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company were the fewer in number, yet their charge came to a 1001

And notwithstanding this indiscretion, yet they were such as feared God, and were to us both welcome and useful, for the most part ; they were also kept at our charge eighteen months, and all new appareled and all other charges defrayed.


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Anotheriyof Mr. SHIRLEY's, to our worthy and beloved friends Mr.

W1LBIAM BRADFORD governour, and the rest of our loving partners, these hat Plymouth in New England.

OST worthy and loving friends, Mr. Bradford, Mr. Brewster,

Captain Standish, and Mr. Winslow, with the rest ; you may marvel I join you all in one letter, having many letters from you : But Mr. Allerton may make excuse for me in this particular ; it is true I have had some of your letters in July, and some since by Mr. Peirce, but till our main business, the patent, was granted, I could not set my mind nor pen to writing ; and Mr. Allerton was so turmoiled about it, and found so many difficulties and oppositions, as verily I would not, nay, could not, have undergone it, if I might have had a thousand pounds ; but the Lord so blessed his labours (even beyond expectation in these evil days) as he obtained love and favour of great men in repute and place ; he got granted from the Earl of Warwick and Sir Ferdinando Gorges all Mr. Winslow desired in his letters to me, and more also, which I leave him to relate : Then he sued to the King to confirm their grant and to make you a Corporation, and so to enable you to make and execute laws in such large and ample manner, as the Salem or Massachusetts plantation hath it, which the King graciously granted, referring it to the Lord Keeper to give order to the Solicitor to draw it up, if there were a precedent for it ; so the Lord Keeper (the best of his rank) furthered it all he could, and also the Solicitor ; but, as Festus said to Paul, with no small sum obtained I this freedom, for by the way there were many riddles which must be resolved, and many locks must be opened with the silver, nay, the golden key; then it was to come to the Lord Treasurer, to have his warrant for freeing the custom for a certain time : but he would not do it, but referred it to the Council table, and there Mr. Allerton attended day by day, that they sat, and made great means and friends, both of lords and secretaries, for the furtherance of it, but they were so full of other great matters as he could not get his, or rather Mr. Bradford's petition read, and (by reason of Mr. Peirce, his being and staying with all the passengers at Bristol, even ready to set sail, and the wind good) he was forced to leave the further tending and prosecuting of it to a Solicitor, and come for Bristol ; but there is no fear nor doubt but it will be granted; for he hath the chief of them to friend ; yet it will be marvellous needful for him to return by the first ships that come from thence, for if you had this granted, then were you complete, and

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might bear such sway and government, as were fit for your rank and place that God hath called you unto, and stop the mouths of base and scurrilous fellows, that are ready to question and threaten you in every action you do : And besides, if you have the custom free for seven years inward and twenty-one years outward, the charge of the patent will soon be recovered, and there is no fear of obtaining it ; only such things must work by degrees, men cannot hasten it as they would ; wherefore we (I write here, in the behalf of all our partners) desire you to be earnest with Mr. Allerton, and with his wife, here to come, and she to spare him this one year (nay I hope but a few months more) to finish this great and weighty business, which we conceive will be much for your good and well and sure subsisting, yea, and I hope for your posterity, and for many generations to come ; for I am persua. ded Sir Ferdinando (how loving and friendly soever he seems to be) knows he can, nay, purposeth to overthrow, at his pleasure, all the patents he grants, but, this being obtained, he will be frustrate of his intent and unless a Parliament should call them in (which is not likely) you need not fear, as Mr. Allerton can further certify you, and so much for this *costly and tedious business ; now I see what most of your letters signify unto me, concerning the contracting of ourselves into a fewer number for the managing of our business and paying of our debts, which I confess are great and needful to be carefully considered of ; and no doubt but we, joining in love, may soon overcome them, but we must follow it roundly and to purpose, for if we piddle out the time in our trade, others will step in and nose us ; but we know and consider you have that acquaintance and experience as none the like in the country; wherefore, loving friends and partners, be no ways discourag. ed with the greatness of the debt (of which I refer you to the accounts, being the only cause of my being at Bristol, and, if time permit and God enable me, shall be brought in some good and plain form) let us not fulfil the proverb, bestow twelvepence on a purse, and put sixpence in it ; but as you and we have been at great charge, and undergone much for settling of you there, and to gain experience ; so, as God shall please to enable us, let us make use of it, and not think with 501. a year sent you over, to raise such means as to pay our debts.t We see a possibility of good, if you be well supplied and fully furnished, and chiefly, if you do lovingly, and as you do (and well you do) profess to be brethren, so say as Abraham said to Lot, let there be no contention because we are brethren :- I know I write to godly, wise, and understanding men, such as have learned to bear one another's infirmities and rejoice at any one's prosperity ; and if I were able, I would press this the more, because it is hoped by some of your and our enemies, that you will fall out amongst yourselves, and so overthrow our hopeful business ; nay, I have heard it credibly reported, that some have said

* It was costly indeed, in the conclusion.
† Here the sum of the debts and other things were blotted out again.

that till you be disjointed, by discontents and factions amongst yourselves, it boots not for any to go over, in hope of getting or doing good in these parts ; but we hope better things of you, and that you will not only bear one with another, and persuade, and tbat effectually, one another to the contrary, but that you will banish such thoughts, and not suffer them to lodge in your breasts ; it is certain, offences will come, but woe unto them, by whom they come, and blessed is the peace maker ; which blessedness I know you all desire, and God grant you may disappoint the hopes of your foes, and procure the hearty desire of yourselves and friends in this particular. I am further to acquaint you that we have sent you a large supply for your magazine, or trade, and also that we have thought good to join with one Edward Ashley (a man I think whom most of you know) but it is only of that place whereof he hath a patent, in Mr. Beauchamp's name ; and to that end have furnished him with large provisions ; now if you please to be partners with us in this, we are willing you shall, for after we understood how wil. ling and forward Bristol men, and, as I hear, some able men of his own kindred have been to stock and supply hiin, hoping of profit, we thought fit for us to lay hold of such an opportunity, and a kind of running plantation, rather than other who have not borne the burden of settling a plantation, as we have done ; and he, on the other side, like an understanding young man, thought it better to join with those that had means, by a plantation, to supply and back him there, rather than strangers, that look but only after profit : Indeed the Salem partners here, as Mr. Humfries, Mr. Johnson ; but chiefly Mr. Cradock and Mr. Winthrop, would fain have joined with him, and, when that could not be, with us, in that business ; but we not willing, and they failing, they said he would strip them of all trade in those parts; and therefore they so crossed him and us in the taking of the patent, as we could not have it but to join their name with ours in it, though Knights, and men of good rank and near the King, spake in his behalf; and this I conceive they did only to bring it to pass, that they might join with us : Now it is not known that you are partners with him, or you and we joined partners with him, but only we four, Mr. Andrews, Mr. Beauchamp, and myself, and Mr. Hatherly, who desired to have the patent in consideration of our great loss we have already sustained in settling of the first plantation there ; so in conclusion we agree together to take it in both our names : And now as I said before, if you please to join with us, we are willing you should partake with us in the profits, if it please God to send any : Mr. Allerton had no power from you to make this new contract, neither was he willing to do any thing therein without your consent and approbation. Mr. William Peirce is joined with us in this, and we thought it very convenient because of landing Edward Ashley and his goods there, if it please God, wind and weather serving, as I hope it will, and he will bend his course accordingly ; he hath a new boat hence with him and boards to make another; and as I think four five lusty fellows, whereof one is a carpenter : Now in

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case you are not willing to join in this particular with us, fearing the charge and doubting the success, yet thus much we would entreat of you to afford him all the help you can, either by men, commodities, or boats, yet not but that he will pay you for any thing that he hath ; for I will and so desire you to keep the accounts apart, though you join with us; because there is (as you see) other part ers in this, than in the other ; so for all men's wages, boats hire, or commodities which he shall have of you, make him debtor for it, and what you shall have of him, make the plantation or yourselves, debtors for it to him ; and so there need be no mingling of the accounts. And now, loving friends and partners, if you join in Edward Ashley's patent and business (as I cannot see but it is for your good to do) though we have laid out the money and taken up much to stock this business and the other, yet I think it conscionable and reasonable that you should bear your shares and proportion of the stock, if not by present money, yet by securing us for so much as it shall come to ; for it is not barely the interest that is to be allowed and considered of, but the adventure ; though I hope by the blessing of God and your honest endeavours, it may soon be payed ; the years that this partnership holds is not long nor many, let all therefore lay it to heart, and make the best use of the time that possibly we can ; and let every man set to his shoulder and the burden will be the lighter, for though some speak or write not of it, but are contented to do as I do, and wholly rely on me, yet I would be loath they should think themselves hardly dealt with all ; but I know you are so honest and conscionable men, as you will take it into consideration and return such answer as may give good satisfaction ; there is none of us would have ventured as we do, were it not to strengthen, settle, and do you good, more than our own particular profit : Mr. Fogge, Mr. Coalson, and Mr. Thomas, though they seemed earnest to be partners, yet when they saw the debt and charge, fell themselves off, and left you, us, and the business ; but some, though honest, yet I think they minded their own particular profit so much, as both you and we may be glad we are rid of them. For Mr. Collier, verily I could have wished it would have sorted with his other affairs, to have been one of us, but he could not spare money, and we thought it not reasonable to take in any partner, unless he were willing and able to spare money, and to lay down his portion of the stock ; however, account of him as a sure friend, both ready and willing to do you all the offices of a firm friend. There is no possibility of doing any good in buying the debt for the purchase : I know some will not rebate the interest, and therefore let it run its course ; they are to be paid yearly, and so I hope they shall according to the agreement. I have much more to write but want time, and so must be forced abruptly to break off, desiring the Lord to bless you, and us all, and all our honest endeavours, and grant that our loves and affections may still be united and knit together in the Lord ; and so we rest your ever loving friends,



[THUS it appears that our debts were now grown great about the coming over of these two companies of the Leyden people, and the large expenses about the patents, which indeed proved to be large and excessive when we saw them. About this business of Ashley's, we were forced to join in it, though we did not much like it (for the person's sake, whom we feared was a knave) for if we should have furnished him with commodities and assistance, it would much have hindered our own îrade ; and if we should have denied this their request, we should have lost the favour of such good friends ; so we thought it the safest way to join with them herein, according to their offer, though we ran a great hazard. This last company of our friends came at such a time of the year, as we were fain to keep them eighteen months at our charge, ere they could reap any harvest to live upon ; all which together, fell heavy upon us and made the burthen greater ; that if it had not been God's mercy, it is a wonder we had not sunk under it, especially other things concurring, whereby we were greatly crossed in our supplies for trade, by which these sums should have been repaid. With this latter company of our brethren, came over many worthy and able men into the country (or rather ours with them) amongst whom was that worthy and godly gentleman, Mr. John Winthrop, governour of the Massachusetts ; and so began the plantations there, which have since much grown and increased under his godly, able, and prudent government, and the church of God especially, to the rejoicing of our, and the hearts of all good men ; of whose beginnings and proceedings something may be gathered by a letter or two of some of our own, who were then there by occasion, which follow :]

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A letter to myself, from SAMUEL FULLER, being (at this time) in the bay

of Massachusetts. SIR, HE gentlemen here lately come over (as I suppose you understand

of their arrival ere this, by Jonathan Brewster) are resolved to șit down at the head of Charles river, and they of * Matapan purpose to go and plant with them. I have been at Matapan, at the request of Mr. Warham, and let some twenty of these people blood ; I had conference with them, till I was weary. Mr. Warham holds that the invisible church may consist of a mixed people, godly, and openly ungodly ; upon which point we had all our conference, to which, I trust, the Lord will give á blessing. Here is come over, with these gentlemen, one Mr. Phillips (a Suffolk man) who hath told me in private, that if they will have him stand minister, by that calling which he received from the prelates in England, he will leave them. The Governour is a godly, wise, and humble gentleman, and very discreet, and of a fine and good temper. We have some privy enemies in the bay, but (blessed be God) more friends ; the Governour hath had conference with me, both in private


* Since called Dorchester.

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