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Ocean, it will have done more good in this Since they were freed from Spanish rule, war-worn old world than anything of the Porto Rico and Cuba have traveled a long kind has ever before been able to accomplish. way on the road to better government and

The map of the Pacific which we print more prosperity and happiness for the this month shows how the League of Nations people. American management did much divided the great ocean and its islands more for them than Spain had ever thought among the powers in what we may call salt- of doing, or than they could have been ex

pected to do for themselves after ages of Spanish exploitation.

Most of the Porto Ricans appreciate the advantage of their new relationship with the United States, but there are some who, having benefited by them, be lieve now that they can

afford to do without


Uncle Sam's help. This
feeling broke out when
Governor Reily, ap-
pointed by President

Harding, went to the 1

island to take the place
of former Governor


The secessionists want

to be allowed to place side by side with the American flag a flag designed by some Porto Rican exiles in the days

of Spanish rule. It has Lion

a red field, with a single star of white set in a blue triangle. It was cherished by the people

in the days of our war PARRELT

with Spain, and the Copyrighted in the U.S. A. by The London Graphic,” Supplied by Underwood & Underwood, New York


Gen. Miles wore it, they water dominions. This map will be ex- say, when they went into the island. tremely useful in studying the situation that But the flag that symbolized the fight for now obtains in the regions with which the freedom from Spanish rule has no place side conference at Washington will specially con- by side with oid Glory. The President of cern itself.

the Porto Rican senate says: “Covered by its folds, many of our illustrious dead have

been buried, and Porto Rico aspires to prePORTO RICO

serve her flag and its traditions, just as the AFTER the Spanish War, Porto Rico, as an Lone Star of Texas and the flags of other American dependency, began to look for- States of the Union have been preserved by ward to the time when she would become a those who cherish their historic traditions." State in our Union. Lately, some Porto The flags of a people are a symbol of their Ricans have had an attack of what a news- loyalty. We cannot ask the people of Porto paper writer described as independicitis. Rico to cast aside their feeling for a flag that They wanted to break away from the meant so much to them when they were United States and become a separate nation. gaining their freedom from Spanish oppres

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sion, but some Porto Ricans are inclined to put the banner of the single star higher in their affections than the Stars and Stripes.

Gov. Reily made it quite plain to the island people that Porto Rico could not have two flags, and that the one that was to remain was that of the United States of America. Late in September, it was reported that the Unionist party had voted in favor of statehood.

It would be most interesting to hear from some of our readers who have been in Porto Rico—perhaps from some native Porto Rican boy or girl—who can tell us just how things are really going in the island to which the United States offers the privilege of membership in this great Union of States.


HIGHEST UP AND FARTHEST SOUTH THERE are still a few things to be learned about this earth, and two expeditions are now trying to learn them. One is climbing Mount Everest and the other is exploring the antarctic.

Wide World Photos Mount Everest is the highest mountain in

THE RUINED TIBETAN FORTRESS OF KAMPA DZONG the world. It rises 29,002 feet above sealevel. If that extra two feet suggests that The geometry that you study in high school we are "getting it down too fine," don't is the first step toward such achievements.

The expedition is the most carefully planned and best equipped of its kind ever sent out. The Royal Geographical Society, of London, and the Alpine Club are united in the undertaking. The king of England is officially represented, and of

course it includes EESKVE

masters of several sciences to make the observations and studies that alone render such an expedition really worth while.

One member of the expedition, Dr. Kellas, died of heart failure at the Tibetan city of

Kampa Dzong. He Wide World Photos



sight of the great peak blame us. The scientists have measured the whose summit he had hoped to reach. altitude, and no doubt they could have car- The other expedition is Sir Ernest Shackleried it out to inches if they had cared to. ton's into the antarctic. The little ship in which the Shackleton expedition will ven- along the coast, was set aside as a Spanish ture into the frozen seas at the southern tip "sphere of influence," while the southern of the earth-we understand it bulges enough part was a French "sphere.” Both of these in the middle and tapers down enough at the zones of influence were under the Sultan poles to make it proper to speak of the north of Morocco, but France and Spain agreed to and south poles as tips—is called the Quest, permit each other to engage in trade, each and is said to be just about the sturdiest little in its assigned sphere, without opposition craft and the best suited for such a venture from the other. that ever smashed through a field of ice.


During the World War, Morocco was left The days of exploration and adventure pretty much to itself; but after the armistice are not over yet!

and the treaty, France and Spain sent comTwo Boy Scouts-lucky chaps!—will go missioners and military forces to take coninto the antarctic with Sir Ernest. The trol. Operations were begun at the opening picture shows them with Sir Ernest and his of the year 1920. Spain's commissioner second in command, Captain Wilde. The was General Berenguer, and her army of boys are Patrol Leader N. E. Mooney, of 50,000 was commanded by General SilvesKirkwall in the Orkney Islands, and Patrol tre. The French were successful in the Leader J. W. S. Marr, of Aberdeen, Scot- south, but the Spanish army did not have land. Mooney is seventeen years old, Marr such good fortune. is eighteen. They were chosen because, as The year passed, and all the Spaniards Sir R. Baden-Powell, the Chief Scout, wrote had succeeded in doing was to establish a in bidding them farewell, “You are the best number of posts which were held by Spanish fellows that the Scout movement can pro- garrisons, to be sure, but with unsatisfactory duce"; adding, “You cannot fail if you stick lines of communication. to the Scout law. ... 'Be prepared,' and In the spring of this present year, the you will come through with success."

Spaniards resumed their campaign, and in

July their forces met with a great defeat. SPAIN AND MOROCCO

The inland posts were retaken by the Moors,

the occupied territory recovered, and the THE Strait of Gibraltar, between the Spanish losses in killed and wounded were Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, large enough to alarm the Government and has Spain on one side of it and the north cause considerable misgiving among the coast of Africa on the other. On that coast people. Recruiting for the Spanish Foreign is Morocco, the land of the Moors. For Legion has been carried on in America. over a thousand years the Moors and the In September, it was reported that there Spaniards have been enemies. The Moors were 60,000 Spanish troops concentrated invaded Spain, and, in the last century, the about Melilla, in the east. The Moorish Spaniards have invaded Morocco. In the


tribesmen were besieging them, and the city Spanish accounts and legends which Wash- was under constant fire. Tribesmen hidden ington Irving collected in some of his books, in the hills about the city were attacked by you may read tales of the time when the cavalry expeditions. Moors ruled in Granada, to its conquest from It was said that the nature of the Moorish them by the Spaniards in 1492.

resistance to Spanish operations indicated The history of the present war between the presence of some skilful and energetic Spaniard and Moor goes back to 1905, when leader, and the report was that he was Germany, preparing for the great conquests young Moor, named Abd-el-Krin, who had which she hoped to make, opposed the agree- been educated in Spain. ment between France and England, whereby France gave England a free hand in Egypt,

THE GIRL SCOUTS while England left Morocco to the French. In 1906, the Algeciras Conference was held OCTOBER 16 to 24 was Girl Scout Week. to discuss international relations in northern If that was n't an important current event, Africa. France proved stronger than Ger- we don't know what would be. many had thought, and England supported You see, there are 107,000 Girl Scouts in the French, so that Germany had to agree the United States to-day, and new members to leave Morocco to them.

at the rate of 3000 or so a month are making France and Spain then made a treaty the “Promise.” That Promise would n't whereby the northern part of Morocco, stay out of this article even if, instead of

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welcoming it gladly, as we do, we were to MEXICO has had a long history of revolution, try to keep it out:

but there are many people in Mexico who On My Honor, I Will Try:

want to see their country peaceful and orTo do my duty to God and my Country; derly, enjoying the friendship of other naTo help other people at all times;

tions and sharing in the world's business. To obey the Scout Laws.

In September, it seemed that Mexico was And the laws, of which there are ten, ready to be more reasonable in her treatment show the Girl Scout ideals: to be honorable, of foreigners who have invested money there. loyal, helpful to others, a friend to all and a sister to every other Girl Scout; to be courteous, kind to animals, obedient to orders, cheerful, thrifty, and clean in thought, word, and deed. With 107,000

STELLA BROS. PROPS. girls pledged to those laws, and 3000 more girls falling into line

MOETS HERT every month, it's evi- ICE LAKE dent that something is happening that is important to America.

It means this, too: that there is need of new leaders all the time. What a chance for young women who like to "do things"! Those who volunteer to help train the girls in homemaking, health-build

THE GIRL SCOUT HOLDS THE BABY WHILE THE MOTHER VOTES ing, and citizenship are going to learn something themselves and FERDINAND Foch, marshal of France, will they are not going to get old very fast! be the guest of the United States this au

tumn. He will be here, and will have won our

hearts, by the time these lines reach our readers. THROUGH THE WATCH TOWER'S

The man who unified the Allied armies and TELESCOPE

led them to victory will, by his visit, forge an

other link in that chain which binds us closely THE old Olympia, Admiral Dewey's flag

to France. And General Pershing's recent ship at Manila, was selected for the honor

visit to France and England to honor the of bringing home from France America's Unknown Soldier, to be buried with na

“unknown soldier”of those countries will still tional honors at Arlington on Armistice

further strengthen the ties that unite us. Day. All business and pleasure throughout the nation will stand at rest while "taps”

On September 16 the British light cruiser are sounded at the grave.

Dauntless brought home the bodies of fifteen
Americans who lost their lives when the

monster airship ZR-2 was wrecked. The airGREECE says she is fighting for the ancient ship, as you will remember, fell into the rights of her people in Asia Minor. She is Humber River at Hull, in England, late in putting her whole strength into her war with August, at the end of a trial flight. The Turkey—all her resources in men and money. huge dirigible buckled in one of her 'midship Greece did not win our favor by her conduct sections, blew up and fell, all afire, into the toward the Allies in the first part of the river. Forty-four of the forty-nine English World War, nor in restoring Constantine to and American officers and men who were the throne after the war was over.

aboard at the time were killed.

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more before any "pool" that begins to acTHE production of petroleum in the United cumulate to-day will be of the slightest use States increased from five million barrels in to mankind. 1870 to 376,000,000 barrels in 1919. Yet, The way in which petroleum is collected enormous as was this production, it was less by nature and made available for our use is than our consumption; and we were de shown in the illustration, made from a model pendent on foreign countries for sufficient in the National Museum at Washington, the supplies to meet our needs. Nor should upper half of which is an ordinary surface any one imagine that new oil-fields will be view, and the lower half, a vertical section discovered or new wells opened in old fields that cuts the rocks beneath the surface. to an extent sufficient largely to increase the Parts of three separate oil deposits are supply we have left. In the last ten years shown. All of them lie between strata that (to January 1, 1919) our oil exploration has are tipped upward on the left and all begin increased our reserves by less than enough to far down in the depths of the earth; but each run us for three years. Further finds will ends in a different way. The actual occurbe made, but they are unlikely to be more rence of three such deposits so close to each than locally important.

other would be unusual; the three are grouped So say the geologists; and they have good together merely for easy study. cause to know whereof they speak. They The deposit farthest to the right reaches say, also, that the belief held by many people the surface; or, more accurately speaking, that petroleum is still being formed below the surface reaches it. Oil really is forced the surface of the ground, much as wheat is upward, just as artesian' water is forced upbeing grown on its surface, at a rate sufficient ward, in places where the force that lifts it to balance our consumption, is the wildest is strong enough to overcome the resistance nonsense. Oil is being formed, beyond a of the rocks; but most oil-seeps appear to be doubt, but it will be a thousand years and due to the cutting down of the ground sur


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