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is twice in a tide ; and this opportunity of passing continues not above twenty minutes.

At other times it is impassable or extremely danger ous. From the confluence of this river with the bay of Fundy to its main source,

is computed to be three hundred and fifty miles. It is navigable for sloops to Frederickton. Its general course is W. N. W. On the banks of this river are rich intervale and meadow lands, well clothed with timber and wood, such as pine, beech, elm, maple, and walnut. There are many rivers that empty into it: the Oromocto river (by which the Indians have a communication with Passamaquoddy) the Nashwack, Madamkiswick, on which are ricii intervales that produce all kinds of grain in the highest perfection. St. John's river opens a vast extent of fine country, and takes in its various courses a number of fine rivers ; on all which are rich meadow and intervale lands, and most of them settled and under improvement. The upland is in general clothed with timber trees, such as pine and spruce, hemlock and hard wood, principally beech, birch, maples, and some ash. The pines on this river are the largest to be met with in British Amer. ica, and afford a considerable supply of masts for the royal navy.

The town of St. Andrew's is situated in the rear of an island of that name, on the east side of an arm (called Scoodick) of the inner bay of Passamaquoddy. It is very regularly laid out in the form of an oblong square ; but few houses, and those built on a small scale. but few inhabitants, whose chief en ployment is in the lumber trade. The common tides rise here about eighteen feet. There are three riv. ers which fall into the bay of Passaniaquoddy The largest is called by the modern Indians the Scoodick; bui by De Mons and Champlaine who accompanied De Mons in one of his voyages

thither (see their voyages, in Purchase's Collections, written and published in 1632) called Etche. mins. Its main source is near Penobscot river, to which river the Indians have a communication ; the carrying place across is three miles.

The rivers that fall into Passamaquoddy bay have intervales and meadows on their banks, and must have formerly been covered with a large growth of timber, which is observable from the remains of large trunks which are still to be seen ; but a raging fire having passed through that country (according to Indian accounts fifty years ago) burnt so furiously (in a very dry season) that it destroyed most of the timber on the east side of the bay of Passamaquoddy, and particularly on the Magegadavick or Eastern river, which falls into the bay, where it raged with un. common violence, and spread as far eastward as the river which falls into St. John's, and extended northerly and westerly beyond the Dickwasset or Digdeguash river, which falls into the same side of the bay.

Merrimichi river, on the north east coast of New Brunswick, falls into the head of a bay of that name ;, and a little above its confluence with the bay, it forms into two branches, and runs through a fertile tract of choice intervale land, and the land in general is well clothed. with timber of all kinds. From this river they have a communication



with St. John's, partly by land, but principally by water carriage in ca

The salmon fishery is carried on with success, and the cod fishery is improving near the entrance of the bay.

Petitcodiak river falls into an arm of the bay of Fundy, called Chig. necto channel. From its confluence, after a course of some miles northerly, it takes a western direction ; and the Indians have a communication from the head of it with St John's river by a portage across to the head of Kennebacasius. Memramcook river lies a little to the eastward of Petitcodak, and takes a northeasterly direction, and has been recommended as the most proper boundary for the division between this province and Nova Scotia.


Extract of a Letter from Halifax in Nova Scotia, dated October 23, 1792, "

AST evening Governour Wentworth arrived in town after thir. chief object of which was, to open a road from the settlements at Poictou, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, to, this place. Such a road has been long wanted, but thought impracticable, from the expense and the supposed difficulty of the country. Both are, however, overcome, and a good cart road is cut, cleared and bridged, by which the inhabitants of that populous, increasing, and fertile district, have an easy communication with the capital, and can enjoy the benefits of its cominerce, as well as the advantages of law and government ; of which, before, they were almost wholly destitute. This work has been accomplished without any burthen on the publick, from a revenue which has always been disposed of by former governours, but hitherto not applied to such beneficial purposes. The distance is sixty-eight miles, of which eight were done before ; forty are newly cut, cleared and bridged; the remainder is made very passable ; and the fund is diminished not one hundred and fifty pounds currency."

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N the year 1720, Colonel Philipps was appointed Governour of

Nova Scotia, and in the year 1749, General Cornwallis was appointed in his stead ; and was the founder of the present settlement of this colony.

In 1752, Colonel Hopson succeeded ; in 1753 Colonel Hopson had leave to go to England, and was succeeded in the administration of governinent by Lieutenant-Colonel, then Lieutenant Governour, rence, and in 1756, he was appointed Governour in the room of Colonel Hopson.

Governour Lawrence died in 1760, and Governour Ellis, who had been Governour of Georgia, was appointed Governour, and near left Europe ; but Mr. Belcher, senior counsellor, was appointed Lieutenant Governour, and was succeeded by Colonel Wilmot in 1763, who was appointed Lieutenant Governour, and was afterwards, in 1764, ap. pointed Governour in the place of Mr. Ellis.

In 1766, Governour Willmot died, and the administration of gov. ernment was successively carried on by Mr. Green, the senior counsellor, and Lieutenant Governour Franklin, until the end of the same year, when Lord William Campbell, who had been appointed Governour, arrived. He continued in the government until he was succeeded by Colonel Legge in 1773, who was called home in 1776. · The adminis. tration of government was afterwards successively in Lieutenant Gov. ernour Arbuthnot; in 1778, in Sir Richard Hughes ; and in 1781, in Sir Andrew Hammond.

In 1782, Colonel John Parr was appointed Governour, in the stead of Governour Legge. He died in November, 1791, Æt. 66. On his death, Richard Bulkely, President of the Council, was sworn into the administration of government. John Wentworth, surveyor general of the woods, was then in England ; and as soon as Governour Parr's death was known there, he applied for the commission and obtained it. He arrived in the spring of 1792, at Halifax, and was received by the inhabitants with great satisfaction.

N.B. It is to be observed, that since the British provinces in North America have been put under a general Governour, the Governour of each province is styled Lieutenant Governour. The general government comprehends Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, St. John's, Lower Canada, and Upper Canada. The residence of the general Governour is at Quebec.



THIS little fish is called by Linnæus Atherina (Menidia) pinna-

ani radiis viginti quatuor, or Atherine with twenty-four rays in the fin behind the anus. It is four inches in length, is semitransparent, and has a broad silver line extended from the opening of the gills to the insertion of the tail. The tail is forked. The iris of the


sil, very. The back is marked in diamonds by dotted lines.

It is found in great abundance in the river Piscataqua, in the months of August and September. It feeds on minute aquatick insects of the

. monoculus kind, and is preyed upon by several fishes as well as shell drakes.


[This letter is misplaced. It should have followed the Journal of the War ät the end of the second volume, with a reference to it, page 169 of the Journal.]

Fairfield, July 15, 1779. Dear Brother, I

SIT down to write you some account of the sad and awful scenes

which have been exhibited in this once pleasant and delightful town, now, alas ! a heap of ruins, a sad spectacle of desolation and wo.

It was in the beginning of wheat harvest, a season of extraordinary labour and festivity ; a season which promised the greatest plenty that has been known for many years, if within the memory of man. Never did our fields bear so ponderous a load, never were our prospects, with regard to sustenance, so bright.

The British feet and army, with the American refugees that had possessed and plundered New-Haven, set sail from that distressed place on the 6th instant.

About four o'clock the next morning, the approach of the fleet was announced by the firing of a gun from a small fort we have on Grover's hill, contiguous to the Sound. They seemed, however, to be, passing by. And about seven o'clock we, with pleasure, beheld them all to the westward of us, steering, as we thought, to New York. A very thick fog came on, which entirely deprived us of the sight of them till be tween the hours of nine and ten, when, the mist clearing away, we beheld the whole fleet under our western shore, and some of them close in with Kensie's Point. They presently came to anchor, and lay till about four in the afternoon, when they began to land their troops a little to the east of Kensie's Point, at a place called the Pines. From thence the troops marched along the beach, until they came to a lane opposite the centre of the town, through which they proceeded, and in about an hour paraded in their divisions on the green, between the meeting house and court house. From thence they detached their guards, and dividing into small parties, proceeded to their infernal business. Their commanding officers were Şir George Collier by sea, Generals Tryon and Garth by land. The approach of the feet was so sudden, that but few men could be collected, though the alarm guns were fired immediately on the dissipation of the fog. There was no thought of opposing their landing, as our force was nothing to theirs. Our little party, however, posted themselves so as to annoy them to the best advantage, expecting they would land at the Point. When our people found them landing on the left and marching in their rear to take possession of the town, they immediately retreated to the court house ; and as the enemy advanced from the Beach lane, they gave them such a warm reception with a field piece, which threw both round and grape shot, and


with their musquetry, as quite disconcerted them for some time. The column, however, quickly recovered its solidity, and advancing rapidly, forced our sinall body to retreat to the heights, back of the town, where they were joined by numbers coming in from the country. The enemy were likewise galled very much, as they turned from the beach to the lane, by the cannon which played from Grover's hill.

The town was almost cleared of inhabitants. A few women, some of whom were of the most respectable families and characters, tarried with a view of saving their property. They imagined their sex and character would avail to such a purpose. They put some confidence in the generosity of an enemy, who were once famed for generosity and politeness ; and thought that kind treatment and submissive behaviour would secure them against harsh treatment and rough usage. Alas! they were miserably mistaken, and bitterly repented their confidence and presumption.

The Hessians were first let loose for rapine and plunder. They entered houses, attacked the persons of whig and tory indiscriminately ; breaking open desks, trunks, closets, and taking away every thing of value. They robbed women of their buckles, rings, bonnets, aprons, and handkerchiefs. They abused them with the foulest and most profane language, threatened their lives without the least regard to the most earnest cries and entreaties. Looking glasses, china, and all kinds of furniture were soon dashed to pieces.

Another party that came on were the American refugees, who in revenge

for their confiscated estates, carried on the same direful business. They were not, however, so abusive to the women as the former, but appeared very furious against the town and country. The Britons, by what I could learn, were the least inveterate : some of the officers seemed to pity the misfortunes of the country, but in excuse said, that they had no other way to regain their authority over us. Individuals among the British troops were, however, exceedingly abusive, especially to women. Some were forced to submit to the most indelicate and rough treatment, in defence of their virtue, and now bear the bruises of the horrid conflict.

About an hour before sunset, the conflagration began at the house of Mr. Isaac Jennings, which was consumed with the neighbouring buildings. In the evening, the house of Elijah Abel, Esq. sheriff of the county, was consumed, with a few others. In the night, several buildings in the main street. General Tryon was in various parts of the town plot ; with the good women begging and entreating him to spare their houses. Mr. Sayre, the Church of England Missionary, a

, gentleman firmly and zealously engaged in the British interest, and who has suffered considerably in their cause, joined with them in these entreaties ; he begged the general to spare the town, but was denied. He then begged that some few houses might be spared as a shelter for those who could provide habitations no where else ; this was denied al

At length Mr. Tryon consented to save the buildings of Mr. Burr

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