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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

А

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XI

FRANCISCANS to GIBSON

NEW YORK
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1910

Ref
AE
5
E36
1910 3
Vill

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A B. R.

A. B. W. K.

A. Ca.

A. E. H.L

A. E. S.

A. Ge.

{Geology.

A. Go.

A. G. B.

A. G. D.

A. H. Sm.

ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S.

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Fruit.

Classificalion of Flowering Plants; &c.
SIR ALEXANDER BLACKIE WILLIAM KENNEDY, LL.D., F.R.S.
Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University College, London. Consulting

Friction.
Engineer to Board of Ordnance.
ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S.

Gauss.
See the biographical article, CAYLEY, ARTHUR.
AUGUSTUS EDWARD HOUGH LOVE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. Function: Fundions of
Fellow of Queen's College; formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Real Variables.

Secretary to the London Mathematical Society.
ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Rcader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Gastrotricha.

Joint-editor of the Cambridge Nalural History.
SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D.

See the biographical article, GeIKIE, SIR A.
REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

Franck, Sebastian; Gallars.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
Hon. ARCHIBALD GRAEME BELL, M.INST.C.E.

Georgetown, British
Director of Public and Inspector of Mines, Tri .Member Executive

Guiana.
and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E.
ARTHUR GEORGE DOUGHTY, C.M.G., M.A., LITT.D., F.R., Hist.S.

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. Frontenac et Palluau.
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating

to the Constitutional History of Canada.
ARTHUR HAMILTON SMITH, M.A., F.S.A.

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Gem: 11. (in part). •
Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue

of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.
REV. ALLEN MENZIES, D.D.

Free Church of Scotland
Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St Andrews. Author

(in part).
of History of Religion ; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy.
AGNES MARY CLERKE.

See the biographical article, CLERKE, AGNES M.
ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Frigate-Bird; Gadwall;
See the biographical article, NEWTON, ALFRED.

Gannet; Gare Fowl.
ALFRED NEAVE BRAYSHAW, LL.B.

Author of Bible Noles on the Hebrew Prophels.
ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Geometry: VI. (in part)
Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of

and VII.
A Treatise on Universal Algebra ; &c.
ALEXANDER Ross CLARKE, C.B., F.R.S.

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Royal Medallist, Royal Society, 1887. In charge of Geodesy (in port).

the trigonometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854-1881. ALEXANDER STUART MURRAY, LL.D.

Gem: II. (in part). See the biographical article, MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART.

Frederick II., Roman

Emperor;
ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.
Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn,

French Revolution:
1900.

Republican Calendar; Germany: History (in part

and Bibliography. 1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. N.*

A. N. C.

{Galileo

.

A. N.

A. N. B.

{Friends

, Society of

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A. W. W.

B. A. W. R.

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B. S. P.

C. B.*

C. D. W.

C. E.*

{ Geometry: History.

C. F. A.

C. H. Ha.

{
{

C. K. S.

C. MI.

C. M. K.

ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D.

{Garrick

, David (in part). See the biographical article, WARD, A. W. HON. BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL, M.A., F.R.S.

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Foundalions of Geometry: VL. (in part).

Geomelry; Principles of Mathematics; &c.
BERTHA SURTEES PHILPOTTS, M.A. (Dublin).

{Germany: Archaeology.
Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.
CHARLES BÉMONT, LITT.D. (Oxon.).

Fustel De Coulanges;
See the biographical article, BEMONT, C.

Gascony,
Hon. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT.

Friendly Societies:
See the biographical article, WRIGHT, Hon. CARROLL DAVIDSON.

United States.
CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Franco-German War

(in part); CHARLES FRANCIS ÀTKINSON.

French Revolutionary
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London Wars: Military
(Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

Operations;
Germany: Army;

Gibraltar: History,
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member Gelasius II.

of the American Historical Association. CLEMENT KING SHORTER.

Editor of The Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literalure; Immortal Gaskell, Elizabeth.

Memories; The Brontës, Life and Lellers; &c.
CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH.

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten: Garashanin.,

tiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900 and 1902-1903.
SIR CHARLES MALCOLM KENNEDY, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908).

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893. Lecturer on Inter-
national Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in the Levant, 1870-1871,
at Paris, 1872–1886. Þlenipotentiary.. Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor

Free Ports.
of Kennedy's Elhnological and Linguistic Essays; Diplomacy and International

Low.
CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ės.-L.

Franks;
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris.. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author
of Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duché mèrovingien d'Alsace et le legende Fredegond;
de Sainte-Odile.

Germanic Laws, Early.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography, Gerard of Cremona.
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
CLAUDE REGNIER CONDER, LL.D.

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of Palestine. Author Galileo (in part);

of The City of Jerusalem; The Bible and the East; The Hiltiles and their Language; &c. ( Galilee, Sea of (in part). Rev. CHARLES TAYLOR, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908).

Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor, Cambridge Geometrical Continuity.

University, 1887–1888. Author of Geometrical Conics; &c.
CECIL WEATHERLY.

Gate.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General Galloo, Sea of (in pari).
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korli to Khartoum; Life of

Lord Clive; &c.
DUGALD CLERK, M.INST.C.E., F.R.S.

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the Clerk Cycle Gas Gas Engino.

Engine.
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The

Fugue.
Classical Concerlo, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical

works.
DAVID HANNAY.

French Rovolutionary Wars:
Formerly British Vice-consul at Barcelona. Author of Shorl History of Royal - Naval Operations.
Navy, 1217-1088; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.

C. PL.

C. R. B.

C. R. C.

C. T.*

e {
{

C. Wo.

C. W. W.

D. C.

{

D. F. T.

D. H.

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