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Ole age.

lay unburied; and that, notwithstanding help was procured, and charitable assistance afforded, by many in neighbouring towns

“We are a small town, consisting of about eighty families, and not more than four hundred souls.' Considering the number of inhabitants then in the town, this was, perhaps, the most distressing mortality which has visited any plantation, since the first settlement of the country.

Except the time of this sickness, the people have enjoyed an equal degree of health, with those in other places ; from that time, to 1791, they have increased to eight hundred and seventy-five, according to the census : Besides a large proportion of the inhabitants, who have emigrated to New Hampshire and Vermont.

As an instance of longevity, Mrs. Winchester died in the town, a few years since, aged one hundred and four. A Bill of Mortality, in Holliston, for three years, beginning January 1,


Feb. 1790, Male 89

Female 47 Nervous Fever.

Ditto 70 Influenza.

Male 25 Consumption.

Female 2 Fever.

Male 17 White swelling upon the knee.

Female 49 Consumption.

Ditto 28 Consumption.
November Male 12 Killed in a sand pit.
December Infant
Jan. 1791 Female 48 Cancer.

S Male 26 Pulmonary Consumption.


S Female 26 Consumption.

Ditto 67 Cancer.

Ditto 19 Child bed Fever.


Male 79 Consumption.

Ditto 4 Fever.

Ditto 67 Rheumatism.

S Infant

Female Fits.

Male 3 Quinsy.


Whooping Cough.


83 Old age.

Ditto 89 Ditto.

Female 88 Ditto.


34 Child-bed.
Ditto 71 Consumption.


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Those a little under a year old, noted by this




Old age.

Jan. 1792 Female 70 Asthma.


Sore mouth.



Ditto 81 Consumption.

Male 54 Dropsy.

Ditto 49 Asthma.

Female 28 Consumption.
Ditto 47 Cancer.

Ditto 32 Unknown.


Male 62 Small Pox, natural way.
December Female 23 Ditto by inoculation.

1790 11
Whole number of those who died in 1791

1792 13







UNE 29, 1791, left Bedford, in company with Colonel Gibson of the

levies. Having dined, we departed and took the Glade road over the Alleghany mountains. The lands lying between the Alleghany and Strasburgh, are but indifferent ; the wood being chiefly pine. The Alleghanies run an extensive course through North-America, and are the promontories thereof: From circumstances and appearances, it has been suggested by some, that this continent was once joined to the western, but by some dreadful convulsions of nature, separated and dismembered. Whether this has been really the case, or only conjectural, I leave to those who are more deeply skilled in researches of this nature, to determine.

The ascent of the Alleghany is very great for several miles ; having therefore with much difficulty reached the summit of one eminence, another still higher, presents itself to be explored; keeping the traveller continually climbing, until he reaches the top of the mountain.

Having reached the summit, and rode several miles, we were much gratified at the sight of many beautiful and extensive fields and meadows, which nothing in nature could exceed, in elegance and fertility, often continuing to extend to the utmost limits of the sight. This scene was truly picturesque ; from the rugged appearance of the mountain in the ascent, I had not formed an idea of beholding so sudden, and so pleas


ing a change; the works of nature are truly beautiful, astonishing, and varied ; she delights to terrify, please, and charm the heart of man.

By reason of the long continuance of the frost in the Glades (being subjected to it from September to June) they cannot raise corn.

This night we lodged at Mr. M’Dermot's in the Glades, where by reason of heavy rains and winds, we were detained till the first of July, when we departed from thence, and arrived the evening of the same day, at Greensburgh, which is thirty-one miles from Pittsburgh ; yet on a straight line from thence, to the Alleghany river, it is called fifteen miles only. Greensburgh, so called, in honour of the late General Greene, is a neat pretty town. On the 2d, left Greensburgh, and arrived at Pittsburgh on the 3d of July. This town was formerly called Fort du Qrlesne, and on the 25th of November, 1758, was taken possession of by General Forbes, being abandoned by the French, and set fire to, the preceding night. The outlines of the fort, which was planned by Monsieur Contrecæur, are now to be seen; the fort received its name from him, June 13th, 1754. In June 1751, Monsieur de Villiers drove the English Ohio Company from the banks of this river, and Monsieur Contrecæur obliged Captain Trent to abandon the fort erected on the forks of the river Monongahela, on the 20th of May, 1754.

The town of Pittsburgh lies on a plain, running to a point. The Allegbany, which is a beautiful clear stream on its north, and the Monongahela, which is a muddy stream on its south, conjoining below where Fort du Quesne stood, form the parent of all rivers, the majestick Ohio. The hills on the Monongahela side, are very high, and extend down the river Ohio. These hills, or many of them, are filled with excellent coals, as well for the use of families as for mechanical purposes. I am informed that when the British were in possession of this part of the continent, one of these coal hills, took fire, and continued burning nearly eight years, when it was effectually extinguished by the crater on its side and top falling in.

On the back side of the town, from Grant's hill, so called, where his army was cut to pieces by the savages, you have a beautiful prospect of the town of Pittsburgh, and can behold with rapture the two rivers Alleghany and Monongahela, wafting along their separate streams, till they meet and join at the point of the town. On every side, hills covered with trees appear to add simplicity and beauty to the scene.

At the distance of about one hundred miles, up the Alleghany, there is said to be a small creek, whose waters empty into it, the virtues of which are deemed by the people of this country, as singularly beneficial, and an infallible cure for weakness in the stomach, for rheumatick pains, for sore breasts in women, bruises, &c. At some particular places in the creek, the water boils, or bubbles forth, (like the waters at Hell Gate, the entrance of New York,) from which proceeds an oily substance, covering the top of the water ; this oil is gathered by the country people, who bring it to Pittsburgh for sale ; the natives are



also knowing to its virtues ; they boil and then vend it. The inhabitants of Pittsburgh are so prepossessed in favour of this oil, that there is scarce a house in the town, or a single inhabitant, which does not possess a bottle of it, and is able to recount its many virtues and its many

Persons troubled with weakness, pains, &c. go to these waters and bathe.

I am informed that the virtues of these waters were first discovered some years ago, when the British troops crossed them, at which time the feet of the soldiery from a long and tedious march were bare and sore, and that in a short time after their crossing them, to their joy and surprise, they became perfectly well and healed.

Twelve miles from Pittsburgh lies Turtle Creek, at the head of which, General Braddock engaged a party of Indians, was repulsed, himself killed, and his army put to flight.

In this country, one is never at a loss for a subject to amuse an idle hour; rivers, lawns, fields, purling streams,extensive meadows,cataracts, mountains, llies, natural curiosities, and the vestiges of ancient fortifications are ever presenting themselves to the view. I could find sufficient amusement during the remainder of my life, in this western world ; in fact, I should be lost in a continued labyrinth of inexplicable ideas and suppositions.

About seven miles across the Monongahela, the ruins of an ancient fort are very plain to be seen and traced : Mr. Neville now owns the Jand, and has a beautiful farm there : This ancient work, from appearances, must have been built many hundred years ago, but who were the people at that time inhabiting this country ? for what causes were they built? Here I am at a loss, yet I am not alone ; still that can be no satisfaction to me ; but on enquiries of this nature, the mind is not satisfied with mere conjecture ; it requires more substantial food, the food of certainty ; some will argue that these appearances are but the sports of nature : Yet, though she please with a thousand varied forms and shapes, I cannot bring myself to think with them. Is it reasonable to suppose that nature would indulge her vein of humour so far as to raise regular fortifications? Who had she to encounter, that rendered the expediency of the matter ? No, Sir, they must, I think, be attributed to the workmanship of man, and to such men as were niore acquainted with the rules of fortification than we find the aboriginals to possess ; but who they were, from whence they came, at what period they arrived, or where they have passed to, I believe we must ever remain in ignorance.

I have been told that these ancient fortifications owe their origin to a number of Welsh emigrants, who came over to this country many years ago, by reason of the troubles which they at that time laboured under in their native clime ; that they landed at or near New-Orleans, in the Spanish dominions, within the river Missisippi, who, as they advanced into the country, built these works in order to defend themselves against the fury and attacks of the aboriginals. I am not able to


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judge of the truth or falsity of this assertion, not recollecting any emigration of this kind, nor do I know at what period it must have taken place, if it ever happened. To substantiate this story, I am further informed, that there is a nation of Indians, who resice near to the waters of the Missouri, which also empties into the . Missisippi, who actually speak something near to the dialect of the Welsh people.

At Grave-Creek, so called, on the Ohio, which is ten miles below Wheelin settlement, there is an Indian mound, the base of which is about three hundred paces round, and rises in a conic form about one hundred feet ; there are large trees growing on every part of it ; some of which are remarkably large, and have stood the rude shock of many an angry winter's blast. We measured a white-oak standing near to its summit, which was more than eleven feet diameter. It is a beautiful tree, in full life and vegetation, and supposed, by General Butler, to be at least, three hundred years old. It has been conjectured, and I think with some degree of plausibility, that this mound was reared for the burying ground of the aboriginals, as from the curiosity incident to travellers into a new country, part of its summit has been dug into, and bones found, which upon investigation appear to be of the human kind.

Previous to ourdeparture from Pittsburgh, I formed a slight acquaintance with a Mr. M

who, about five years ago, departed from Montreal with a company of about one hundred men under his direction, for the purpose of making a tour through the Indian country, to collect furs, and to make such remarks on its soil, waters, lakes, mountains, manners and customs of its inhabitants as might daily come within his knowledge and observation.

He pursued his route from Montreal, entered the Indian country, and coasted about three hundred leagues along the banks of lake Superior; from whence he made his way to the Lake of the Woods, of which he took an actual survey, and found it to be thirty-six leagues in length; from thence to the lake Dunipique, of which he has also a description. The tribes of Indians which he passed through, were called the Maskego tribe, Shepeweyau, Cithinistinee, Great Belly Indians, Beaver Indians, Blood Indians, the Blackfeet tribe, the Snake Indians, Ossnobians, Shiveytoon tribe, Mandon tribe, Paunees, and several others,

no in general were very pacifick and friendly towards him, and are great admirers of the best l.“ ating horses, in which the country abounds. The horses prepared by them for hunters, have large holes cut above their natural nostrils, for which they give as a reason, that those prepared in this manner will keep their breath longer than the others which are not thus prepared : From experience knowledge is gained, and the long practice of this custom, consequent on these trials, must have convinced them of the truth and utility of the experiment ; otherwise we can hardly suppose they would torture their best horses in this manner, if some advantage was not derived from the measure.

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