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members of the Supreme Federal Court, and the latter the inferior Federal Judges.

Art. 58. The Federal Courts will elect their Presidents from among their members, and organize their respective Secretariats ("Secretarias").

§ 1. The appointment and dismissal of the officials of these Secretariats, as also the filling up of the minor offices of the Courts within their judicial circuits, respectively concerns Presidents of the Courts.

$ 2. The President of the Republic will nominate from among the members of the Supreme Federal Tribunal the AttorneyGeneral of the Republic, whose functions will be defined by law.

Art. 59. It is the province of the Supreme Federal Tribunal :1. To prosecute and try in the first instance and exclusively

(a.) The President of the Republic, in the case of ordinary crimes, and Ministers of State in the cases mentioned in Article 52;

(6.) Diplomatic Ministers, in cases of ordinary crimes and breaches of duty ;

(c.) Disputes and conflicts of jurisdiction between the Union and the States, or between the States themselves ;

(d.) Suits and claims between foreign nations and the Union or the States;

(e.) The conflicts of jurisdiction between Federal Judges and Courts among themselves, or between them and those of the States, as also between the Judges and Courts of one State and those of another State.

2. To try, on appeal, cases decided by the Federal Judges and Courts, as also those treated of in § 1 of this Article and in Article 60.

3. To revise, trials that are terminated, in the terms of Article 81.

§ 1. There will be an appeal in the last instance from the sentences of the States' Judiciaries to the Supreme Federal Court

(a.) When there is a question as to the validity or application of Federal Treaties and Laws, and the decision of the State Tribunal is against such validity or application;

(6.) When the validity of Laws or Acts of the States' Goveriiments is disputed, in view of the provisions of the Constitution or of Federal Laws, and the decision of the State Court considers the Acts in question to be valid, or the laws to have been violated.

§ 2. In cases where the States' Laws have to be applied, the Federal Judiciary will consult the jurisprudence of the local Courts, and vice versa the States' Judiciary will consult the jurisprudence of the Federal Courts when laws of the Uuion have to be interpreted.

Art. 60. It is the province of the Federal Judges or Courts to try the following cases :-

(a.) Suits in which one of the parties founds his action or defence on a provision of the Federal Constitution ;

(6.) All suits instituted against the Government of the Union, or against the National Treasury, which are based on provisions of the Constitution, Laws, or Regulations of the Executive Power, or on contracts entered into with the above-named Government;

(c.) Suits arising out of compensations, claims for recovery, indemnities for loss, or any other suits instituted by the Union Government, against private individuals, or vice versa ;

(d.) Suits between one State and citizens of another, or between citizens of different States, where the laws of the latter vary ;

(e.) Suits between foreign States and Brazilian citizens;

(f.) Actions instituted by foreigners, and based either on contracts with the Union Government, or on Conventions or Treaties between the Union and other nations ;

(g.) Questions of maritime law and of navigation, either on the ocean, or on the rivers or lakes of the country ;

(h.) Questions of criminal or civil international law ; (i.) Political crimes.

$1. Congress is prohibited from iutrusting any Federal jurisdiction to the Judiciaries of the States.

$ 2. The sentences and orders of the Federal Magistracy are to be executed by judicial officers of the Union, to whom the local police are bound to render help when they ask for it.

Art. 61. The decisions of the Judges and Courts of the States, in matters within their jurisdiction, will put an end to suits and questions, except as regards

1. The habeas corpus;

2. The property of deceased foreigners, when the case is not provided for by a Convention or Treaty;

In such cases there will be the option of an appeal to the Supreme Federal Tribunal.

Art. 62. The States' Judiciaries may not interfere in questions -ubmitted to the Federal Courts, nor may they annul, change, or suspend the sentences or orders of the latter. And, reciprocally, the Federal Judiciary may not interfere in questions submitted to the State Courts, nor annul, change, or suspend the decisions or orders of the latter, excepting in the cases expressly mentioned in this Constitution.

TITLE II.-Of the States. Art. 63. Each State will be governed by the Constitution, and by the laws it may adopt, observing the constitutional principles of the Union.

Irt. 64. Mines and waste lands are the property of the States in which they are situated, the Union reserving so much land only as is necessary for frontier defences, fortifications, and Federal military works and railways.

$. National real property not required for Union purposes will belong to the State in which it may be situated.

Art. 65. The States are free

1. To conclude among themselves Treaties and Conventions of a non-political nature (Article 48, No. 16).

2. To exercise, in general, each and every power or right which is not denied them by an express clause, or one implicitly contained in an express clause, of the Constitution.

Art. 66. The States are precluded from—

1. Refusing recognition to documents of the Union, or of other States, of a legislative, administrative, or judicial character ;

2. Rejecting coin or bank-notes in circulation by order of the Federal Government ;

3. Waging or declaring war among themselves, or using reprisals;

4. Refusing the extradition of criminals claimed by the Judiciaries of other States, or by the Federal District, in accordance with the L'nion laws which regulate matters of this nature (Article 34,

No. 32).

Art. 67. Saving restrictions specified in the Constitution and in the Federal laws, the Federal District will be administered by its municipal authorities.

$. Expenditure of a local nature in the Federal capital solely concerns the municipal authorities.

TITLE III.- Of the Municipalities, Art. 68. The States will organize themselves in such a way as to guarantee the autonomy of the municipalities in all that concerns their particular interests.

TITLE 1V.–Of Brazilian Citizens.
Section 1.-Of the Qualifications of Brazilian Citizenship.
Art. 69. The following are Brazilian citizens :-

1. Persons born in Brazil, even of a foreign father, if the latter be not residing in Brazil) in the service of his country;

2. Children of a Brazilian father and illegitimate children of a Brazilian mother born in a foreign country, if they have established their domicile in the Republic ;

3. Children of a Brazilian father who is in the service of the Republic in a foreign country, even if they do not come and reside in the Republic;

4. Foreigners who, having been in Brazil on the 15th November, 1889, shall not have declared, within six months after the Constitution comes into force, their intention to retain their original nationality;

5. Foreigners who possess real property in Brazil, and who have married Brazilian women, or have Brazilian children, so long as they reside in Brazil, unless they announce their intention of not changing their nationality;

6. Foreigners otherwise naturalized.

Art. 70. Citizens of twenty-one years of age who are registered according to law are electors.

§ 1. The following cannot be registered as electors for the Federal or State elections :

(1.) Mendicants;
(2.) Illiterate persons ;

(3.) Non-commissioned officers, soldiers, or sailors, excepting pupils of military schools for higher military education,

(4.) Members of monastic orders, companies, congregations, or communities, of whatsoever denomination, who are subject to a vow of obedience, rule, or Statute, which involves the renuuciatiou of individual liberty.

§ 2. Citizens disqualified from registration (as electors) are ineligible.

Art. 71. The rights of Brazilian citizenship are suspended or lost only in the following cases :

$ 1. They are suspended -
(a.) Through physical or moral incapacity ;

(b.) Through a criminal sentence, as long as the effects thereof last.

$ 2. They are lost-
(a.) Through naturalization in a foreign country;

(6.) Through acceptance of employment or pension from a foreign Government without the consent of the Federal Executive Power.

$ 3. A Federal Law will settle the conditions on which the rights of Brazilian citizenship may be re-acquired.

Section 2.-Declaration of Rights.

Art. 72. The Constitution insures to Brazilians and foreiguers resident in the country the inviolability of their rights with regard to liberty, personal safety, and property, in the following terms:

$ 1. No one can be forced to do anything, or to desist from doing anything, except by virtue of a law.

$ 2. All men are equal in the eyes of the law.

The Republic does not admit of any privileges of birth, or recognize any prerogatives of nobility, and abolishes all existing orders of werit, their prerogatives and insignia, as also all titles of nobility and titles of Councillor.

$ 3. All persons and religious professions may publicly and freely exercise their religion, forming Associations for this purpose, and acquiring property, so long as they observe the provisions of the ordinary law.

$ 4. The Republic only recognizes civil marriage, the celebration of which shall be gratuitous.

$ 5. Cemeteries will possess a secular character, and will be administered by the municipal authority, the exercise of their respective rites being free to all religions, provided they do not offend public morals or the laws.

$ 6. The teaching in the public schools will be secular.

$ 7. No religion or Church will receive an official subvention, nor bave relations of dependence or alliance with the Government of the Union or that of the States.

$ 8. It is lawful for all to associate and unite freely without arms, and the police cannot interfere except to preserve order.

$ 9. Any one is allowed to make a representation by means of a petition to the public powers to denounce abuses on the part of the authorities, and to promote the calling to account of those who are guilty.

$ 10. In time of peace any one may enter or leave the country with his fortune and property, it such time and in such manner as he likes, without a passport.

§ 11. The house is the inviolable asylum of the private individual; nobody may enter it at night without the consent of the occupant, except to render assistance to the victims of crimes or accidents, por during the daytime, except in the cases and in the manner prescribed by law.

$ 12. The expression of opinion on any subject through the press or the platform is free, without being subject to censorship, every one being answerable for the abuses he may commit in the cases and in the manner prescribed by lax. Anonymity is forbidden.

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