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THE CHRISTMAS MONTH
good reason to change the name as we have "PEACE on earth" is still something to hope
done in the head-line. The way to fight unemand strive for, rather than to greet and enjoy. ployment is to increase the number of persons But “good will among men” begins to look
who are employed, and the positive word is more like a fact than it has for several years. stronger than the negative. The convention
that held sessions at Washington in October, As the year went into its last quarter, millions of men were still engaged in warfare. If
under the presidency of Mr. Hoover, was a conthe number seems placed too high, remember
ference to devise ways to increase employment. that during the autumn there was fighting in
It was a successful conference. That does China; Greece and Turkey had large armies in
not mean that when it broke up there were no the field; Spain was waging war on the Moors;
men without jobs; that would have been too and the Balkan States were in anything but
much to expect. It does mean that representa peaceful mood. Jugoslavia was jealous of
atives of different occupations and students
of social conditions had got together and exItaly; Bulgaria was watching Greece like a hawk ready to swoop. The Allies had troops
changed experiences and ideas, so that each in Silesia. Uncle Sam's boys were still keep
went back to his or her own work with a
broader outlook, a better knowledge of what ing the "Watch on the Rhine.” And England and Ireland were in a state of truce.
others were doing, and a more complete underOn the other side of the account, these facts
standing of conditions and the best methods to
meet them. From the members of the conferhad to be placed: England and Ireland were
ence, that broadened understanding spread trying to find a way to end the oldest quarrel
through the various occupations they reprein the world; the League of Nations was offering its suggestion for the establishment of
sented; it was something like a conference of peaceful relations between Poland and Ger
school superintendents, whose members would many in Silesia; England, France, and Italy, carry back the new ideas to the school princiChina and Japan, were planning their policies pals, so that they in their turn might pass them
on to the teachers. In this way a unity of for the great international conference at Washington-and in all the lands, millions of purpose is obtained that could not be brought
about in any other way. people were longing for the success of all en
The conference found that the problem of deavors to hasten the world's recovery from the consequences of the war “made in Germany." unemployment is one that can best be dealt
with by communities. The manufacturers This Christmas season has one advantage
and dealers in a city, for example, can get over last Christmas: it sees us one year nearer to the good times that are coming.
together and map out a campaign that will distribute the work so that the greatest pos
sible number of persons may profit by it all the THE EMPLOYMENT CONFERENCE
time, instead of having some overworked It was generally spoken of as the Unemploy- while others are idle, or driven hard part of the ment Conference, because its purpose was to time and unengaged the rest of it. It was find ways to check the increase of that unpleas- urged that those who were planning new buildant condition; but to us that seems a very ing and other enterprises should start at once, instead of waiting for more favorable conditions; in this way the improvement would be hastened.
The Employment Conference showed what can be done by study and coöperation-and also, what perhaps was even more needed, what can not be expected from it. Strength and system are the gains, doing away with waste effort and criss-cross activities. But
All that THE WATCH-TOWER man had to do was to write about the causes and the effects of such a strike.
The railroads are the arteries of the country. When we passed out of the age in which communities produced pretty nearly everything they needed, and different regions began to specialize on certain products, trade began to grow, and the great American transportation
©Underwood & Underwood
SECRETARY HOOVER AND HIS HELPERS IN SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT
the law of supply and demand can not be wiped system developed. Now, with one region out by a law of man's making.
given up to farming and another to manufac
turing, the railroads, carrying raw materials to THE RAILROAD STRIKE
the factories and finished goods to the markets, PERHAPS, THE WATCH-TOWER man thought are indispensable to the life of the nation. as he began to write this article, perhaps the If the railroads were to stop running, trade story to write for December would be “The would be paralyzed, the cities would be like Strike That Did n't Happen." As prophecy is ports blockaded in war time; the wheels of not one of his “accomplishments,” he was in a industry would stop turning, the mills would quandary: should he write about the strike as be idle, millions of workers would lose their though it had been certain to come about, or employment, and there would be countryshould he take a chance on its being forestalled? wide suffering. A natural disaster that put And then he saw that there was no need for the railroads out of commission if you can either kind of article; the threat to strike had imagine such a thing would be worse than been made, some of the railroad unions had fire and flood and earthquake; it would seem actually been ordered to stop work November like hopeless ruin and the end of civilization. 1-and in December all the boys and girls who But the railroad men proposed to inflict upon read THE WATCH TOWER would know the whole the country just such a disaster. history of the fight between the railroad man- When the strike was ordered, late in Octoagements and the men who work for them. ber, people acknowledged that the railroad workers might have a reasonable grievance; the military authorities were making plans for they felt also that the railroad managements the use of troops, if that should become neceswere not entirely blameless. Furthermore, sary for keeping order. Civil authorities of the Government at Washington. had made the cities and States were arranging for special concessions in war time, when it was running means of transportation to keep food supplies the railroads, that had perhaps led the men of moving. Some governors announced that if the railroad unions to think their power greater the strike order should be executed, their than it really is. But this one thing was made States would be put under martial law. clear in every newspaper in the land: that the It was a most amazing situation for Amer.
ica. The one thing sure was that this Yankee nation was not going to permit a reign of terror to take the place of the rule of reason. The "return to normalcy" meant that wages and prices had to get back to pre-war levels; and the burden had to be shared by all the people. The railroad men were not exempt; if they were not being treated fairly, the Government at Washington would see justice done.
There was just a chance that the unions were throwing a bluff" -the fact that they allowed two weeks between the order and the stopping of work might
have indicated that CROWN PRINCE HIROHITO OF JAPAN AND HIS THREE BROTHERS
they were willing to do nation was not going to permit the railroad some bargaining. Perhaps it was only a "show unions to ruin its business and destroy its wel- in force," as military men say, to “throw a fare.
scare" into the rest of the country. By the The Railroad Board had made one reduc- time this number reaches you, you will know tion in wages. The railroad executives wanted the facts. another and rejected a suggestion that wages What we have tried to do here is simply to be left as they were and rates reduced; they review the situation so that THE WATCHsaid the roads could not be kept going if they TOWER family would have a better idea of reduced their income without reducing their what the facts mean. They mean that Ameroperating expenses. They have to earn ica must be governed for all the people all the money before they can spend it.
time, and that no minority can rule the nation. The matter of rates is under control of the Interstate Commerce Commission; that of
CROWN PRINCE HIROHITO wages is supervised by the Labor Board. The Government at once started trying to get the That picture of the Japanese crown prince two bodies together, to see what arrangement with his three brothers, Sumi-No-Miya, Takamight be made as to rates and wages, and the matsu-No-Miya
matsu-No-Miya and Atsu-No-Miya (will heads of the unions were summoned to attend some of THE WATCH-TOWER young folks who a conference at Chicago to discuss ways and have been in Japan tell us what that "No-Miya means. And there the matter stood when means?), is attractive and interesting. It this WATCH TOWER was written.
shows that the royal family of Japan is in no Except for one thing: all over the country great danger of dying out.
Hirohito's European trip probably gave him friendship of the two great English-speaking some new ideas about foreign lands and what powers, the British Empire and the United the Western nations think of Japan. When States. And the picture of General Pershing he comes to the throne he will have more per- fastening the medal on the cushion at the foot sonal knowledge of the rest of the world, no doubt, than his predecessors in the emperorship have had.
In October, the Japanese delegates to the Armament Conference were on the sea, on their way to Washington. Japan had expressed its approval, or at least acceptance, of the program submitted by Secretary Hughes. It was a fascinating thing to look forward to, this visit from representatives of the Japanese Govern
BIRTHDAY Wide World Photos
OCTOBER 27 was the GENERAL PERSHING DECORATES FRANCE'S UNKNOWN WARRIOR
birthday of Theodore ment and people, and to try to imagine what Roosevelt, and the anniversary was recognized their part in the conference would be.
by people and communities all over the coun
try. National-Commander Emery of the OUR ENVOY OF FRIENDSHIP
Legion, asking the posts to remember the day,
said: “The American army in France and in GENERAL PERSHING placed the Congressional camps at home never had a better friend than Medal of Honor on the grave of England's Theodore Roosevelt.” Unknown Soldier, and England conferred the Coming just at a time when the minds of Victoria Cross on ours. These are the high- people were interested by the railroad-strike est military honors in the two countries. excitement, the anniversary took on special Such an exchange of honors emphasizes pleas- interest to those who recalled how President antly the firmness and permanence of the Roosevelt stopped the coal strike in 1902.
Boy Scouts were interested also, because of are in line with our own, and that the treaty their plans to contribute to the Roosevelt does not bind Great Britain to take sides with Memorial Park a reproduction of Mr. Roose- Japan against us if there should ever be a war velt's ranch-house in North Dakota, where he between the United States and Japan. Vislived in his hunting days. Old Bill Sewell, count Bryce does not see any reason why Mr. Roosevelt's friend and guide at that time, there ever should be such a war—and he is an was chosen to direct the work, so as to make extremely keen student of such matters. the reproduction as exact as possible. It was proposed, also, that the corner-stones of the
Up to the time when this paragraph was writoriginal house be carried from Elkhorn to
ten, the British-Irish negotiations had proOyster Bay by relays of Scouts.
ceeded pretty smoothly. They had not yet
reached the most difficult points to be settled, CHILDREN WHO WORK IN THE FACTORIES but the fact that they were advancing without The National Child Labor Committee reports
serious difficulties gave reason to continue that there are two million children of sixteen
hoping for a peaceful settlement. The Brit
ish offer of dominion government appeared to or under who are employed in shops and fac
have been made in perfect good faith and to tories. This has a considerable effect on the
have the support of the British public. The unemployment situation. A man loses his job as the factory has less
greatest obstacle to adjustment seemed to be business to keep it going. Then he looks, per
the unwillingness of Ulster to fall in line with
the Valera people. haps, to his children to go to work and bring some money into the home. The factory can afford to hire a number of children at low THE peace treaties, previously ratified by wages. So the thing works in a circle: unem- Germany and Austria, were voted on favorployment sends the children into industrial ably by the United States Senate in October; employment, and that helps keep men out of and so the war came to an end, late, but welwork.
The treaty with Hungary was also Every WATCH-TOWER reader will wish the ratified, though Hungary had not yet acted on committee success in its endeavors to lessen it. Whether or not it would have been better the number of children in mills and factories, if the League had not been associated with the and correspondingly to increase the number in Treaty of Versailles by President Wilson, the school.
fact remains that so long as we did not sign that treaty, it was highly advantageous to
have the separate treaties executed as quickly THROUGH THE WATCH TOWER'S as might be. The treaties with Germany and TELESCOPE
Austria refer to many clauses in the treaty of Next to the armistice days, the greatest days Versailles, and that bothers some critics; but of the war were those that began with the it is just the same as if those clauses had been turning back of the German tide at Château- embodied in the new treaties, and there is no Thierry; and next to those, the days when reason at all to object to it. The signing of Italy, after serious reverses, found herself, and the treaties prepared the way for orderly manforced the Austrians in headlong rout back agement of affairs between the three late over the Piave. The Italian commander was enemy countries and America. General Diaz—and when he landed at New York, in October, he got a welcome that THE tariff bill was put over, by the House, showed how truly Italy and America are re- for final vote in February. It seemed likely lated in the spirit of international friendship. that the Senate would vote for this also; other
wise the emergency tariff act would have exAMBASSADOR BRYCE—it will always be nat- pired November 27 and the new legislation ural for Americans to call him that-on re- would have had to be enacted by that date. turning to England after his visit here, told It would have been better if the Fordney Bill his countrymen that in America he had ob- could have been put into shape and passed served general suspicion of the Anglo-Japanese before the temporary schedules expired, but treaty. He urged them to let us see that the the Congress was not willing to railroad it relations between Great Britain
through-and it surely is better to have such could never stand between England and Amer- legislation come late and come right than to ica; that England's interests in the Far East pass it in haste and regret it at leisure.