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the prevention of such incidents. I thereupon repeated along similar lines my previous explanation of the inability of the American Government to exert control in such matters.
I may add that although the Prime Minister gave the impression of feeling that the matter was sufficiently serious to call for formal protest he did not ask that anything be done other than to transmit the protest to the American Government, nor was there evidence of strong resentment in his attitude except in referring to the author of the article. The Prime Minister said he was convinced that the article was not written by the person under whose name it was published but by a certain person known to him who was very familiar with Egypt and the Near East.
883.00/1167 : Telegram
The Acting Secretary of State to the Chargé in Egypt (Hare)
WASHINGTON, March 24, 1941–7 p. m. 61. Your 125, March 18, 5 p. m. You are requested to inform the Prime Minister that the Department has carefully examined the article in Foreign Affairs to which exception has been taken by the Egyptian Government, and is in full agreement as to the regrettable and untrue nature of certain passages therein. You should state that the general position in which this Government is placed with respect to a matter of this kind is precisely as was explained to the Prime Minister by the Chargé d'Affaires ad interim on March 18, and that it is desired to approve and to confirm the latter's remarks on that occasion. You should add that this particular incident is a source of especially deep regret to this Government in view of the prevailing respect and admiration in which His Majesty is held in the United States, and the ties of sincere friendship and the cooperative relations which have long existed between the two countries.
The attitude of the Egyptian Government and the Department's views regarding the article are being brought forcefully to the attention of the editor of the publication in question.
883.00/1173 : Telegram
The Chargé in Egypt (Hare) to the Secretary of State .
CAIRO, March 28, 1941–3 p. m.
[Received March 29–4:52 p. m.] 156. Referring to the Department's telegram No. 61, March 24, 7 p. m., in the absence of the Prime Minister from Cairo I advised the Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs yesterday in the sense of the Department's telegram. The Under Secretary appeared to be pleased by the message and immediately and in my presence telephoned its substance to the Chief of the Royal Cabinet with favorable comment.
On the return of the Prime Minister the matter will also be taken up with him by the Minister who presents his letter of credence tomorrow.
883.00/1176 : Telegram
The Minister in Egypt (Kirk) to the Secretary of State
CAIRO, March 30, 1941–3 p. m.
[Received March 31–8:30 a. m.] 160. Referring to the Legation's telegram No. 156, March 28, 3 p. m. I have today received a letter from the Prime Minister expressing hearty appreciation of the Department's views regarding the article in Foreign Affairs as expressed to the Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs on March 27 and asking that I convey to the Department the grateful thanks of the Egyptian Government for bring. ing the views of the Egyptian and American Governments strongly to the attention of the editor of Foreign Affairs.
740.0011 European War 1939/13225 Memorandum of Conversation, by the Assistant Secretary of
[WASHINGTON,] June 30, 1941. The Egyptian Minister 59 came in this afternoon at his own request. He handed me the attached response which he had written 60 to an article which appeared in PM and which he described as being very detrimental to the good reputation of Egypt, its Royal Family and its Government. He asked me for advice because the article had not been published.
I replied that I was sorry to say that the Department could not be of any particular help to him and that each newspaper had printed what it saw fit. The Department had no control over the newspapers or of any article they might publish. I told him that the same newspaper had been very critical of officers of the Department of State, referring to several articles, and told him that I thought that he had done all that he could first, by consulting officers of the Department, second, by writing the article in response to the critical matter, and third, when the newspaper failed to publish his reply, to be able to state to his Government that he had again approached the Department of State on the subject, but that the Department was unable to be of assistance.
59 Mahmoud Hassan Bey. 60 Not printed.
893.00/1201 Memorandum of Telephone Conversation, by Mr. Gordon P. Merriam of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
[WASHINGTON,] July 1, 1941. Responding to my question whether he had seen the article by Judge Crabites 61 entitled "Britain's Debt to King Farouk”, published in the July 1941 issue of Foreign Affairs, the Minister said that he had and that he considered it a very fine article. He was, he said, sending two copies of the review to his Government, and he informed me that another article by Judge Crabites was about to appear in another magazine. The Minister had sent for some copies and promised to loan me one.
I then asked the Minister whether anything had happened with reference to his difficulties with PM and Life. Hassan Bey said that he had discussed the matter with Mr. Long, who had advised him to forget about it, pointing out that PM had also attacked both Mr. Long himself and Mr. Berle.62 The Minister said laughingly that he was therefore prepared to follow Mr. Long's advice and to drop the matter, and that he would so inform his Government. He had not even received an acknowledgment of his communications to these publications, but whereas last week he had spoken of their discourtesy with considerable umbrage, today he dismissed the matter with a laugh.
The Minister appeared to appreciate my calling him to tell him of the Foreign Affairs article.
REPRESENTATIONS TO THE EGYPTIAN GOVERNMENT REGARDING PROPOSED RESTRICTIONS ON AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN EGYPT; LIST OF AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS IN EGYPT
The Secretary of State to the Chargé in Egypt (Hare) No. 537
WASHINGTON, March 7, 1941. Sir: Reference is made to the Legation's despatch No. 2282 of December 21, 1940,63 and to previous correspondence concerning the list
61 Pierre Crabites, American judge on the Mixed Courts in Egypt, 1911–36.
Adolf A. Berle, Jr., Assistant Secretary of State. 4* Not printed.
of American institutions to be transmitted to the Egyptian Government in accordance with the exchange of letters of Montreux on May 8, 1937.64
The Legation's action in transmitting a tentative list to the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs is approved.
As regards furnishing the Egyptian Government with supplementary information concerning American educational, medical and charitable institutions in Egypt, the Department's instruction No. 470 of June 6, 1940,65 authorized the Legation in its discretion to forward such information to the Foreign Office. However, it is not clear what purpose the Egyptian authorities have in mind in desiring information under certain headings such as properties and curricula. It may be desirable to consider this matter in connection with the fact that foreign, including American, educational institutions in Egypt have recently been under pressure from Egyptian officials with respect to the character and methods of teaching.
Accordingly, the Legation is requested to consult discreetly with American educational leaders and British Embassy officials with a view to submitting to the Department a recommendation as to whether or not the supplementary information, when compiled, should be accompanied by a note embodying an interpretation of the letters exchanged at Montreux. If the Legation considers that a note of this character would be desirable, it is requested to forward a suggested text for the Department's consideration and approval. Very truly yours,
For the Secretary of State:
A. A. BERLE, JR.
The Minister in Egypt (Kirk) to the Secretary of State
CAIRO, April 24, 1941–9 a. m.
[Received April 25—9:15 a. m.] 323. My 194, December [April] 5, 3 p. m.65 As reported in Legation's despatch no. 2332  of January 30, 1941,65 a series of conferences was instituted last October between the Ministry for Education and certain foreign educational groups, including the American University and the American Mission, regarding certain aspects of instruction in foreign educational institutions. According to American participants in the conferences, agreement was reached on a number of points including Government inspection and examinations and special studies for Egyptian nationals. Although misgivings developed at times during the conferences regarding an
See Department of State Treaty Series No. 939, p. 69, or 53 Stat. (pt. 3) 1705. 85 Not printed.
apparent disposition of the Government to interfere unduly with foreign schools the only points on which the views of the Egyptian and foreign representatives were so divergent as to necessitate the submission of minority reports were in respect of personnel and religious instruction.
The meetings terminated on March 11 with a general conference at which a report was submitted setting forth the views of the Government as constituting the findings of the various committees and ignoring the dissenting views of the foreign representatives. This brought forth a joint note signed by 9 of the 11 foreign institutions represented, including the afore-mentioned American organizations, to the Minister of Education 66 on March 14th protesting particularly against the following recommendation of the committee: "No religion other than their own shall be taught to students, not even with the formal consent of their parents; this principle is of public order.”
However despite this protest articles obviously originating from Government sources appeared in the press indicating that complete agreement had been reached between the Government and foreign school representatives. The schools attempted to counteract these reports by sending letters of denial to the press but Dr. Watson 67 states that the Arabic press refused to publish these letters.
Since the representatives of the various foreign schools felt that the foregoing developments indicated an attitude which deliberately ignored the considerations set forth by them they prepared a further protest challenging the basic status of the conferences, maintaining that the meetings had been for conferential purposes only, that the delegates of the foreign schools had no representative status and claiming unimpaired their rights under the Montreux Convention.68 Furthermore the foreign schools professed to see their fears further justified when on March 21 announcement was made in the press of certain regulations being prepared by the Ministry of Education to amend Law 40 of 1934 governing private schools. The representatives of American schools profess to find these regulations even more objectionable than the unfavorable report of the general committee.
Although it is probable that certain of the objections which the representatives of American educational institutions entertain in respect of the proposed draft amendments might be difficult to support it would nevertheless appear that some of the amendments as drafted might be construed as infringing certain of the rights guaranteed American schools under the Montreux Convention. Following conferences between the Legation and the heads of the leading American
Mohamed Hussein Heikal.
68 Convention regarding the abolition of the capitulations in Egypt, signed at Montreux, May 8, 1937; Department of State Treaty Series No. 939, or 53 Stat. (pt. 3) 1645.