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land was begun. The courts and all govern- ness was less complicated; life was simpler. ment offices and agencies were taken over by But we must remember that the things of the provisional government—and the new era 1860 meant just as much to the people of was begun.

1860 as the things of 1922 mean to the people Reasonable people everywhere hoped Ire- of 1922. Lincoln, like Washington, took his land would take full advantage of her new

troubles as they came; and, like Washington, opportunity, prove herself fit for the respon- conquered them by hard, straight thinking sibilities of self-government, and set about and by fearless, effective action. her new tasks with wisdom, patience, courage Courage and conscience do not change as -and good team-work.

the years pass; and whether we are lawmakers or law-obeyers, employers or employ

ees, men and women doing America's work, BIRTHDAYS OF THE IMMORTALS or boys and girls getting ready to do it when As February leaves us, we may well pause

their turn comes, courage and conscience are and ask what would Washington and Lincoln

what we need to-day. think of the America of to-day? The question will have been asked by many, in the month that brings the birthdays of the two greatest

THROUGH THE WATCH TOWER'S

TELESCOPE Americans. If we could be sure of the answer, it would make it easier to know what A NOTABLE event in January was the openwe ought to do.

ing of the Farmers' Conference. The Farm Perhaps Washington would be more con- Bloc, so-called, in Congress, is not a good cerned about our foreign relations; Lincoln, thing, because it emphasizes a class interest, about domestic affairs. Of course, that does and Congress is concerned with the welfare not mean that Lincoln would be indifferent of all the people. But there would not have to the Conference on Limitation of Arma- been a bloc if the farmers' problems had not ments and the Economic Conference at been serious. The conference afforded a Genoa, or that Washington would have no welcome opportunity to get things going concern for our problems of unemployment, right.

right. The appointment of a new member the railroads, and the welfare of the farmers. to the Federal Reserve Board to represent But Washington's name suggests the Revo- agriculture was a concession that could not lution, which was international: Lincoln's, be hurtful-but the board is a financial inthe Civil War, which was national.

stitution, and it is not good to open it to class Whether Washington would think we were interests. Why not a preacher-member, to in danger of forming "entangling alliances" represent the churches, and a professorwith Europe, who can say? Perhaps he would member, to represent teachers? The sugsay as we were just so much involved in gestion is exaggerated, but it emphasizes world affairs, inevitably, that we had better the fact that the Reserve Board should really go still farther-and join the League! Again, be composed of financial experts. who can say? I don't know, and you

don't know; and the folks who pretend to know are We want to see American shipping prosper, -only pretending. And that brings us to the but we certainly think Secretary Hoover did exact point of this discussion.

the right thing when he announced that We may be quite sure that if Washington Shipping Board vessels would be used to had had to meet the problems of to-day, in- carry grain to Russia if the ocean freightstead of his own day, he would have met carriers stuck to the 30 per cent. increase in them with the same true Americanism, the rates which they fixed after Congress apsame deep faith and calm courage that were propriated $20,000,000 to buy food for Rushis when America began its national life. sian famine relief work. The clear thinking, the clean conscience, and the strength of will are what counts, to-day It was announced, in January, that May 21 as ever. The problems change; the conquer- would be the date for the dedication of the ing spirit never changes.

National Woman's Party headquarters, in Lincoln's America was smaller than ours; Washington. The announcement was specithere were not nearly so many people in it; ally interesting to us because the building is not nearly so many clashing interests. Busi- to be called–The Watch Tower!

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THE FLYING MOTOR-BOAT

ful success. The core is dispensed with, and HENRY FARMAN, the well-known aviator, yet a perfect pipe with a smooth bore results. has built a remarkable high-speed boat that The material is made to cling to the inner wall is driven by an airplane propeller. The boat of the mold by centrifugal force. This, as our is of the glider type; that is, the bottom is readers surely know, is the force that holds the formed with flat, slightly inclined planes, so water in a pail when you swing it around in a that, as it gathers headway, it rises out of the circle, and that helps to hold an aviator in his water and glides on the surface.

seat when his machine loops the loop. The The glider is thirty-three feet long and is coreless mold is partly filled with material and equipped with a four-bladed propeller driven then set spinning. The material is immediby a 140 horse-power airplane engine. It is ately thrown away from the center and forms not a racing craft, and yet it is remarkably a layer on the inner wall of the mold. The fast. Carrying a load of 3000 pounds and spinning continues until the material has with the engine partly throttled, it makes a firmly set. normal speed of thirty-two miles per hour.

Not only is this a simple means of forming In a recent test of speed it ran at the rate of pipe, but a better pipe results, because the fifty miles per hour, and this with a load of

material is made denser by the centrifugal twelve passengers.

force. In one experiment a twelve-inch mold was filled solid with concrete rammed in as

tightly as possible, just as if a solid column CASTING PIPE WITHOUT A CORE

were to be cast. Then the mold was set spinPIPES of concrete, steel, iron, brass, etc., are ning at about three hundred revolutions per usually cast in a mold that is fitted with a core minute. As a result, when the cast was examto form the internal hollow. This core must ined it had formed itself into a pipe with an inbe supported from the ends, so that it will be side diameter of 3] inches. In other words, centered in the pipe. Sometimes supports, the centrifugal force packed the concrete so such as lugs or pins, are fitted between the core much tighter than it could be packed by hand and the outer mold and they become embedded that a 32 inch bore was formed in the center. in the material that is being cast.

Concrete pipes up to six feet in diameter are Recently, a new way of casting pipe has now being successfully made in these revolving been developed and is meeting with wonder- molds.

Spinning molds are also used for casting house, bow-windows and extra wings are iron and steel pipes, and here, too, the density made, so to speak. of the metal is greatly increased by centrifugal Furthermore, some internal force is little force. The product of the spinning mold is more than twice as strong as a pipe of the same size cast in a stationary mold with a central core. Thinner walls can be cast in a spinning mold, but care must be taken to center the mold perfectly, because if it is the least bit out of balance, the wall of the cylinder will be thicker on one side than the other.

A. RUSSELL BOND.

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NEPTUNE THE THIEF NEPTUNE, the sea-king, is a thief. His minions, the rivers, steal treasure from every land and carry it for miles, dumping it at last into the deep green cellars of their robber chief. Here and there one of these hurrying minions, rushing toward the sea, "falls," as the one in the picture is doing. (Don't you wish that you could fall as gracefully?) According to the United States Geological Survey, nearly three hundred million tons of soil, pebbles, and loose rock are carried by the rivers into the sea from the United States each year, an average of ninety-five tons for every square mile in the country. Is it any wonder, therefore, that I say old Neptune is a thief?

Many newspapers have copied these figures, and have added that at this rate our national home will be entirely worn away in about a million years.

But there are opposing facts which we should not forget. Sometimes, for instance, Neptune's servants drop their booty just as they reach the ocean's edge; and where this happens year after year, the shores are, of course, built out farther and ONE OF NEPTUNE'S “MINIONS" RUSHING TO THE SEA farther into the sea. Much land about the

by little pushing up the land in many places, delta of the Mississippi has been added in

if not in most places.

So you see there are two sides to the story. Then too, there are places where Neptune

I don't believe that Neptune will ever rub us himself is wont to lay down plunder he is

entirely off the map, do you? tired of, instead of breaking in as he often

PAULINE BARR. does and carrying bits of the land away. In other words, along many gently sloping shores the waves are constantly depositing sand

THE CLEVER DUNLIN which they have brushed up from the floor of The game of cheating the sportsman by prethe sea—this is happening at Atlantic City, tending to be dead is played by many animals. on the New Jersey coast, and also on the west Akin to it is the pretense of the partridge coast of Florida. Usually, sand reefs or that her leg or wing has been broken, by islands are formed first, out where the larger which device she entices the intruder to purwaves break, and then, very slowly, the sue her, and thus secures time for her young shallows or lagoons between them and the brood to take cover under leaves and ferns. original shores are filled in.

Thus perma

A naturalist in Siberia had been searching nent additions are built on our national for the eggs of the little dunlin and came upon

this way.

a nest. The bird quietly slipped off and Sirius is an intensely white hydrogen star; began to walk around the man, now and then but owing to its great brilliancy and to the pecking on the ground as if feeding, seldom fact that it does not attain a great height going more than six feet from him and often above the horizon in our latitudes, its rays approaching within eighteen inches. The are greatly refracted or broken up by the tameness of the bird was almost ludicrous. atmosphere, which is most dense near the She seemed so extremely tame that the man horizon, and as a result, it twinkles or scintilalmost thought for a moment that he could lates more noticeably than other stars and catch her, and, getting on all fours, he crept flashes the spectrum colors, --chiefly red and quietly toward her. As soon as he began to green, -like a true “diamond in the sky”— move from the nest, the bird's manner en- a magnificent object in the telescope. tirely changed. She shuffled along the ground Sirius is one of our nearest neighbors as if lame. She dropped her wings, as if un- among the stars. Only two stars are known able to fly, and occasionally rested on her to be nearer to the solar system. Yet its breast with drooping wings as if dying. Fin- light takes about eight and a half years to ally, when she eluded him and darted into flash with lightning speed across the great the undergrowth, he found he had lost the intervening chasm. It is attended also by location of the nest.

a very faint star that is so lost in the rays EDWIN TARRISSE. of its brilliant companion that it can only be

found with the aid of a powerful telescope. THE CONSTELLATIONS FOR MARCH The two stars are separated by a distance of To the southeast of Orion and almost due

1,800,000,000 miles; that is they are about south at eight o'clock in the evening on the

N. first of March lies the constellation of Canis Major, The Greater Dog, containing Sirius, the Dog-star, which far surpasses all other stars in the heavens in brilliancy. Sirius lies almost in line with the three

Sirius stars that form the Belt of Orion. We shall not have the slightest difficulty in recogniz

CANIS

W.

MAJOR ing it, owing to its surpassing brilliancy as well as to the fact that it follows so closely upon the heels of Orion.

Sirius is the Greek for "scorching" or "sparkling," and the ancients attributed the scorching heat of summer to the fact that

S. Sirius then rose with the sun. The torrid days

THE CONSTELLATION CANIS MAJOR of midsummer they called the "dog-days" for this reason, and we have retained the ex

as far apart as Neptune and the sun. They pression to the present time. Since Sirius

swing slowly and majestically about a comwas always associated with the discomforts

mon center, called their center of gravity, of the torrid season, it did not have an

in a period of about forty-nine years. So enviable reputation among the Greeks. We

faint is the companion of Sirius that it is esfind in Pope's translation of the Iliad this

timated that twenty thousand such stars reference to Sirius.

would be needed to give forth as much light as Sirius.

The two stars together, Sirius Terrific glory! for his burning breath Taints the red air with fever, plagues, and death.

and its companion, give forth forty-eight

times as much light as our own sun. They In Egypt, however, many temples were weigh only about three times as much, howdedicated to the worship of Sirius, for the ever, and the companion of Sirius, in spite of reason that some five thousand years ago it its extreme faintness, weighs fully half as rose with the sun at the time of the summer much as the brilliant star. solstice, which marks the beginning of sum- There are a number of bright stars in mer, and heralded the approaching inunda- the constellation of Canis Major. A fairly tion of the Nile, which was an occasion for bright star a little to the west of Sirius marks great rejoicing among the Egyptians. It the uplifted paw of the dog, and to the southwas, therefore, called the Nile Star and re- east, in the tail and hind quarters, are several garded by them with the greatest reverence. conspicuous stars of the second magnitude.

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THE CONSTELLATION CANIS MINOR

A little to the east and much farther to the of the “By Gemini!” heard so frequently north, we find Canis Minor, The Lesser Dog, among the sailors of the ancient world. containing the beautiful first-magnitude star The astronomical name for Castor is Procyon, (Pro'se on), “Precursor of the Dog," Alpha Geminorum, meaning Alpha of Gemthat is, of Sirius. Since Procyon is so much ini; and since it was customary to name the farther north than Sirius and very little to brightest star in a constellation by the first the east, we see its brilliant rays in the east- letter in the Greek alphabet, it is believed ern sky some time before Sirius appears

that Castor has decreased considerably in above the southeastern horizon, hence its brightness since the days of the ancients, for name. And long after Sirius has disappeared it is now decidedly inferior to Pollux in brightfrom view beneath the western horizon in ness. Of the two stars, Castor is the more the late spring, Procyon may still be seen low in the western sky. Procyon, also, is

N. one of our nearer neighbors among the stars,

Castor being only about ten light-years distant

GEMINI from the solar system. Like Sirius, it is a Pollux double star with a much fainter companion, that by its attraction sways the motion of Procyon to such an extent that we should E.

W. know of its existence, even if it were not visible, by the disturbances it produces in the motion of Procyon. The period of revolution of Procyon and its companion about CANISMINOR a common center is about forty years, and

* the two stars combined weigh about a third

Procyon

S. more than our own sun and give forth ten times as much light.

Canis Minor, unlike Canis Major, is a interesting because it is a double star that is small constellation containing only one other readily separated into two stars with the aid bright star, Beta, a short distance to the of a small telescope. The two principal northwest of Procyon. Originally, the name stars are known to be, in turn, extremely Procyon was given to the entire constellation, close double stars revolving almost in conbut it was later used only with reference to tact in periods of a few days. Where we see the one star. Procyon, Sirius, and Betelgeuse but one star with the unaided eye, there is, in Orion form a huge equal-sided triangle then, a system of four suns, the two close that lies across the meridian at'this time and pairs revolving slowly about a common cenis a most conspicuous configuration in the ter of gravity in a period of several centuries evening sky.

and at a great distance apart. Directly south of the zenith, we shall find The star Pollux, which we can easily disGemini, The Twins, one of the zodiacal con- tinguish by its superior brightness, is also the stellations. It is in Gemini that the sun is more southerly of the twin stars and lies to be found at the beginning of summer. due north of Procyon and about as far from The two bright stars Castor and Pollux Procyon as Procyon is from Sirius. mark the heads of the twins, and the two The appearance of Gemini on the meridian stars in the opposite corners of the four-sided in the early evening and of the huge triangle, figure shown in the chart mark their feet. with its corners marked by the brilliants,

Castor and Pollux, according to the legend, Procyon, Sirius, and Betelgeuse, due south, were the twin brothers of Helen of Troy and with "Great Orion sloping slowly to the west, members of the Argonautic expedition. is as truly a sign of approaching spring as When a storm overtook the vessel on its re- the gradual lengthening of the days, the apturn voyage, Orpheus invoked the aid of pearance of crocuses and daffodils, and the Apollo, who caused two stars to shine above first robin. It is only a few weeks later, as the heads of the twins, and the storm imme- pictured by Tennyson in “Maud,” diately ceased. It was for this reason that When the face of the night is fair on the dewy Castor and Pollux became the special deities

downs, of seamen, and it was customary to place and the shining daffodil dies, and the Charioteer

And starry Gemini hang like glorious crowns their effigies upon the prows of vessels. The

Over Orion's grave low down in the west. “By Jimini!” of to-day is but a corruption

ISABEL M. LEWIS.

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