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A subsistence being easily obtained, the young people are induced to marry at an early age; many of the men under twenty three, and many of the women under twenty. A numerous 'family is generally formed after a few years.

There are schools for the instruction of children and youth. But though education is more attended to of late, than is was some years ago, yet it is much to be wished that the importance and advantage of it were still more considered.

Only four persons from Truro have had a college education.

The climate of the place is said to be favourable to health and longevity. Complaints of the nervous kind, however, are very com

mon.

Though Truro in respect of soil is inferiour to every other township in the county, except Wellfleet and Province town, both of which have convenient harbours; yet, in spite of every disadvantage, it has become full of inhabitants. In the time of the contest between Great Britain and America, four masters of vessels with their men, the greatest part of whom belonged to Truro, were lost at sea. Many died in the prison-ship at New-York. But since that period, as migrations from the township have been rare, though formerly frequent, the inhabitants have increased.

In the year 1790, when the census was taken, there were eleven hundred and ninety-three inhabitants.* Thirty years ago, the number of the inhabitants was nine hundred and twenty four; and of dwelling houses, one hundred and seven. At present there are one hundred and sixty five dwelling houses; none of which, except three, are more than one story in height. Five of the houses being situated near the bounds of Wellfleet, the families belonging to them attend publick worship there. The houses being small, are in general finished immediately after they are erected. The meeting house is painted, and in good repair. The inhabitants in general are very constant in their attendance on publick worship.

There is one water mill and three wind mills for the grinding of Indian corn and rye. The elderly men and small boys remain at home to cultivate the ground: the rest are at sea, except occasionally, two thirds of the year. The women are generally employed in spinning, weaving, and knitting; but there are no other manufactures. The flax, cotton, and the greatest part of the wool, are procured from Boston.

In 1697 some purchases of land were made of the Indians, as appears from an old book of records kept by the town. The settlement of Truro, the Indian name of which was Pamet, commenced about the year 1700. On the 29th of October, 1705, it was erected into a town, to be called Dangerfield. On the 16th of July, 1709, it was incorporated by the name of Truro.

In 1793 there were in Truro three hundred and thirty polls, which, allowing four persons to one poll, make thirteen hundred and twenty inhabitants; above seventy to a square mile.

A church was formed at the time of the ordination of the first minister, according to the church books of records and the male members, who united in embodying the church, were seven, besides the pas

tor.

The first minister, Rev. John Avery, was ordained November 1st, 1711. He died April 23d, 1754, in the 69th year of his age, and 44th of his ministry. The inhabitants of Truro, who personally knew Mr. Avery, speak of him in very respectful terms. As a minister, he was greatly beloved and admired by his people, being a good and use. ful preacher, of an exemplary life and conversation.

As a physician he was no less esteemed. He always manifested great tenderness for the sick; and his people very sensibly felt their loss in his death. His eldest son, John Avery, esquire, is still living in Boston; and one of his grandsons, John Avery, junior, esquire, has during many years been secretary of the commonwealth.

Rev. Caleb Upham was ordained October 29th, 1755. He died April 9th, 1786, in the 63d year of his age, and 31st of his ministry. Mr. Upham was a good scholar, an animated preacher, a warm friend to his country, and an honest man. A taste for poetry was apparent in all his compositions. He left behind him a poem in manuscript, the subject of which is taken from the book of Job. He was ever attentive to the real good of his people, and exerted himself with zeal and fidelity in their service.

The present minister of Truro, Rev. Jude Damon, was ordained October 15th, 1786.

A BILL OF MORTALITY IN TRURO, FOR SEVEN YEARS, BEGINNING JANUARY 1ST, 1787.

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[ROGER WILLIAMS's Key into the Language of the Indians of NewEngland, has become exceedingly scarce. The only copy, of which we have any knowledge, is one presented to the library of the Historical Society. As it has been much sought after by the curious, we shall extract the most valuable part of it. It was printed in London, in 1643, in a small 18mo. volume; and is divided into thirty two chapEach chapter contains a vocabulary, "framed chiefly after the Narraganset dialect," interspersed with observations on the manners and customs of the Indians. The chapter is concluded with spiritual observations, and three or four verses of rhymes. In the following extracts, the conclusions of the chapters are omitted, and the greatest part of the vocabulary. A sufficient number of Indian words is however retained, to serve as a specimen of the language.]

A KEY INTO THE LANGUAGE OF AMERICA: OR AN HELP TO THE LANGUAGE OF THE NATIVES, IN THAT PART OF AMERICA, CALLED NEW ENGLAND. TOGETHER WITH BRIEF OBSERVATIONS OF THE CUSTOMS, MANNERS, AND WORSHIPS, &c. of the aforesaid NaTIVES, IN PEACE AND WAR, IN LIFE AND DEATH. BY ROGER WILLIAMS OF PROVIDENCE IN NEW ENGLAND.

To my dear and well beloved friends and countrymen, in Old and New England.

PRESENT you with a I have not heard like yet fram

Ied, since it pleased God to bring that mighty continent of America

to light. Others of my countrymen have often, and excellently, and lately, written of the country, and none that I know beyond the goodness and worth of it.

This Key respects the native language of it, and happily may unlock some rarities concerning the natives themselves, not yet discovered.

I drew the materials in a rude lump at sea, as a private help to my own memory, that I might not, by my present absence, lightly lose what I had so dearly bought in some few years' hardship and charges among the barbarians. Yet being reminded by some, what pity it were to bury these materials in my grave at land or sea; and withal remembering how oft I have been importuned by worthy friends of all sorts to afford them some help this way; I resolved, by the assistance of the Most High, to cast those materials into this Key, pleasant and profitaable for all, but specially for my friends residing in those parts.

With this Key I have entered into the secrets of those countries, where ever English dwell, about two hundred miles, between the French and Dutch plantations. For want of this, I know what gross mistakes myself and others have run into.

There is a mixture of this language, north and south, from the place of my abode, about six hundred miles. Yet within the two hundred miles, aforementioned, their dialects do exceedingly differ; yet not so but, within that compass, a man may, by this help, converse with thousands of natives all over the country; and by such converse, it may please the Father of mercies to spread civility, and in his own most holy season, christianity for one candle will light ten thousand, and it may please God to bless a little leaven, to season the mighty lump of these peoples and territories.

It is expected, that having had so much converse with these natives, I should write some little of them.

Concerning them, a little to gratify expectation, I shall touch upon four heads:

First, by what names they are distinguished.
Secondly, their original and descent.

Thirdly, their religion, manners, customs, &c.
Fourthly, that great point of their conversion.

To the first, their names are of two sorts:

First, those of the English giving as natives, savages, Indians, wild men, (so the Dutch call them Wilden) Abergeny men, pagans, barbarians, heathen.

Secondly, their names which they give themselves.

I cannot observe, that they ever had, before the coming of the English, French, or Dutch among them, any names to difference themselves from strangers, for they knew none; but two sorts of names they had, and have amongst themselves.

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