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arms, and, finding him fast asleep in a café, shot him dead and made good his escape, although two Albanian gendarmes were not very far from the scene of the crime.

The mother of the Christian young girl who was abducted in the village of Maroula (vide my despatch of the 24th March last), has handed, a few days ago, petitions to the Vali and to the Consuls, asking assistance for the discovery of her under-age daughter, who is still missing.

The Mussulmans state that the Christian young girl in question was sent to Boudroum, but the Christians maintain that she is still kept concealed in the town of Rethymo. This abduction is in retaliation for that of an under-age Mussulman young girl, which took place last year in the same district, and who is in Greece since that time.

As I am writing I receive a telegram from Candia, informing me that in Monofatsi a priest was found murdered, and his head cut off.

I have, &c., The Marquess of Salisbury.


No. 62.-Consul Biliotti to the Marquess of Salisbury.-(Received

June 16.) MY LORD,

Canea, Crete, June 5, 1891. With reference to the murder at Monofatsi of a priest, whose head was cut off, which I reported at the end of my despatch of the 26th ultimo, I have the honour to report that the Vali had given immediate orders that the property of the murderers who were known should be sequestered, their relatives imprisoned until the apprehension of the guilty parties, and the Mussulmans of that village disarmed. His Excellency told me that he would be glad if our Vice-Consul would report to me, for his information, whether his orders had been punctiliously carried out or not. The Mutessarif of Candia proceeded to the scene of the murder, and succeeded in arresting the Mussulman murderers, who were two brothers, Moustafa and Ibrahiin Pstaehtaiakides, from the village of Soures. The priest, who belonged to the village of Stavges, was called Giorgi Papadoyanni, and had had a previous difference with the murderers concerning some landed property. But the Governor of Candia having captured the assassins did not think it necessary to sequester their property, or to disarm the Mussulman inhabitants of Soures. I reported the fact to Djevad Pasha, who had not yet received detailed information from the Mutessarif, but who appeared inclined to have his original instructions fully carried out.

About a fortnight ago the Christian community at Candia bad held a meeting at the Archbishop's palace, and elected three delegates, who were to come to an understanding with the Christian community of Rethymo, and come here to consult with Djevad Pasha for devising means to secure the public tranquillity of the island. But it having been given out that the Vali, who had proceeded to Rethymo, would proceed as far as Candia, the departure of the delegates was postponed, while his Excellency's journey did not extend further than Rethymo.

The object of the Vali's visit to that town was to inquire into the murder last week, on the confines of the district of Amari, of four Mussulmans (one of whom was a boy of 10 years of age) out of a party of seven who were proceeding from their native town of Rethymo to a village for the purpose of dividing lands they had just inherited, and who were shot dead on the road by several Christians who were lying in ambush. The head of one of the victims had been cut off. It was stated that this crime had been committed by outlaws; but this does not appear to be the case, as, on information given by the surviving Mussulmans, seventeen native Christians have been imprisoned on suspicion.

This quadruple murder of quiet individuals, against whom there was no motive for revenge, having produced a very deep impression all over the island, the Vali went at once to Rethymo, where the feeling was naturally more intense than elsewhere, in order to prevent retaliation on the part of his co-religionists. He told them that, if they took the law into their own hands, being in the minority, they would not only suffer themselves, but that their conduct would be a sort of treason towards the Imperial Government, and that they could be sure that no other Mussulman Vali would ever be appointed in the island if he were not more successful than a Christian Governor in maintaining the public security. He engaged them at the same time to send out of the island (as the Christians had done with their co-religionists) the Mussulman outlaws. This they may do, but the watchword among both Christians and Mussulmans being lite for life, it is hardly to be expected that, sooner or later, no retaliation will follow on the part of the Turks. If the Mussulman village to which the murderers of the priest at Monofatsi belong were disarmed, the same measure could be adopted in the Christian village of the Rethymo district, where the murder of the four Mussulmans was committed.

Next to capital punishment, the confiscation of arms is the greatest check against murder that can be put on Cretans. A general disarmament of the population could not be carried out without effusion of blood; but the confiscation of arms from villages near the scenes of murder is easy, and as assassinations are of daily occurrence, the local disarmament, if strictly and impartially enforced, will amount in a not very remote period of time to a general disarmament, unless murders are entirely checked by the measure,

While at Rethynio, Djevad Pasha caused to be imprisoned the two Mussulmans who had taken part in the elopement of a Christian girl at Maroula, near Rethymno, and who had been released by the Procureur Impérial.

I have, &c., The Marquese of Salisbury.


No. 63.-Consul Biliotti to the Marquess of Salisbury.—(Received

June 16.) My LORD,

Canea, Crete, June 8, 1891. On Thursday last the Administrative Council was called on to elect new members to the Court of Appeal, the time of those hitherto in office having expired. The Vali told the Administrative Council that they were to reject the candidature of all Cretans coming under the following exceptions :-

1. Those who had resigned their post since the year 1891;

2. Those who had refused to accept offices offered to them by the Local Government within the same period;

3. Those who had taken refuge in Greece after the late disturbances;

4. Practising lawyers; and 5. Foreign subjects.

His Excellency is said to bave proposed several candidates, three of whom (two Christians and one Mussulman) were elected by the Administrative Council, and three of the former members were maintained in their functions. The choice, although not bad, might have been better; but the complaints of Christians (most of whom are now willing to accept office) are in proportion to the number of disappointed candidates, and they think that the new Court will only be a tool in the bands of the present Vali.

This Court is now called upon to elect the Judges of the Courts of First Instance, and the members of these Tribunals may be as acceptable as those of the Court of Appeal. However, all these arrangements can only be, and are only, considered as simply temporary, and as being far from answering the requirements of the island. A radical reform is indispensable.

I have heard a rumour to the effect that the Administrative Councillors having resigned last year, and baving been reappointed by an order of the Porte, and not by an Iradé, they hold their offices illegally; and hence it follows that the elections they bave just made of Judges to the Court of Appeal, and those which the latter are going to make of Judges of the Lower Courts, are as illegal. Should this assertion be true, there would be such an amount of litigation in the future that the question should be cleared up and arranged before the evil is allowed to make further progress.

I have, &c., The Marquess of Salisbury.


No. 64.-Consul Biliotti to the Marquess of Salisbury.—(Received

June 23.) MY LORD,

Canea, Crete, June 15, 1891. I have the honour to report that Giorgi Kladapoulo, the brother of the Christian young girl Eleni Kladapoulo, who had gone after her to Constantinople, having just returned here, has informed me that on her arrival at the capital his sister was taken and handed to the Greek Patriarch at once by the Albanian officer of gendarmerie in whose charge she had been given by the Vali, and that a few days after, having been called to the Porte, where, in the presence of the Dragoman of the Hellenic Legation, she declared that she was a Christian, she was handed to her brother and conveyed by him to Greece, where he left her.

When in the dress of a Turkish womai), unattended by any of her relatives, and in charge of a Mussulman officer, Eleni Kladapoulo was embarked on board one of the Mahsoussé steamers, the officers and crews of which are all Mussulnians, the Christians were convinced that she would be shut up in some Turkish harem at Constantinople, and never be heard of again.

The straightforward course followed by Djevad Pasha in this case has produced a most satisfactory impression among the Christian community, and great credit is due to him for having given strict instructions to the officer who accompanied her as to insure her safe arrival to her destination.

His Excellency was fortunate to hit upon an officer who carried out these instructions to the letter, which is not always the case here.

Giorgi Kladapoulo added that the Greek Patriarch had received no information whatever concerning the case of his sister, and that the Albanian officer had to find the Patriarchate by inquiring along the road.

I have, &c., The Marquess of Salisbury.


No. 65.—Consul Biliotli to the Marquess of Salisbury.—(Received

June 30.) (Extract.)

Cane a, Crete, June 19, 1891. I have the honour to report that the last twelve outlaws of the fifty-one who had arrived from Greece, and who were still on the island (vide my despatch of the 26th ultimo), have returned last week to that country, together with three individuals who had comunitted murders recently. A few weeks ago a Christian was killed by some of his co-religionists at Tsitsifes, A pokorona, and another at Platania, Cydonia, in a quarrel.

The authors of the murder of four Mussulmans at Rethymo, which I reported in my despatch of the 5th instant, have not been discovered; but it would appear that a few weeks back six or seven outlaws from Greece landed at Mylopotamo, and that they committed the crime. Since that date a Mussulman going from Candia to Rethymo has been found murdered on the road, and two Christian shepherds (the details of which case I shall report is a separate despatch) have been shot dead in the same province by a fying column of soldiers, and a vative Mussulman gendarme who accomponied them. The widows of the victims have handed addresses to Djevad Pasha and to the Vice-Consuls at Rethymo. The Mussulman outlaw Mazlounaki has been sent to Egypt by his co-religionists in the town of Rethymo.

According to a Petition from the Notabilities of the districts of Monofatsi (Candia) and Rigo (Sassithi), the inhabitants of the village of Harakas, on the confines of the two districts, have had much suffering under the following circumstances :

A known Mussulman criminal named Bitsazali, from Dioniso, together with a companion, having gone to Harakas, proffered insulting words against the Christians sitting in the café, and having tried to make use of his revolver, was shot at by one of the bystanders, but was so slightly wounded on the forehead that his wound did not prevent his leaving the village.

This incident having given rise to the rumour that Bitsazali had been murdered, the Mussulmans of the surrounding villages came in numbers to Harakas threatening the destruction of the Christian property, which had a beginning of execution in the cutting down of a few trees, the wrecking of a few beehives, &c., and which was prevented from extending further by the timely arrival of the Mussulman Governor of the district, who, however, is accused of baving said that Christians had only what they deserved.

The day following the Mutessarif of Candia arrived with 200 soldiers, and ordered the disarmament of the inhabitants, which

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