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cient paternal building, and is nearly seventy: he has a son of his own name, who at the age of twenty-two, was an ordained minister in Connecticut. The second son is Colonel Zephaniah Leonard. He has held the offices of an attorney at law, a justice of the peace, and is now sheriff of the county. He has three sons, two of whom are now members of college. The third son is Apollos Leonard, esq. one of the special justices of the county. The youngest son, is Samuel Leonard, lately appointed a justice of the peace. He is a respectable, opulent merchant, and has a number of promising sons, that wait only for the proper age, to receive such an education, as will add still greater honour to the ancient honourable family and name they bear. Such has been the longevity and promotion to publick offices, in two branches of this family only. The circumstance of a family attachment to the. iron manufacture is so well known, as to render it a common observation in this part of the country, viz. where you can find iron works, there you will find a LEONARD.

Henry, the brother of James, went from this place, to the Jerseys, and was one of the first who set up iron works in that state. He was the progenitor of a numerous and respectable posterity in that part of America.


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Sir, Middleborough, July 25, 1794. AST quantities of iron, both cast and wrought, have been made past; but it was chiefly out of bog ore, until that kind was much exhausted in these parts, and then a rich treasure was opened in Middleborough, which had been long hid from the inhabitants. About the year 1747, it was discovered that there was iron mine in the bottom of our great pond at Assowamset; and after some years, it became the main ore that was used in the town, both at furnaces and forges, and much of it has been carried into the neighbouring places for the same purpose. Men go out with boats, and make use of instruments much like those with which oysters are taken, to get up the ore from the bottom of the pond.


I am told that, for a number of years, a man would take up and bring to shore, two tons of it in a day; but now it is so much exhausted, that half a ton is reckoned a good day's work for one man. in an adjacent pond is now plenty, where the water is twenty feet deep, and much is taken up from that depth, as well as from shoaler water. It has also been plenty in a pond in the town of Carver, where they have a furnace upon the stream which runs from it. Much of the iron which is made from this ore is better than they could make out of bog ore, and some of it is as good as almost any refined iron. The quantity of this treasure, which hath been taken out of the bottom of clear

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ponds, is said to have been sometimes as much as five hundred tons in a year. But I must leave the computation of the quantity and the value of it to others, while I admire the goodness of God, who openeth so many ways for the support and comfort of men, though we are often so ungrateful to Him."

Rev. Dr. BELKNAP, Corresponding Secretary of the Historical Society.



TE have the pleasure of announcing to the publick, that there is now preparing for the press, A history of the ancient Colony of PLYMOUTH in New England, including, the present counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, and Bristol in Massachusetts, with part of the county of Bristol, in Rhode Island. Containing a geographical description, with a particular account of the political and ecclesiastical state of every town, from its first settlement to the present day. To which will be prefixed, a complete map of the whole.


Minister of the Gospel in Raynham, and Professor of Natural Philosophy in the College of Rhode-Island.

THE writer has undertaken this work at the request of several characters of literary eminence; and though he has already obtained a considerable part of the materials, and is now ready to engage, (should health continue) that no labour or pains shall on his part be omitted, yet he cannot proceed, but in confidence of the patronage and assistance of his fellow citizens. To secure which he hopes they will consider, that the subject of the proposed history is, the first settlement of our own country; that it recites the hardy virtues and painful struggles of our ancestors, in the race of liberty and glory; that whilst it describes that venerable spot of New England which is "the mother of us all," it will attempt to rescue from oblivion some interesting facts, of aboriginal date, which tradition only has hitherto preserved.

It is to be regretted that much useful information on other subjects, besides that of the medicinal plants of this country is now irrecoverably lost, and much more of equal concern to the present and future generations is every day sinking into oblivion. Whilst we are waiting for the productions of elegant pens, are we not in danger of losing some valuable gems in the history of our country? The admonition therefore is, "What thou doest, do quickly."



Right Honourable,


Roxbury, Sept. 30, 1670.

"OUR, constant care of, and steadfast affection unto this Indian

York (which the Lord hath in great undeserved mercy to me,

put under my hand, a weak and unworthy instrument herein) do greatly oblige my heart to honour you, and pray, that it may be remembered by the Lord in that great day, when he will say [come ye blessed] unto all the sincere benefactors unto his people. You have also ad

ded no small encouragement unto me, in that worthy gift, which your honour is pleased to bestow upon me, viz. Pool's Synopsis, or Critica Sacra upon the whole bible, which though it be not yet come, is under the care and faithful hand of my worthy and true friend Mr. Ashurst ; for which desirable gift I return unto your honour my humble thanks. Touching the present state of this work with the Indians, I have written to our worshipful commissioners, who will send it unto your honour, governour of the honourable corporation; and therefore I shall keep silence of that matter here. And whereas your honour will see, that I have undertaken and begun a kind of academical reading unto them, in their own language, thereby to teach the teachers and rulers, and all that are desirous of learning: I find by experience, that it will be very necessary to have some entertainment of food, for all the principal men at least, which do come; for many are to come a great way, and had we but food to entertain them, when they come there, it would be some encouragement. And I have some thoughts, if God give life and means, to read medicine, and call for such roots (for they altogether use the root, and not the herb) as they have experience of; especially had I wherewith to recompense any, that bring in a desirable experiment. There hath been a rare work of God this summer in a great pond at Watertown, where all the fish died, and were not willing to die in the waters, but as many as could thrust themselves on shore, and there died; not less than twenty cart load, by estimation, lying dead, all at once, round about the pond. An eel was found alive in the sandy border of the pond, and being cast into the water, she wriggled out again, as fast as she could, and died on the shore. An inhabitant of the town, living by the pond, his cattle use daily to drink there; but then, for three days together, they refused there to drink, but after three days, they drank of the pond, as they were wont to do. When the fish began to come ashore, before they died, many, were taken and eaten, both by English and Indians, without any hurt; and the fish were very good. Now the disease of the stone groweth frequent among the English, and beginneth among the Indians; which stirreth me to search, and I clearly find, that a crude stomach provides the matter, and cold in and about the bladder and ureVOL. III. Y

ters is the efficient of the stone, especially in those, whom I have conversed with, as may be demonstrated. But I am over bøld to presume to meddle so far unto your honour. I therefore shall cease to give you any further trouble at present. So committing you to the Lord, and to the word of his grace, I remain,

Your honour's to serve you

in the service of the Lord Jesus, JOHN ELIOT.


Roxbury, October 23, 1677.

Right honourable nursing fathers,


HE poor praying Indians do thankfully acknowledge, that (under God, our heavenly father, and under Jesus Christ, our redeemer, who redeemeth us out of all our troubles) you have been the means and instruments in his hand, to save and deliver us. God moved your

hearts to own us, in that black day, when all were against us, and we were almost ready to be swallowed up in destruction; which dark time we ought not to forget, nor your owning kindness unto us in that dark day.

And since that, your charity hath greatly revived and refreshed us. Many of our aged, decrepid, fatherless, and widows, still wear the garments, not yet worn out, which your charity did, the last winter, clothe us withal. And although we yet know not what our honoured commissioners will do for us, whose favour we doubt not of; yet understanding, that some doubt is raised about your countenancing and encouraging our rulers, who are of us, and live among us, and without whose presence and assistance, the Lord's work of soul-instruction and edification will soon faint, sink, and come to nothing; our humble petition is, first to God, that he, who hath hitherunto, would still move your hearts for our good and welfare; and next, our petition is unto yourselves, that we may have the countenance of your favour, to countenance and own our rulers among us, without whose countenance, our teachers will be of little power, especially among our youth and rising generations, who do not yet favour the things of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and among strangers, who have not yet tasted how good the Lord is, though for their protection and safety they have crouded in upon us.

Noble hearted Sir, your gift I do still religiously keep, for some special and eminent service of the Lord, in the Lord's time. In our first war with the Indians, God pleased to shew us the vanity of our military skill, in managing our arms, after the European mode. Now we are glad to learn the skulking way of war. And what God's end is, in teaching us such a way of discipline, I know not. By our late eastern war it hath pleased God to shew us our weakness by sea, as formerly by land. The Indians took many of our fishing vessels and

the men that belonged to them, and forced them to sail whither they de sired many of the men delivered themselves and their vessels; many Indians were slain, some English. The history of these actions I have not others do attend that service, to whom I leave it. The Governour of New-York sent a strength this summer, and took possession of a northern port, where they fixed and fortified themselves: since whose coming thither, the Indians have not stirred much. Little action hath passed, but I hear not of any peace made. The Yorkers have taken in hand a chargeable design: what profit will come of it, I know not ; time will discover that: whether their intention be to promote religion, or only trading, I know not. It pleased the Lord, very lately to permit a small handful (not twenty), of the late scattered rod to make a sore direption upon Hatfield and Deerfield, at Connecticut ; where about twelve persons were killed, more than twenty carried away captive, or lost; seven dwellings burned, and sundry barns full of corn; and since they have appeared at Hadley, burned the mill. 'They had parley with them, treated about restoring the captives, agreed of a time and place of meeting; but the Indians failed to appear. These last actions have very much discouraged our people from repairing the destroyed towns, which some were beginning to do.

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We had a Sachem of the greatest blood in the country submitted to pray to God, a little before the wars: his name is Wanalaunset: in the time of the wars he fled, by reason of the wicked actings of some English youth, who causelessly and basely killed and wounded some of them. He was persuaded to come in again. But the English having ploughed and sown with rye all their lands, they had but little corn to subsist by. A party of French Indians (of whom some where of the kindred of this Sachem's wife) very lately fell upon this people, being but few and unarmed, and partly by persuasion, partly by force, carried them all away. One, with his wife, child, and kinswoman, who were of our praying Indians, made their escape, came in to the English, and discovered what was done. These things keep some in a continual disgust and jealousy of all the Indians. I shall give your honour no farther trouble at present. We entreat your prayers, and commit you to the Lord, and rest

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Roxbury, Nov. 4, 1680.


Right honourable, charitable, indefatigable, nursing father, HEN good works of pure charity are sown three hundred fold thick, and that by a living hand, Lord, what a reaping time or harvest will there be ! Sir, you are eminently mindful of that Gospel charge, 1 Tim. vi. 17, 18, 19. Charge them that be rich in this world,

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