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immense mass of memoirs, state papers, and negotiations, bearing on the same subject. But there was no corresponding summary of our own diplomatic history. The only work of the kind, "The Diplomacy of the United States," by Theodore Lyman, Boston, 1828, although an accurate, laborious, and useful book, is not written from the point of view which I wished to occupy; and I therefore found it necessary to study the diplomatic history of the United States for myself, as thoroughly as the materials would permit. Finding the study one of great interest to myself, I have thought its results might not be without interest for others.

I have published this volume separately, because the twelve years which it includes have a character of their own, and the accession of Mr. Jefferson, reversing that policy, makes the commencement of his administration a proper starting-point for the next period of our history.

The materials which I have used are the official collections of state papers relating to our diplomatic history, in Sparks's Diplomatic Correspondence, from the Declaration of Independence to the Treaty of Peace; The Diplomatic Correspondence, from 1783 to 1789, published by Congress, in 7 vols. 8vo.; The Secret Journals of Congress, Foreign Affairs, from the Meeting

thereof to the Dissolution of the Confederation by the Adoption of the Constitution; The American State Papers, Foreign Affairs, 4 vols. folio, from the Adoption of the Constitution to the Treaty of Ghent; and the Lives and Letters of such of the distinguished actors in our political history as have been published. Among these I feel bound to refer specially to the large and valuable publication of the Letters and Works of John Adams, prefaced by a biography of great interest and value, and, considering the relation of the author and the subject, of singular and honorable impartiality. Besides these, I have had the MSS. collections of General Thomas Pinckney and General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, the one minister to England and Spain, and the other minister to France.

As there were no discoveries to make in our diplomatic history, I have made none, and whatever value these pages may have must attach to the connected and impartial narrative which I have endeavored to 'construct.

Whenever I have quoted a public state paper without a special reference, it will be found under its proper date in one of the above published collections; and for the facts of our general history, a knowledge of which I have assumed in the reader, the authority will

be found in any of the general histories of the United

States.

I cannot conclude this preface without acknowledging my sense of grateful obligation to Professor Bowen, of Harvard University, for the kindness with which he undertook, and the care with which he has accomplished, the troublesome task of correcting the proofs of this volume as they came from the press.

In the body of this work, by inadvertence, a reference to the Life of Gouverneur Morris, by Dr. Sparks, as authority for certain facts in Mr. Morris's ambassadorial career, was omitted. The reference belongs to the chapter on the French negotiations.

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ERRATA.

Page 112, 3d line from bottom, for included read excluded.

Page 127, line 17, for a contemporary statesman, read contemporary statesmen.

Page 171, 3d line of note, for creditable to Mr. Pinckney, read creditable to Mr. Pickering.

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