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the supreme court sat, and government was triumphant*; but from the whole county of Bristol, not another whole company appeared, except the two companies from Raynham! On the last regimental muster at Taunton, the equipment and military appearance of the two Raynham companies met with distinguished approbation from the inspecting general; by him they were pronounced equal to any in the state.

As a proof of taste, and of real attachment to literature, it ought to be known, that for inore than fifteen years past, a kind of academical school has been constantly taught in this town. It began in the year 1773, under the care of the Rev. Peres Fobes; and a large number of youth, from different towns and states, were instructed here, not only in the languages, but in the arts and sciences. When he could no longer attend, another instructor was employed, and a school of a similar kind set up, at the expense chiefly of a few individuals in the town; and with little intermission, it has continued in the same place to this day.

A publick social library, consisting of a valuable collection of books has lately been established here, and through the last season, five Eng lish schools, besides a grammar school were taught in this town. At present there are six schools, four of which are now taught by respecta ble grammarians. Add to this, that four young men, from this town (two of whom lately settled in the ministry) have been graduated at different colleges, within a few years past; and six others from this place are now members of colleges. If this should not be thought cateris paribus, an instance without a parallel, it will perhaps be admitted as an evidence of literary zeal. But, in the opinion of the publick, perhaps, that which chiefly gives this little town a claim to publick attention, is, that here once lived PHILIP, the Indian King; and here still remain some pleasing monuments of antiquity and of great natural curiosity. They can here mark the place, and point with the hand to their children, and say, “Our ears have heard, and our fathers have told us," there once lived the tawny chief, the dread of women and children, a terror that walked in darkness, haunted in dreams, and butchered at noon-day. On that spot of ground stood his house; my great grand parent knew him; he once sold him an ox for beef, and often supplied him with iron made with his own hands, in yonder forge, which he himself built, and was the first America ever saw See, there yet stands the friendly dome, the once well-known garrison, to which our friends in numbers fled, eager for life and panting in horror of Indian foes-and see—but let history speak

The first adventurers from England to this country, who were skilled in the forge iron manufacture, were two brothers, viz. James and Henry Leonard. They came to this town in the year 1652, which was about two years after the first settlers had planted themselves upon this spot; and in the year 1652, these Leonards here built the first forge in America. Henry not long after moved from this place to the Jerseys and settled there. James, who was the great progenitor, from

* See Minot's History of the Insurrection. p. 59.

whom the whole race of the Leonards here sprung, lived and died in this town. He came from Ponterpool in Monmouthshire, and brought with him his son Thomas, then a small boy, who afterwards worked at the bloomery art, with his father in the forge. This forge was situated on the great road; and having been repaired from generation to generation, it is to this day still in employ. On one side of the dam, at a small distance from each other, stand three large elms and one oak tree. Two of the elms are near three feet in circumference, and are still flourishing. These trees are now almost a hundred and twenty years old; which with the ancient buildings and other objects around, present to the eye a scene of the most venerable antiquity. In the distance of one mile and a quarter from this forge, is a place called the Fowling Pond, on the northerly side of which once stood King Philip's house. It was called Philip's hunting house, because, in the season most favourable to hunting, he resided there, but spent the winter chiefly at Mount Hope, probably for the benefit of fish. Philip and these Leonards, it seems, long lived in good neighbourhood, and often traded with each other and such was Philip's friendship, that as soon as the war broke out, which was in 1675, he gave out strict orders to all his Indians, never to hurt the Leonards. During the war, two houses near the forge were constantly garrisoned. These buildings are yet standing. One of them was built by James Leonard, long before Philip's war. This house still remains in its original gothick form, and is now inhabited, together with the same paternal spot, by Leonards of the sixth generation. In the cellar under this house, was deposited, for a considerable time, the head of King Philip; for it seems that even Philip himself shared the fate of kings; he was decollated, and his head carried about and shewn as a curiosity, by one Alderman, the Indian who shot him.


There is yet in being an ancient case of drawers, which used to stand in this house, upon which the deep scars and mangled impressions of Indian hatchets are now seen: but the deeper impressions made on those affrighted women, who fled from the house, when the Indians broke in, cannot be known. Under the door steps of the same building now lie buried the bones of two unfortunate young women, who, in their flight here, were shot down by the Indians, and their blood was seen to run quite across the road: but more fortunate was the flight of Uriah Leonard, who, as he was riding from Taunton to the forge in this place, was discovered and fired upon by the Indians. He instantly plucked off his hat, swung it around, which startled his horse, and in full career, he reached the forge dam, without a wound; but several bullets were shot through the hat he held in his hand, and through the neck of the horse near the mane, from which the blood on both sides gushed and ran down on both his legs.

While deacon Nathaniel Williams, with some others, were at work in the field, on the south side of the road, about half a mile from the forge, one of the number discovered a motion of the bushes, at a little distance; he immediately presented his gun and fired; upon which

the Indians were heard to cry, Cocoosh, and ran off but soon after one. of the Indians was found dead near the fowling pond. Near the great river are now to be seen the graves of Henry Andross, and James Philips, who, with James Bell and two sons, were killed by a number of Indians, who lay in ambush. This happened in the place called Squabette.

The place already mentioned, by the name of Fowling Pond, is itself a great curiosity. Before Philip's war, it seems to have been a large pond, nearly two miles long, and three quarters of a mile wide. Since then, the water is almost gone, and the large tract it once covered, is grown up to a thick set swamp, of cedar and pine. That this, however, was once a large pond, haunted by fowls, and supplied with fish in great plenty, is more than probable, for here is found, upon dry land, a large quantity of white floor sand; and a great number of that kind of smooth stones, which are never fouud, except on shores, or places long washed with water. There is also on the east side a bank of sand, which is called the Beaver's Dam, against which the water must formerly have washed up; and if so, the pond must once have been of such amplitude as that above mentioned. Add to this, that a large number of Indian spears, tools, pots, &c. are found near the sides of this pond. This indicates that the natives were once thick settled here. But what could be their object? What could induce Philip to build his house here? It was, undoubtedly, fishing and fowling, in this, then large pond. But more than all, there is yet living in this town a man of more than ninety years old, who can well remember, than when he was a boy, he had frequently gone off in a canoe, to fish in this pond; and says, that many a fish had been catched, where the pines and cedars are now more than fifty feet high. If an instance, at oncè so rare, and well attested, as this, should not be admitted as a curious scrap of the natural history of this country; yet it must be admitted as a strong analogical proof, that many of our swamps were originally ponds of water but more than this, it suggests a new argument in favour of the wisdom and goodness of that Divine Providence, which "changes the face of the earth," to supply the wants of man, as often as he changes from uncivilized nature, to a state of cultivation and refinement.

There is one remarkable circumstance, relative to the soil which environs this pond, and that is, its prolifick virtue in generating ore. Copious beds of iron ore, in this part of the country, are usually found in the neighbourhood of pine swamps; or near to soils, natural to the growth of pine or cedar. In this case, if there is sufficient to filtrate the liquid mine, before it is deposited in beds, there will be found a plenty of bog ore. Now all these circumstances remarkably coincide, in the vicinity of this pond, and the effect is as remarkable for in this place, there has been almost an inexhaustible fund of excellent ore, from which the forge has been supplied, and kept going for more than eighty years; besides large quantities carried to other works, and yet here is

ore still; though, like other things in a state of youth, it is weak and incapable of being wrought into iron of the best quality. The signs already mentioned, as indicating ore, will afford to the philosopher an easy clue, for investigating the process of nature in the production of ore. In this way only, it must be determined, whether the original seeds, or pullutating particles of the ore, be lodged in the soil, or in the pine; and what is the process, the pabulum and period of its growth, through all its various stages, to maturity. The subject, perhaps, is new and unexplored; but by a number of well-conducted experiments, in the hands of genius, it promises a reward, which will add new riches to science, if not to the country. The time may come, when it will be easy, and as common, to raise a bed of bog ore as a bed of carrots.


THE following genealogical sketch is intended to show that longevity, promotion to publick office, and a kind of hereditary attachment to the iron manufacture, are all circumstances, remarkably characteristick of the name and family of LEONARD.

THE great progenitor, James Leonard, lived to be more than seventy years old. He had three brothers, five sons, and three daughters, all whose ages, upon an average, amounted to more than seventy-four years. His son Uriah had five sons and four daughters: Of his sons four lived to be more than eighty, and all his daughters above seventy-five. Thomas, the oldest son of James, was a distinguished character. He held the office of a justice of the peace, a judge of the court, a physician, a field officer, and was eminent for piety. Sacred to his memory, an eulogy was printed in 1713, by the Rev. Samuel Danforth of Taunton, one of the most learned and eminent ministers of his day. This Thomas had five sons, of whom four lived above seventy years. His son George was a justice of the peace and a military officer. In Norton, in a poem published by a character of eminence, on occasion of his death, in 1716; he is styled "the prudent, pious, worthy, and worshipful Major George Leonard, Esq." He had four sons and three daughters. His oldest son George was a colonel, and a judge both of the probate and common pleas he lived to be more than eighty; he had one son and two daughters: His son is the Honourable George Leonard, Esq. late member of congress: His oldest daughter is the wife of the Rev. David Barnes, and the mother of David Barnes, Esq. attorney at law. The other daughter was the wife of the late Colonel Chandler of Worcester.

The second son of Major George, was Nathaniel, a pious, worthy minister, who settled in Plymouth. He lived more than seventy years; and he had a son Abiel, who was a minister in Connecticut, and a chaplain in the American army in the revolution war,

The third son of Major George was Ephraim : he was a colonel, a judge of the court, and a man of eminent piety: he lived to be more than eighty. He had one child only, viz. Daniel, who is now chief justice of the islands of Bermuda : he also has but one son, Charles, now a student at Cambridge college.

Two of the daughters of Major George lived to be aged. One was the wife of Colonel Thomas Clap, formerly a minister of Taunton ; the other was the wife of a respectable clergyman.

Samuel Leonard, the fourth son of Thomas, was a man of distinguished piety. He held the offices of a deacon, a captain, and justice of the peace. He had four sons and five daughters. Two of his sons were captains, one a justice of the peace, and all of them deacons. Three are yet alive, one above eighty, and two above seventy. His third son Elijah has a son of his own name lately settled in the ministry. His oldest daughter was the parent of Dr. Simeon Howard of Boston. His second daughter was the wife of Rev. John Wales of this town, and the mother of Rev. Dr. Samuel Wales, professor of divinity at Yale College. The other daughters were the wives of respectable characters, and all in publick offices. Elkanah, the fifth son of Thomas, had three sons, two of whom lived to see more than seventy. One was a captain, the other a major, a lawyer, and one of the most distinguished geniuses of his name and day. He left two sons, both captains, and above sixty. One of them, viz. Zebulon, has an only child, that is now the wife of Dr. Samuel Shaw.

John was another son of Thomas. He had four sons and three daughters, who all lived to be above eighty. A daughter of the oldest son, was the wife of the Rev. Eliab Byram, and the parent of the present wife of Josiah Dean, Esq. of this town, who himself is also a lineal descendant, and the present owner of the forge first built by his great


Thus far of the posterity of Thomas the oldest son of the progenitor. James, the second son of James, bore his own name. He had four sons and three daughters: three of his sons lived to be near eighty; and two of the daughters above ninety. One of them was the wife of Doctor Ezra Dean; and the other was the parent of Gershom Crane, esą. who lived to be almost an hundred years old, and was the father of the present Doctor Jonathan Crane, esq. The oldest son of James was Captain James Leonard, who had three sons and five daughters, two of his sons were military officers, and all of them lived nearly to the age of seventy. His oldest daughter was the wife of Thomas Cobb, esq. and the mother of the Hon. David Cobb, esq. speaker of the house, member of congress, &c. The second son of James was Stephen Leonard: he was a justice of the peace, and a judge of the court of common pleas. He had four sons, three of whom lived to be aged one was the Rev. Silas Leonard of New York; the oldest was Major Zephaniah Leonard, esq. and judge of the court. He had five sons of whom four are yet alive, three of them had a publick education at Yale College. The oldest is Capt. Joshua, who now inhabits the an

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