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In pursuing his route, he found no difficulty in obtaining a guide to accompany him from one nation to the other, until he came to the Shining Mountains, or Mountains of Bright Stones, where, in attempting to pass, he was frustrated by the hostile appearance of the Indians who inhabit that part of the country—the consequence of which was, he was disappointed in his intention and obliged to turn his back upon them. Having collected a number of Indians he' went forward again, with an intention to force his way over those mountains, if

necessary and

prac. ticable, and to make his way to Cook's river, on the northwest coast of America, supposed by him to be about three hundred leagues from the mountains ; but the inhabitants of the mountains again met him with their bows and arrows, and so superiour were they in numbers to his little force, that he was obliged to flee before them. Finding himself thus totally disappointed in the information he was in hopes to obtain, he was obliged to turn his back upon that part of the country for which his thirsting heart had long panted.

Cold weather coming on, he built huts for himself and party in the Ossnobian country, and near to the source of a large river, called the Ossnobian river, where they tarried during the continuance of the cold season, and until some time in the warmer months. Previous to his departure from Montreal, he had supplied himself with several kinds of seeds, and before his huts he laid out a small garden, which the natives observing, called them slaves for digging up the ground, nothing of that kind being done by them, they living wholly on animal food. Bread is unknown to theni, to some he gave some remnants of hard bread, which they chewed and spit out again, calling it rotten wood.

When his onions, &c. were somewhat advanced in their growth, he was often surprised to find them pulled up; determining therefore to know from what cause it proceeded, he directed his men to keep watch, who found tKat the Indian children, induced by motives of curiosity, came with sticks, thrust them through the pales of his fence to ascertain and satisfy themselves what the things of the white men were, and in what manner they grew, &c.

The natives of this country have no fixed, or permanent place of abode, but live wholly in tents made of buffalo and other hides, and with which they travel from one place to another like the Arabs ; and so soon as the feed for their horses is expended, they remove their tents to another fertile spot, and so on continually, scarcely ever returning to the same spots again. Mr.

Mis a young man, fond of enterprise, and well calculated for adventure, and to make such remarks as may give both light and information to the United States respecting their extensive possessions, and with which they are but imperfectly acquainted.. Did government think proper to avail itself of the services of this young gentleman, he would most joyfully attend to itskwishes, and pursue such routes as it should point out to him. VOL. III.



From the Little to the Great Miami, taking in the meanders of the Ohio, are twenty-seven miles; but on a straight line, only twenty. These lands, extending back from the Ohio to the northern boundary of the lands owned by the Ohio Company, comprehend the purchase of Judge Symmes, and at the time when the sale was made to him, were supposed to contain, by Hutchins's map, about two millions of acres ; but on actual survey made by Judge Symmes, since that period, are found to contain only two hundred and seventy thousand acres.

Mr. Hutchins's map in this particular is erroneous, from his not being fully acquainted with the country and the course of many of its riv

He made no 'allowance for the approximation of the two Miamies ; but supposed they kept the same courses through the country. The country has since been explored, and at the distance of thirty miles from the Ohio, the Miamies approximate each other within eight miles and a half.

The Great Miami is one of the most beautiful streams of water in the western territory. At its highest state, it is so clear and transparent, that a pin may very plainly be seen at its bottom. And indeed most of the waters, which run from the north, have that transparency, and the bottoms are generally gravelly ; whilst those running from the south are generally very turbid and the bottoms muddy.

On the evening of the 26th (Sept.) one of the Indian Chiefs died at Fort Washington ; the next day he was carried from hence and decently buried; a few of the squaws and children following him to the grave, where, after being let down, his wife in a short speech, reproached him for leaving her, but wished him to make out as well as he could, and that she would do the same. I attended the nailing his coffin, when his wife put on one side of him, his scalping-knife, tobacco-pouch, shotbag, &c. previous to which she bound bis head with a handkerchief and put on his leggings and moggasins, &c. He was of the Omie tribe.

Many of the prisoners are of the Kichapac and Miami tribes among the young women are two very handsome girls, one of which is a Weau, and the other & Miami ; and by their dress, and dignity of deportment, and modest behaviour, discover themselves to be of the highest grade of Indians. The outside garment is a blue cloth shroud ; their calico shirts are decorated, from the neck down to the middle of the waist, before and behind, with silver rings or broaches ; a large cross of silver hangs from their necks, accompanied with many lesser ones ; their kotai’s, or petticoats, are of blue shrouding, ornamented with beads, &c. their leggings are of red broadcloth, highly ornamented with beads; their moggasins are much more beautiful than any other's present; their hair, which is long and of a. jet black, is combed smooth, and is very neatly put up behind in a piece of calico, tied with a piece of ribbon.*


* This journal contains an account of the battle of the 4th of November, and many particulars relative to the Indians, the army, &c. which we hope the writer will allow to be published at some future day.


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[Page 339—the preceding pages wanting.] To our beloved and right well esteemed friend Mr. William Bradford

Governour these, but inscribed thus : To our beloved friends Mr. William Bradford, Mr. Isaac Allerton, Mr.

Edward Winslow, and the rest, whom they think fit to acquaint therewith. WO.things (beloved friends) we have endeavoured to effect, touch

; comfortably and contentedly. 2d, that some returris might be made hither for the satisfying and encouragement of the adventurers, but to neither of these two can we yet attain. Nay, if it be as some of them report which returned in the Catherine, it is almost impossible to hope for it, since, by their sayings, the slothfulness of one part of you, and the weakness of the other part, is such, that nothing can go well forward. And although we do not wholly credit these reports, yet surely, either the country is not good where you are, for habitation ; or else, there is something amiss amongst you ; and we much fear the willing are too weak and the strong too idle. And because we will not stand upon the number of the objections made by them against you, we have sent them here enclosed, that you may see them and answer them. [These are those which are inserted and answered before in this book ; namely, before Liford's letters, where those letters should also have been placed, but they came not then to hand and I thought better to put them in, than to omit them.]

As for such as will needs be upon their particulars now that they are gotten over, you must be sure to make such covenants with them, as that first or last the company be satisfied for all their charge. Neither must you proceed to these agreements and consultations with many at once, otherwise how easy might they make a lead in rebellion, which have so long done it in cheating and idleness.

Touching Mr. Weston, his disturbing of you about that £100 taken up for Mr. Brewer, except we conclude with Solomon that oppression maketh a wise man mad, we cannot but wonder at it, seeing under his own hand, it is apparently and particularly expressed, summed up and sold with the rest of his adventures, so as no sober man can possibly question it. 2dly, had it not been sold, Mr. Brewer might well have had it, to pay himself part of a debt which Mr. Weston oweth him for commodities sold to him, which he saith amounteth to above £100, as he can prove by good testimony. 3dly, if it had not been apparently sold, Mr. Beauchamp who is of the company also, unto whom he oweth a great deal more, had long ago attached it (as he did other's 16ths) and so he could not have demanded it, either of you or us.

And if he will not believe our testimony here about, who shall believe his, either in this, or any other matters. It is a dangerous case, when a man groweth naught in prosperity, and worse in adversity, and


what can the end of all this be, but more and more misery. And for conclusion with him, you may shew him what we have wrote about him, and if that satisfy him not, but that he shall still follow his mad and malicious practices against you, warn him out of your precincts, and let it be upon his peril to set foot thereon ; it being indeed no rea. son that a whole plantation should be disturbed or endamaged by the frantick humours of any one man whatsoever.

Now further for yourselves; as the power of government is fallen upon you, both by lot and desert (as we are persuaded) so your troubles and cares have been so much the more hitherto ; and we would not have you think of easing yourselves, till you have either made things better, or ended your warfare; for it is best that the world afford us these crosses, lest we should forget the meditation of heaven.

And we pray you all even look to yourselves, and your ways; that there be not amongst you some cause or occasion of these evil men's insultings and bravery upon you, as they do, that we charge you with nothing, but are ready to make your just defence at all times against opposites; yet let it not offend you, that we wish you to look to your. selves, as first that you walk close with God, being fervent and frequent in prayer, instruction, and doctrine, both openly and privately. 2dly, that you instruct and bring up your young ones in the knowledge and fear of God, restraining them from idleness and profanation of the Sabbath. 3dly, that you freely and readily entertain any honest men, in. to your church, estate and society, though with great infirmities and difference of judgment; taking heed of too great straitness and singularity even in that particular. 4thly, that there be fervent love and close cleaving together among you that are fearers of God, without secret whispering or undermining one of another, and without contempt or néglect of such as are weak and helpless, if honest, among you. This do, and in all things be humble, cheerful, and thankful ; that if you cannot grow rich in this world, yet you may be rich in grace ; and if you can send us no other treasure, yet let all that visit you, bring from you the fame of honesty, religion, and godliness, which, we trust, shall comfort us more than all else you can send us in this world.

At a word, though we be detected of folly, ignorance, want of judgment, yet let no man charge us with dishonesty, looseness, or unconscionableness; but though we lose our labours or adventures, or chargeş, yea our lives ; yet let us not lose one jot of our innocence, integrity, holiness, fear, and comfort with God.

And, thus ceasing for this time to trouble you further; praying God to bless and prosper you, and sanctify all your crosses and losses, that they may turn to your great profit and comfort in the end, with hearty salutations to you all, we lovingly take leave of you, from London, April 7, 1624. Your assured lovers and friends, JAMES SHERLEY,



[Now follows the first letters we received after the breach ; for Mr. Thornell and the rest never replied nor writ more unto us, being partly ashamed of what they had done and written.]

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To our beloved friends Mr. William Bradford, Mr. Isaac Allerton,

Mr. William Brewster, and the rest of the general society of Plymouth
in New England, salutations.
HOUGH the thing we feared be come upon us, and the evils we

strove against have overtaken us ; yet cannot we forget you, nor our friendship and fellowship, which together we have had some years ; wherein, though our expressions have been small, yet our hearty affections towards you (unknown by face) have been no less than to our nearest friends, yea even to our own selves. And though your and our friend, Mr. Winslow, can tell you the estate of things here, and what hath befallen us ; yet lest we should seem to neglect you, to whom, by a wonderful providence of God, we are so nearly united ; we have thought good once more to write unto you, and the arguments of our letter must consist of these three points, first to shew you what is here befallen, 2dly, the reason and cause of that which is fallen, 3dly, our purposes and desires towards you hereafter.

The former course for the generality here is wholly dissolved from that course which was held. And whereas you and we were formerly sharers and partners in all voyages and dealings, this way is now so no more, but you and we are left to bethink ourselves, what course to take in the future, that your lives and our monies be not lost. And this, as ourselves first saw, so have we begun to practise, as we thought best for your and our safety for hereafter ; and it standeth you no less in hand seriously to consider what is best to do, that you may both continue good conscience with God, and procure your best safety in this world.

The reasons and causes of this alteration have been these first and mainly, the many crosses, and losses, and abuses. by sea and seamen, which have caused us to run into so much charge, and debts, and engagements, as our estates and means were not able to go on without impove rishing ourselves, and much hindering, if not spoiling, our trades and callings here ; except our estates had been greater, or our associates had cloven better to us. 2dly, As here hath been a faction and siding amongst us now more than two years.; so now, there is an utter breach and sequestration amongst us, and in two parts of us, a full desertion, and forsaking of you, without any intent or purpose of meddling more with you.

And though we are rersuaded the main cause of this their doing is want of money (for need whereof men use to make many excuses) yet other things are by many pretended, and not without some colour urged, which are these : Ist, A distaste of you there, for that you are (as they affirm) Brownists, condemning all other churches and persons but yourselves and those im your way; and you are conte pus, cruel, and hard hearted, among your neighbours, and towards such as in ali


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