinand and by his Spanish and Bavarian The cam. ance, Gustavus Adolphus added the Saxon army to his allies. At length he set his troops in motion, Having gained palga of own, and in September 1631 he met Tilly, at the head some successes in the north-east of Germany he marched to

of nearly the whole force of the League, at Breitenfeld, succour the hardly pressed elector of Bavaria; then suddenly Adolphus.

near Leipzig, where he gained a victory which placed abandoning this purpose he led his troops back to Bohemia and North Germany entirely at his feet. So utterly had he shattered left Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar in possession of the Danube the emperor's power that he could doubtless have marched valley. It is not surprising that a cry, louder than ever, now straight to Vienna; he preferred, however, to proceed through arose for his dismissal. Ferdinand did as he was required. central into southern Germany, while his Saxon ally, the elector In January 1634 he declared Wallenstein deposed from his John George, recovered Silesia and Lusatia and invaded Bohemia. I command, but he was still at the head of an army when he was

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murdered in the following month at Eger. Commanded now by and then came the welcome news of the conclusion of the treaty the king of Hungary, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand III., of Westphalia. the imperialists retook Regensburg and captured Donauwörth; The preliminary negotiations for peace were begun at Hamburg then, aided by some Spanish troops, they gained a victory at and Cologne before the death of the emperor Ferdinand II. in Nördlingen in September 1634, the results of which were as 1637. By a treaty signed at Hamburg in December decisive and as satisfactory for them as the results of Breitenfeld 1641 it was agreed that peace conferences should meet The peace had been for their foes two years before.

at Münster and at Osnabrück in March 1642, the

phalia. The demoralization of the Swedes and their allies, which was emperor treating with France in the former, and with a consequence of the defeat at Nördlingen, was the opportunity Sweden in the latter city. The Roman Catholic princes of the France

of France. Having by clever diplomacy placed gar- Empire were to be represented at Münster and the Protestants Iskes pare risons in several places in Alsace and the Palatinate, at Osnabrück. Actually the conferences did not meet until 1645,

the king of France, or rather Cardinal Richelieu, now when the elector of Brandenburg had made, and the elector of

entered the field as a principal, made a definite alliance Saxony was about to make, a truce with Sweden, these two with Sweden at Compiègne in April 1635, and in the following countries being withdrawn from the ravages of the war. In month declared war and put four armies in motion. But the three years the many controversial questions were discussed and thoughts of many had already turned in the direction of peace, settled, and in October 1648 the treaty of Westphalia was signed and in this manner John George of Saxony took the lead, signing and the Thirty Years' War was at an end. in May 1635 the important treaty of Prague with the emperor. The Thirty Years' War settled once for all the principle that The vexed and difficult question of the ownership of the ecclesi- men should not be persecuted for their religious faith. It is true astical lands was settled by fixing November 1627 as the deciding that the peace of Westphalia formally recognized only Effects of date; those who were in possession then were to retain them the three creeds, Catholicism, Lutheranism and the Thirty for forty years, during which time it was hoped a satisfactory Calvinism, but so much suffering had been caused Years' arrangement would be reached. The Saxon elector gained by the interference of the state with individual con

War. some additions of territory and promised to assist Ferdinand viction, that toleration in the largest sense, so far as law was to recover any lands which had been taken from him by the concerned, was virtually conced This was the sole advantage Swedes, or by other focs. For this purpose a united army was gained from the war by the Protestants. The Catholics insisted to serve under an imperial general, and all leagues were to be at first on keeping all the ecclesiastical lands which had been dissolved. In spite of the diplomatic efforts of Sweden the treaty taken from them before the Edict of Restitution in 1629. The of Prague was accepted almost at once by the elector of Branden- Protestants responded by demanding that they should lose burg, the duke of Württemberg and other princes, and also by nothing which they had held before 1618, when the war began. several of the most important of the free cities. It was only, in A compromise was at last effected by both parties agreeing to the fact, the failure of Saxony and Sweden to come to terms which date 1624, an arrangement which secured to the Catholics their prevented a general peace in Germany. The Thirty Years' gains in Bohemia and the other territories of the house of War now took a different form. Its original objects were almost Habsburg. The restoration of the elector palatine to part of his forgotten and it was continued mainly to further the ambitionslands, and his reinstatement in the electoral office, were imof France, thus being a renewal of the great fight between portant concessions; but on the other hand, the duke of Bavaria the houses of Habsburg and of Bourbon, and to secure for kept the Upper Palatinate, the elector palatine becoming the Sweden some recompense for the efforts which she had put eighth and junior member of the electoral college. forward.

The country suffered enormous territorial losses by the war. While the signatories of the peace of Prague were making Up to this time the possession of Metz, Toul and Verdun by ready to assist the emperor the only Germans on the other side France had never been officially recognized; now were found in the army under Bernhard of Saxe- these bishoprics were formally conceded to her. She

territory. Weimar. The final stage of the war opened with con- also received as much of Alsace as belonged to Austria. Welmar.

siderable Swedish successes in the north of Germany, To the Swedes were granted Western Pomerania, with Stettin,

especially the signal victory gained by them over the and the archbishopric of Bremen and the bishopric of Verden. imperialists and the Saxons at Wittstock in October 1636.. At These acquisitions, which surpassed the advantages Gustavus the same time good fortune was attending the operations of the Adolphus had hoped to win, gave Sweden the command both of French in the Rhineland, where they were aided by Bernhard of the Baltic and of the North Sea. In virtue of her German possesSaxe-Weimar, a satisfactory financial arrangement between sions Sweden became a member of the Empire; but France these parties having been reached in the autumn of 1635. The obtained absolute control of her new territories. There was a year 1638 was an especially fortunate one for France and her further diminution of Germany by the recognition of the indeallies. Bernhard's capture of Rheinfelden and of Breisach gave pendence of Switzerland and the United Provinces. Both had them possession of the surrounding districts, but dissensions long been virtually free; they now for the first time took the arose concerning the division of the spoil; these, however, were position of distinct nations. stopped by the death of Bernhard in July 1639, when France In the political constitution of Germany the peace of Westtook his army into her pay. Thus the war continued, but the phalia did not so much make changes as sanction those already desire for peace was growing stronger, and this was reflected in cffected. The whole tendency of the Reformation had

The Refor the proceedings of the diet which met at Regensburg in 1640. been to relax the bonds which united the various Under Count Torstenssen the Swedes defcated the imperialists elements of the state to each other and to their head. and the at Breitenfeld in 1642; three years later they gained another It divided the nation into two hostile parties, and the political victory at Jankau and advanced almost to Vienna, and then the emperor was not able to assume towards them a

constitulast decisive move of the war was made by the great French perfectly impartial position. His imperial crown imgeneral, Turenne. Having been successfulin the Rhineland, where posed upon him the necessity of associating himself with the he had captured Philippsburg and Worms, Turenne joined his Roman Catholics; so that the Protestants had a new and powerforces to those of Sweden under Wrangel and advanced into ful reason for looking upon him with jealousy, and trying to Bavaria. Ravagingtheland, they compelled the elector Maximilian diminish his authority. The Roman Catholics, while maintaining to sign a truce and to withdraw his troops from the imperial army. their religion, were willing enough to co-operate with them for this When, however, the allied army had retired Maximilian repented object; and Germany often saw the strange spectacle of princes of his action. Again he joined the emperor, but his punishment rallying round the cmperor for the defence of the church, and at was swist and sure, as Turenne and Wrangel again marched into the same time striking deadly blows at his political influence. the electorate and defeated the Bavarians at Zusmarshausen, The diet was a scene of perpetual quarrelling between the two near Augsburg, in May 1648. A few minor operations followed, I factions, and their differences made it impossible for the imperial

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