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of being handed over to the owner, captain, agent of the ship, or British Consul, subject always to rights of salvage.
His Highness' authorities shall further see that the British Consulate is at once informed of such disaster having occurred.
Should a British vessel, wrecked on the coast of His Highness' dominions, be plundered, the authorities of his Highness shall, as soon as they come to know thereof, render prompt assistance and take measures to pursue and punish the robbers, and recover the stolen property. Likewise, should a vessel of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, or of one of his subjects, enter a British port in distress, or be wrecked off the coast of Her Majesty's dominions, the like help and assistance shall be rendered by the British authorities.
XII. Should sailors or others belonging to a British ship of war or inerchant-vessel desert and take refuge on shore or on board of any of His Highness' ships, the authorities of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat shall, upon request of a Consular official, or, in bis absence, of the captain of the ship, take the necessary steps in order to have them arrested and delivered over to the Consular official or to the captain.
In this, however, the Consular officer and captain shall render every assistance.
XIII. Subjects of Her Britannic Majesty shall, as regards their person and property, enjoy within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat the rights of exterritoriality.
The authorities of His Highness the Sultan have no right to interfere in disputes with subjects of Her Britannic Majesty amongst themselves, or between them and members of other Christian nations ; such questions, whether of a civil or criminal nature, shall be decided by the competent Consular authorities. The trial and also the punishment of all offences and crimes of which British subjects may be accused within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan, also the hearing and settlement of all civil questions, claims, or disputes in which they are the defendants, is expressly reserved to the British Consular authorities and Courts, and removed from the jurisdiction of His Highness the Sultan.
Should disputes arise between subjects of His Highness the Sultan or other non-Christian Power, not represented by Consuls at Muscut, and a subject of Her Britannic Majesty, in which the British subject is the plaintiff or complainant, the matter shall be brought before and decided by the highest authority of the Sultan, or some person specially delegated by him for this purpose. The proceedings and final decision in such a case shall not, however, be considered legal unless notice has been given and an opportunity
afforded for the British Consul or his substitute to attend at the hearing and final decision.
XIV. Subjects of His Highness the Sultan, or any non-Christian nation, not represented by Consuls at Muscat, who are in the regular service of British subjects within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, shall enjoy the same protection as British subjects themselves.
Should they be charged with having committed a crime or serious offence punishable by law, they shall, on sufficient evidence being shown to justify further proceedings, be handed over by British employers, or by order of the British Consul, to the authorities of His Highness t!e Sultan for trial and punishment.
XV. Should a subject of Her Majesty residing in the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat be adjudicated bankrupt, the British Consul shall take possession of, recover, and realize all available property and assets of such bankrupt, to be dealt with and distributed according to the provisions of English Bankruptcy Law.
XVI. Should a subject of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat resist or evade payment of the just and rightful claims of a British subject, the authorities of His Highness the Sultan shall afford to the British creditor every aid and facility in recovering the amount due to him. In like manner the British Consul shall afford every aid and facility to subjects of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat in recovering debts justly due to them from a British subject.
XVII. Should a British subject die within the dominions of His Ilighness the Sultan of Muscat, or dying elsewhere leave property therein, movable or immovable, the British Consul shall be autho. rized to collect, realize, and take possession of the estate of the deceased, to be disposed of according to the provisions of English law.
XVIII. The houses, dwellings, warehouses, and other premises of British subjects, or of persons actually in their regular service, within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Muscat, shall not be entered, or searched under any pretext, by the officials of His Highness without the consent of the occupier, unless with the cognizance and assistance of the British Consul or his substitute.
XIX. It is hereby agreed between the two High Contracting Parties, that, in the event of an agreement being hereafter arrived at between His Highness the Sultan of Muscat and the various Powers with which His Highness shall be in Treaty relations, including Great Britain, which must be a consenting party, whereby the residents of a district or town shall, without distinction of nationality, be made subject to the payment of local taxes, for municipal and sanitary purposes, the same to be fixed and administered by or under the control of a special Board, nothing contained in this Treaty shall be understood so as to exempt British residents from the payment of such taxes.
XX. Subjects of the two High Contracting Parties shall, within the dominions of each other, enjoy freedom of conscience and religious toleration, the free and public exercise of all forms of religion, and the right to build edifices for religious worship.
XXI.* The stipulations of the present Trenty shall be applicable to all the Colonies and foreign possessions of Her Britannic Majesty so far as the laws permit, excepting to those hereinafter named, that is to say, except to
The Dominion of Canada.
Provided always that the stipulations of the present Treaty shall be made applicable to any of the above-named Colonies or foreign possessions, on whose behalf notice to that effect shall have been given by Her Britannic Majesty's Representative in Muscat to His Highness the Sultan within two years from the date of exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty.
XXII. The present Treaty has been executed in quadruplicate, two copies being written in English and two in Arabic. These are understood to be of similar import and signification; in the event, however, of doubt hereafter arising as to the proper interpretation of the English or Arabic text of one or other of the Treaty stipulations, the English text shall be considered decisive. The Treaty shall come into operation within one month after the date when the ratifications may take place.
XXIII. After the lapse of 12 years from the date on which this Treaty shall come into force, and on 12 months' notice given by either party, this Treaty shall be subject to revision by Plenipoten
• List of British Colonies which acceded to the Treaty under Article XXI: 1, Natal, October 23, 1892 ; 2, Queensland, December 15, 1892 ; 3, Newfoundsund, Decoraber 15, 1892 ; 4, Canada, April 11, 1893.
The following Colonies have not acceded to the Treaty: 1, Cape of Good Bope; 2, Victoria ; 3, Tasmania ; 4, Western Australia ; 5, New Zealand ; 6, New South Wales ; 7, South Australia.
tiaries appointed on both sides for this purpose, who shall be empowered to decide on and adopt such amendments as experience sball prove to be desirable.
In witness whereof Colonel Edward Charles Ross, C.S.I., on bebalf of fler Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress of India, and His Highness Seyyid Feysal-bin-Turki, Sultan of Muscat, on his own behalf, have signed the same and affixed thereto their respective seals.
Done at Muscat, this 19th day of March, 1891, corresponding to the 8th Shaaban of the year 1308 Hijreea. (L.S.) EDWARD CHARLES ROSS, Colonel, Political
Resident in the Persian Gulf. (L.S.) (Signature in Arabic of His Highness the Sultan
PROTOCOL (Mode of terminating Treaty of March 19, 1891).
Muscat, February 20, 1892.
The Undersigned in proceeding to the exchange of ratifications of the Treaty sigued at Muscat on the 19th March, 1891, between IIer Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and His Highness Seyyid Feysal-bin-Turki, Sultan of Muscat, have agreed to the present Protocol, which shall have the same force and validity as if it had been inserted in the body of the Treaty itself.
It is agreed that under Article XXIII of the said Treaty either of the High Contracting Parties shall be at liberty, after the expiration of 12 years from the date ou which the Treaty has come into force, to terminate the said Treaty at any time on giving 12 months' notice.
In witness whereof the Undersigned, duly authorized for the purpose, have signed the present Protocol, in quadruplicate, and have affixed thereto their seals. Done at Muscat, on the 20th day of February, 1892.
(L.S.) A. C. TALBOT, Lieutenant-Colonel,
Political Resident, Persian Gulf. (L.S.) (Signature in Arabic of His Highness
the Sultan of Muscat.)
PROTOCOLS between the Governments of Great Britain and
Italy, for the Demarcation of their respective Spheres of Influence in Eastern Africa.-Signed at Rome, March 24, 1891, and April 15, 1891.
No. 1.- Protocol signed on the 24th March, 1891. LES Soussignés,
Marquis de Dufferin et Ava, Ambassadeur de Sa Majesté la Reine du Royaume-Uni de la Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande, Impératrice des Indes; et
Marquis de Rudini, Président du Conseil et Ministre des Affaires Étrangères de Sa Majesté le Roi d'Italie;
Après mûr examen des intérêts respectifs des deux pays dans l'Afrique Orientale, sont convenus de ce qui suit:
1. La ligne de démarcation, dans l'Afrique Orientale, entre les sphères d'influence respectivement réservées à la Grande-Bretagne et à l'Italie, suivra, à partir de la mer, le “thalweg” du fleuve de Juba jusqu'au 6° de latitude nord, Kismayu avec son territoire à la droite du fleuve restant ainsi à l'Angleterre. La ligne suivra ensuite le parallèle 6° nord jusqu'au méridien 35° est Greenwich, qu'elle remontera jusqu'au Nil Bleu.
2. Si les explorations ultérieures venaient, plus tard, en indiquer l'opportunité, le tracé suivant le 6° latitude nord et le 350 longitude est Greenwich pourra, dans ses détails, être amendé d'un commun accord, d'après les conditions hydrographiques et orographiques de la contrée.
3. Il y aura, dans la station de Kismayu et son territoire, égalité de traitement entre sujets et protégés des deux pays,
leurs personnes, soit à l'égard de leurs biens, soit enfin en ce qui concerne l'exercice de toute sorte de commerce et industrie. Fait à Rome, en double exemplaire, le 24 Mars, 1891.
(L.S.) DUFFERIN AND AVA. (L.S.) RUDINI.
No. 2.- Protocol signed on the 15th April, 1891.
DÉSIRANT compléter, dans la direction du nord, jusqu'à la Mer Rouge, la démarcation des sphères d'influence respective, entre l'Angleterre et l'Italie, que les deux Parties ont déjà arrêtée, par le Protocole du 24 Mars dernier, depuis l'embouchure du Juba, dans l'Océan ludien, jusqu'à l'intersection du 35 longitude est Greenwich avec le Nil Bleu, les Soussignés :