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eration, perhaps even involving Syria, would mitigate against the success of the Palestine experiment and might even prejudice the results already achieved.
For reasons of policy as well as for reasons of expediency, I consider it in the highest degree important that everything be done by this Government to prevent Jewish groups within the United States from opposing the British war effort, or from adding in any way to the obstacles already confronted by the British Government in the Near East. For that reason I shall continue to keep in close touch with Dr. Wise and his associates with the hope that misunderstandings between the Zionist movement in this country and the British Government can be at least minimized, if not altogether avoided.
The Under Secretary of State (Welles) to Rabbi Stephen S. Wise
[WASHINGTON,] October 8, 1941. MY DEAR DR. WISE: I wish to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of September 26, 1941. I have noted your remarks regarding the possibility of political changes in the Near East, and I shall be glad to send you information on the subject as soon as possible. Sincerely yours,
SUMNER WELLES SAUDI ARABIA
UNWILLINGNESS OF THE UNITED STATES TO EXTEND FINANCIAL
ASSISTANCE TO SAUDI ARABIA
Mr. James A. Moffett ? to President Roosevelt
WASHINGTON, April 16, 1941. MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: Referring to the interview which you so kindly granted me on Wednesday, April 9th, and in line with your request, I am attaching hereto a memorandum covering the existing situation in Saudi Arabia. Also a proposal which we hope will be acceptable as a means of providing funds for the Saudi Arabian Government.
Our representatives have had numerous conferences with the King. His financial situation is desperate. The British Government has advanced him four hundred thousand pounds and he is endeavoring to have this increased to nine hundred thousand pounds. His budget requirement is conservatively estimated at $10,000,000.
You referred to the four Danish tank steamers which might be utilized to transport finished petroleum products. If the United States Government will advance to the King of Saudi Arabia $6,000,000 annually for the next five years, the Calarabian Standard Oil Company : will agree to deliver to the United States Government, for account of the King:
1,800,000 bbls. of Gasoline
F.O. B. Ship
* For additional material relating to this subject, see Hearings Before a Special Committee Investigating the National Defense Program, Part 41, Petroleum Arrangements With Saudi Arabia, U. S. Senate, 80th Cong., 1st sess., on S. Res. 46 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1948).
2 Chairman of the board of directors of the Bahrein Petroleum Co., Ltd. (incorporated in Canada) and of its subsidiary, the California Texas Oil Co., Ltd. (incorporated in the Bahamas). Mr. Moffett, at this time, was acting in the interests of the California Arabian Standard Oil Co. (incorporated in Delaware), which was developing an oil concession in Saudi Arabia. All of these aforementioned companies were jointly owned by Standard Oil Co. of California and the Texas Corp. (name of the latter company changed to the Texas Co. late in 1941). Abbreviation for the California Arabian Standard Oil Co.
totalling approximately $6,000,000 worth of petroleum products annually.
The King's normal revenue (from pilgrimage and customs) has practically disappeared. His expenses have very materially increased, not only on account of the war, but due to the drought this past year, so that he has been forced to feed two or three hundred thousand of his subjects.
I sincerely trust that some way may be found under existing legislation to provide King Ibn Saud financial assistance, which he so urgently needs in order to maintain his government in a stable condition. We believe that unless this is done, and soon, this independent kingdom, and perhaps with it the entire Arab world, will be thrown into chaos. Yours very sincerely,
(Original signed by J. A. Moffett)
Memorandum by Mr. James A. Moffett for President Roosevelt
[WASHINGTON,] April 16, 1941. King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia formerly depended largely on the revenue from the pilgrimage and customs duties to finance his government. Due to the war, this revenue has been reduced to a negligible amount.
The only economic resources of any substantial value of Saudi Arabia are its oil resources, the development of which has been seriously interfered with on account of the war.
The King has privately expressed himself, and we believe sincerely, as strongly pro-Ally. No other man in the Arab countries, nor among Moslems the world over, commands prestige equal to his. In order to feed and maintain control of his people, which is essential to maintain his prestige in the Arab world elsewhere and to prepare, even in a moderate way, for equipping his own soldiers for service, he estimates that he will require $10,000,000 per annum until the emergency has passed and he recently demanded that the California Arabian Standard Oil Company supply him with $6,000,000 during the year 1941. In addition to this, the British have promised him 400,000 pounds sterling during 1941, which he hopes to increase to 900,000 pounds.
Based on the best information which we have been able to obtain, it is our opinion that the King's estimate of $10,000,000 for this year is moderate and close to a minimum figure for essential expenditures.
The California Arabian Standard Oil Company owns an oil concession in Arabia consisting of approximately 162,000,000 acres and
embracing all the probable oil territory of the country. This area is approximately equal in size to the states of California and Oregon. The original concession was acquired in 1933 and runs until 1993; the remaining area was acquired in 1939 and runs until 1999. The company is of American nationality and 50% is owned by the Standard Oil Company of California and 50% by the Texas Corporation. These two companies between them have approximately 160,000 American stockholders.
The development work commenced in 1933 and to date the company has discovered on three structures an estimated 750,000,000 barrels of crude oil reserves and there are many other structures of considerable promise on this concession. The Calarabian Standard Oil Company has so far spent approximately $27,500,000 on this development. In addition, the company has advanced to the King against future royalties $6,800,000. It has now come to a point where it is impossible for the company to continue the growing burden and responsibility of financing an independent country, particularly under present abnormal conditions. However, the King is desperate. He has told us that unless necessary financial assistance is immediately forthcoming, he has grave fears for the stability of his country.
PROPOSAL 1. We propose that the United States Government purchase from the Saudi Arabia Government finished petroleum products to the value of six million dollars annually for a period of five years.
2. The Company will contract with the King to produce, manufacture and load such products for his account at a Persian Gulf port.
3. The King will waive royalty on an amount of crude oil corresponding at current royalty rate to $6,000,000.
4. The Products taken under this arrangement, except that taken for use by the U. S. Navy or other U. S. Government purposes within the area, would have to be moved outside an area approximately defined as follows: Egypt, the east coast of Africa, South Africa, Australasia, India, the Straits Settlements, China, Japan and possibly the Philippines.
5. We suggest that for the purpose of determining the quantity of products due under this arrangement an agreement be reached as to the prices of certain products to be supplied over an agreed period.
6. We suggest that our State Department approach the British not only to increase the amount of money which the British have been advancing to the King, amounting to 400,000 pounds sterling per year, but also to request the British to continue to make such advances in sufficient amount, which, added to those made by the United States Government, plus any other revenue received by the King: will total approximately $10,000,000 per year.
Any British advances should be on a political and military basis and should not involve their getting any oil from this concession, the British at the present time being well supplied from Iran, Iraq, and Bahrain, etc.
890F.51/483 Memorandum by the Chief of the Division of Near Eastern Affairs
(Murray) to the Secretary of State
[WASHINGTON,] April 21, 1941. MR. SECRETARY: In the attached papers * Mr. Moffett states that unless King Ibn Saud receives financial assistance at once there is grave danger that this independent Arab Kingdom cannot survive the present emergency. Mr. Moffett therefore proposes :
(1) That we urge the British Government to increase from £400,000 to £900,000 the payment which they are making to the King in 1941.
(2) That the United States Government agree to purchase from King Ibn Saud petroleum products to the value of $6,000,000 annually for the next five years.
(a) Mr. Moffett believes that some of this petroleum could be consumed by the United States Navy or other Government agencies.
(6) However, that part of the oil not used by the Government would have to be marketed outside the Pacific area, presumably through private channels. In practice this would mean that, as conditions are at present, the only marketing area would be the
Western Hemisphere. Comment:
Although our own information regarding the financial situation in Saudi Arabia is not precise (we have no representative permanently resident in Saudi Arabia), we do know that the King's finances have been severely strained. Ordinarily the chief revenues of the Kingdom come from the Moslem pilgrim traffic, from customs revenues and from oil royalties. The first two sources have been effectively dried up by the existing situation. The oil royalties paid by Mr. Moffett's company, plus advances on those royalties in the amount of $6,800,000, have apparently been insufficient to meet the financial needs. The annual budget of $10,000,000, estimated by Mr. Moffett, appears to be reasonable in the existing situation. Political Background
King Ibn Saud is unquestionably the outstanding figure in the Arab world today. He has long had intimate relations with the British and has been friendly with them despite the fact that during the last war