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towns, where there is an independent glare of light, are hardly noticed by the birds at all.
It is tragic to think of all these feathered travelers dashing themselves to their death during the migration seasons.
But apart from this, the matter is of economic importance. Many of the birds that are killed are such as are of great service to farmers in keeping down pests that destroy crops. Naturally, the very object of a lighthouse is to show its light, and nothing that interrupts the glare which draws the birds is permissible.
Luckily, a means of saving the birds without interfering with the light has been tried with good results in Holland. It has been found that if the birds were given something on which to perch, they rested for awhile looking at the light and then resumed their flight uninjured. At a certain lighthouse, rails made of gas-pipe were provided. These were adjusted so that they were a little below the direct glare of the light. Hundreds of birds were seen to pitch straight onto the perches, instead of flying at the light. Then, after an interval, they winged their way onward toward their destination. Since providing these perching-places, not a single bird has been killed-a most gratifying
result. Probably it will not be long before A 16-FOOT HORN OR PROJECTOR USED IN A LONG
all isolated lighthouses will be provided with DISTANCE TEST AT ELLENVILLE, N. Y.
perching-places upon which the winged way
farers can rest. S. LEONARD BASTIN. us here not merely a means of swift communication, but has accomplished the spiritual triumph of projecting personality, as
AN ICE BURNING-GLASS shown in all the delicate shadings of the hu- A FASCINATING little pastime for the winter is man voice which express the emotions of the making of an ice burning-glass. For the the human soul, over thousands of miles to
purpose, secure a bowl with a rounded botinspire untold multitudes of people.
tom. This should be made of enameled M. TEVIS.
ware or some metal, so that it will not crack.
Fill the bowl with water and then place it SAVING BIRDS FROM DESTRUCTION
outdoors in freezing weather. When the BIRD lovers all over the world have long water has frozen solid, place a cloth wrung mourned the fact that many migrating birds from hot water on the outside of the bowl, are lured to destruction by the glare of light- and the ice soon thaws sufficiently to release houses. The slaughter of birds in this way the lump. You will then have a rough lense is very great, far larger than is commonly which, if it is not less than eight inches in supposed. As an instance of this, at the diameter, will act as a very efficient burningbeacon on St. Catherine's Point, England glass. Place the ice so that the rays of the (one of Europe's brightest lights), on one sun fall directly on either the flat or the conautumn morning last year, the bodies of no vex side. The heat rays will pass readily less than five hundred birds were picked up through the ice; and if the hand is put someat the foot of the lighthouse! At a beacon where near the visible focus, a burning senin the Gulf of Mexico huge pelicans weighing sation that can not long be borne will be felt. forty pounds or more dash themselves to A piece of paper placed so that the focus of pulp against the building. Curiously enough the rays are steadily concentrated on it will it is only the isolated lighthouses that seem soon catch fire. to attract the birds; such as are close to
S. LEONARD BASTIN.
THE CONSTELLATIONS FOR FEBRUARY
six stars; that is, it is a sextuple star. Even STRETCHED across the meridian, due south, with a small telescope, four of these stars between eight and nine o'clock in the even- can readily be seen, arranged in the form of ing in the early part of February, lies Orion,
a small trapezium (a figure contained by four The Warrior, generally considered to be the straight lines, no two of which are parallel). finest constellation in the heavens. Orion
The lowest star in the sword is a triple star, is directly overhead at the equator, and so is
and the entire constellation abounds in visible from all parts of the world except the
double, triple, and multiple stars. extreme northern and southern polar regions.
From the central portion of the nebula A group of three faint stars mark the head extend many branches and streamers of of Orion. His right shoulder is marked by nebulous light, and it is known that the the deep-red star Betelgeuze (meaning arm
entire constellation of Orion is enwrapped in pit), and his left shoulder by the bright white the folds of this nebulosity, which forms a star Bellatrix, The Amazon. Orion stands glowing, whirling mass of fiery gases rapidly facing Taurus, The Bull, and brandishes in rotating in certain parts. This constellation his right hand a club, outlined by a number
is remarkable for the fact that all of its of faint stars extending from Betelgeuze brighter stars, with the exception of the toward the northeast. The top of the club
deep-red Betelgeuze, form one great group lies near the tips of the horns of Taurus. In
of stars occupying the same part of space.
They are all more or less associated with the N.
great nebula and its branches, and are all extremely hot white or bluish-white stars, known as helium stars, because the gas
helium occurs to such a great extent in their Betelgeuzet Bellatrix
atmospheres. The Orion stars are the hot
test and brightest of all the stars. ORION
Blazing Rigel, Bellatrix, and Saiph, markviệt.Neb.
W. ing three corners of the great quadrilateral,
of which Betelgeuze marks the fourth corner, Saipho...*Rigel
are all brilliant helium stars. So are the three stars in the Belt and the fainter stars
in the Sword and the great nebula. LEPUS
It has been estimated that the great Orion group of stars is over six hundred light-years
from the earth, or about forty million times S.
more distant than the sun. For more than six centuries the rays of light that now enter
our eyes from these stars have been traveling his left hand he holds up a lion's skin, which through space with the speed of lightning. we can trace in another curving line of faint So we see Orion not as it is to-day, but as it stars to the west and northwest of Bellatrix. was six centuries ago. The extent of the The brilliant, blue-white, first-magnitude Orion group of stars is also inconceivably star Rigel lies in the left foot, and the second- great. Even the central part of the great magnitude star Saiph, a little to the east of nebula, which appears to our unaided eyes Rigel, is in the right knee. Three evenly only as a somewhat fuzzy star, would extend spaced stars in a straight line that is exactly from here to the nearest star and beyond, three degrees in length form the Belt of while our entire solar system would be not Orion, and from the Belt hangs the Sword of much more than a speck in its midst. Orion, outlined by three faint stars. The Betelgeuze, the red star that marks the central star in the sword appears somewhat right shoulder of Orion, is, as we have said, blurred and is the multiple star Theta, in the not a member of the Orion group. It has midst of the great Orion nebula, the finest been estimated that it is about two hundred object of its kind in the heavens. Entangled light-years from the earth, which means that in the meshes of this glowing nebula are a it is only about one third as far away as the number of brilliant suns, appearing to us as other stars of the constellation. faint stars because of their great distance. Betelgeuze very recently has attracted The ar Theta, in the heart of the nebula, is universal atte on, and will probably be conseen with a powerful telescope to consist of sidered an object of historic interest in the
THE CONSTELLATION ORION
future, because it is the first star to have its a group of three faint stars. Capella is one diameter measured with the new Michelson of the most brilliant stars of the northern Interferometer, as it is called, which is now hemisphere. It is almost exactly equal in being used so successfully to measure the brightness to Arcturus and Vega, of the diameters of the largest stars. The truly summer months, and it is a shade brighter sensational discovery has been made that than magnificent blue-white Rigel in Orion. Betelgeuze is a supergiant of the universe, Capella is nearly forty light-years distant with a diameter of about 275,000,000 miles. from the earth and is fully two hundred times Our own sun, which is an averaged-sized star, more brilliant than our own sun. At the has a diameter of 864,000 miles. That is, distance of Capella, the sun would appear to Betelgeuze would make more than thirty million suns the size of our own. If placed
N. at the center of the solar system, it would fill all of the space within the orbit of Mars; and the planets Mercury, Venus, and the earth would be mere specks, lying far be
Capella neath its surface. Measurements of the
The Kids diameters of other giant stars which are now
W. being made with the interferometer give results quite as startling as have been obtained in the case of Betelgeuze; and it has been found that several of these stars may even exceed Betelgeuze in size. Such a star is Antares, the fiery-red star in the heart of
S. Scorpio, which is such a conspicuous object
THE CONSTELLATION AURIGA in the summer evening skies. All these huge stars are deep red in color, and some of be considerably fainter than any one of the them vary irregularly in brightness. Betel- three stars in the near-by group of The Kids. geuze is one of the stars that changes in Capella is attended by a companion star brightness in a peculiar manner from time to so close to its brilliant ruler that it can not be time. When shining with its greatest bril- seen as a separate star with the aid of the liancy it is a brighter object than the near-by most powerful telescopes. Its distance from star Aldebaran, in Taurus; but a few months Capella has been very accurately measured, or a year later it may lose so much of its however, by means of the new interferometer, light as to be decidedly inferior to Aldebaran. which is also giving us measurements of the We may observe this remarkable change in diameters of the giant stars. It is known the brightness of Betelgeuze by comparing that this companion sun is closer to Capella the two stars from time to time.
than our planet earth is to the sun. Directly south of Orion lies the small At no time of the year shall we find near constellation of Lepus, The Hare, which is the meridian so many brilliant and beautiful made up of third- and fourth-magnitude stars as appear in the month of February at stars. The four brighter stars are arranged this time in the evening. In addition to in the form of a small, but distinct, quadrilat- Capella, which is one of the three most eral, or four-sided figure, which is easily brilliant stars in the northern half of the visible in our latitudes. The small constel- heavens, we have, in Orion alone, two stars lation of Columba, The Dove, which lies of the first magnitude, Betelgeuze and Rigel, just south of Lepus, is so close to the horizon and five stars of the second magnitude, Bellathat it can not be seen to advantage in the trix and Saiph and the three stars in the Belt. mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In addition, we have not far distant in the Neither Lepus nor Columba contain any western sky fiery Aldebaran, in Taurus, and object of unusual interest.
close on the heel of Orion in the east, Sirius, Due north of Orion, and lying in the zenith the brightest star in the heavens, in the at this time, is Auriga, The Charioteer, who constellation of Canis Major, The Greater is represented, strange to say, with Capella, Dog, as well as the first-magnitude star a goat, in his arms. This beautiful first- Procyon in Canis Minor, The Lesser Dog. magnitude star Capella, golden-yellow in Of these two groups we shall have more to color, serves to identify the constellation. say under the constellations for March. Close at hand are The Kids, represented by
ISABEL M. LEWIS.
By KITTY PARSONS
Baked in a great round pan;
so crooked, And then, when they are
my back is all nicely baked
O O A lovely golden brown,
bent. I 'm the We open wide our little
worst-lookmouths, And swallow them right
that man could invent. My head is too big, my arms are
too small. Oh, pity me, THE WAIL
pito y me, pity me, all I OF THE
For why was I madel in
a sman little
cook in the kit.
chen one day?
Oh, dear, I 'm so
ugly I'd cry,
We make a frightful clatter,
While mixing up our batter.
II We mix and mix and stir and stir,
And beat with all our might, Because it takes a lot of work
To make a cake just right.
me ? say that