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navigation, and the resources for our maritime case of those officers, whose names are not indefence.
cluded in it, devolves, with the strongest interIn conformity with the articles of the treat y est, upon the legislative authority, for such of Ghent, relating to the Indians, as well as provision as shall be deemed the best calculated
with a view to the tranquility of our western to give support and solace to the veteran and I and northwestern frontiers, measures were ta- invalid; to display the beneficence, as well as
ken to establish an immediate peace with the the justice of the government; and to inspire a several tribes who had been engaged
hostili. || martial zeal for the public service, upon every ties against the United States. Such of them | future emergency. as were invited to Detroit acceded readily to a Although the embarrassments arising from renewal of the former treaties of friendship. of the want of an uniform national currency have the other tribes who were invited to a station not been diminished, since the adjournment of on the Mississippi, the greater number have congress, great satisfaction has been derived, also accepted the peace offered to them. The in contemplating the revival of the public cre. residue, consisting of the more distant tribes ordit, and the efficiency of the public resources. parts of tribes, 'remain to be brought over by The receipts into the Treasury, from the varifurther explanations, or by such other means ous branches of revenue, during the nine as may be adapted to the disposition they inay months ending on the 30th of September last, finally disclose.
have been estimated at twelve millions and a The Indian tribes within, and bordering on half of dollars: the issues of Treasury Notes of our southern frontier, whom a cruel war on every denomination, during the same period, their part had compelled us to chastise into | amounted to the sum of four teen millions of peace, have latterly shewn a restlessness, which dollars: and there was also obtained upon loan, has called for preparatory measures for repres- || during the same period, a sum of nine millions sing it, and for protecting the commissioners of dollars: of which the sum of six millions of engaged in carrying the terins of the peace into | dollars was subscribed in cash, and the sum of execution.
three millions of dollars in Treasury Notes. The execution of the act for fixing the mili- || With these means, added to the sum of one tary peace establishment, bas been attended | million and a half of dollars, being the balance with difficulties which even now can only be of money in the Treasury on the 1st of Januaovercome hy legislative aid. The selection of|ry, there has been paid, between the 1st of Janofficers; the payment and discharge of the vary and the 1st of October, on account of the troops enlisted for the war; the payment of the appropriations of the preceding and of the preretained troops, and their re union from de- sent year, (exclusively of the amount of the tached and distant stations; the collection and Treasury Notes subscribed to the loan, and the security of the public property, in the quarter. amount redeeined in the payment of duties and master, commissary, and ordnance 'depart. taxes, the aggregate sum of thirty-three millions ments; and the constant medical assistance re. and a half of dollars, leaving a balance then in quired in hospitals and garrisons, rendered a the Treasury estimated at the sum of three milcomplete execution of the act impracticable on lions of dollars. Independent, however, of the the first of May, the period more immediately | arrearages due for military services and supcontemplated. As soon, however, as circun- | plies, it is presumed, that a further sum of five stances would permit, and as far as it has been millions of dollars, including the interest on practicable, consistently with the public inter- || the public debt payable on the 1st of January ests, the reduction of the army has been ac- next, will be demanded at the Treasury to complished; but the appropriations for its pav, || complete the expenditui es of the present year, and for other branches of the military service, and for which the existing ways and means having proved inadequate, the earliest atten- will sufficiently provide. tion to that subject will be necessary; and the The national debt, as it was ascertained on expediency of continuing upon the peace es
the lsi of October last, amounted in the whole tablishment, the staff officers who have hitherto to the sum of one hundred and twenty millions been provisionally retained, is also recommen- of dollars, consisting of the unredeemed balance ded to the consideration of Congress.
of the debt contracted before the late war, In the performance of the executive duty up. (thirty nine millions of dollars) the amount of on this occasion, there has not been wanting a the funded debt contracted in consequence of just sensibility to the merits of the American the war, (sixty four millions of dollars) and the army, during the late war: but the obvious amount of the unfunded and floating debt (inpolicy and design in fixing an efficient military || cluding the various issues of Treasury Notes) peace establishment, did not afford an oppor- seventeen millions of dollars, which is in a tunity to distinguish the aged and infirm, on gradual course of payment. There will, proaccount of their past services; nor the wounded | bably, be some addition to the public debt, upand disabled, on account of their present suf- on the liquidation of various claims, which are ferings. The extent of the reduction indeed depending; and a conciliatory disposition on unavoidably involved the exclusion of many | the part of Congress may lead honourably and meritorious officers of every rank, from the advantageously to an equitable arrangement service of their country; and so equal, as well the militia expences, incurred by the several as so numerous, were the claims to attention, states, without the previous sanction or authat a decision by the standard of comparative thority of the government of the United States: merit, eould seldom be attained. Judged, how. But, when it is considered that the new, as ever, in candor, by a general standard of posi- | well as the old, portion of the debt has been tive merit, the Army Register will, it is believ- || contracted in the assertion of the national rights ed, do'honor to the establishment; while thell and independence; and when it is recollecied,
that the public expenditures, not being exclu- the safe-guard of a free state. If experience sively bestowed upon subjects of a transient na- has shewn in the late splended achievements of ture, will long be visible in the number and militia, the value of this resource for the public equipments of the American navy, in the mili- | defence, it has shewn, also, the importance of tary works for the defence of our harbours and that skill in the use of arms, and that familiarour frontiers, and in the supplies of our arse-lity with the essential rules of discipline, which nals and magazines; the amount will bear a cannot be expected from the regulations, now gratifying comparison with the objects which in force. With this subject is intimately conhave been attained, as well as with the resour-nected the necessity of accommodating the ces of the country.
laws, in every respect, to the great object of The arrangement of the finances, with a view enabling the political authority of the union, to the receipts and expenditures of a perma- to employ, promptly and effectually, the physinent peace establishment, will necessarily enter cal power of the union, in the cases designated into the deliberations of Congress during the by the constitution. present session. It is true that the improved T'he signal services which have been render. condition of the public revenue will not only ed by our navy, and the capacities it has develafford the means of maintaining the faith of the oped for successful co-operation in the nationgovernment with its creditors inviolate, and of al defence, will give to that portion of the pubprosecuting, successfully, the measures of the lic force, its full value in the eyes of Congress, most liberal policy; but will, also, justify an at an epoch which calls for the constant vigiimmediate alleviation of the burthens imposed | lance of all governments. To preserve the by the necessities of the war. It is, however, || ships now in a sound state; to complete those essential to every modification of the finances, already contemplated; to provide amply the unthat the benefits of an uniform national cur- perishable materials for prompt augmentations, rency should be restored to the community and to improve the existing arrangements inThe absence of the precious metals will, it is to more advantageous establishments, for the believed, be a temporary evil; but, until they construction, the repairs, and the security of can be again rendered the general medium of vessels of war, is dictated by the soundest poliexchange, it devolves on the wisdom of Con
су. gress, to provide a substitute, which shall In adjusting the duties on imports, to the obequally engage the confidence, and accommoject of revenue, the influence of the tariff on date the wants, of the citizens throughout the manufactures, will necessarily present itself for union. If the operation of the state banks consideration. However wise the theory may cannot produce this result, the probable opera-ll be, which leaves to the sagacity and interest of tion of a national bank will merit considera- || individuals the application of their industry and tion; and, if neither of these expedients be resources, there are in this, as in other cases, deemed effectuai, it may become necessary to exceptions to the general rule. Besides tho ascertain the terms upon which the notes of the condition which the theory itself implies, of a government; (no longer required as an instru- reciprocal adoption by other nations, experiment of credit) shall be issued, upon motives ence teaches that so many circumstances must of general policy, as a common medium of occur in introducing and maturing manufaccirculation.
turing establishments, especially of the more Notwithstanding the security for future re complicated kinds, that a country may remain pose, which the Unjled States ought to find in || long without them, although sufficiently advantheir love of peace, and their constant respect ced, and in some respects even peculiarly fitfor the rights of other nations, the character ofted for carrying them on with success. Under the times particularly inculcates the lesson, circumstances giving a powerful impulse to that, whether to prevent or repel danger, we manufacturing industry, it has made among us ought not to be unprepared for it. This con- a progress, and exhibited an efficiency, which sideration will sufficiently recommend to Con- justify the belief, that with a protection not gress a liberal provision for the immediate ex- more than is due to the enterprising citizens tension, and gradual completion, of the works | whose interests are now at stake, it will become, of defence, both fixed and floating, on our at an early day, not only safe against occasional maritime frontier; and an adequate provision competitions from abroad, but a source of domesfor guarding our inland frontier, against dan- tic wealth, and even of external commerce. In gers to which certain portions of it may con- selecting the branches more especially entitled tinue to be exposed.
to the public patronage, a preference is obviousAs an improvement on our military estab. ll ly claimed by such as will relieve the United lishment, it will deserve the consideration of States from a dependence on foreign supplies, Congress, whether a corps of invalids might || ever subject to casual failures, for articles nenot be so organized and employed, as at once cessary for the public defence, or connected to aid in the support of meritorious individuals, with the primary wants of individuals. It will excluded by age or infirmities, from the exist- | be an additional recommendation of particular ing establishment, and to preserve to the pub. manufactures, where the materials for them are lic, the benefit of their stationary services, and extensively drawn from our agriculture, and of their exemplary discipline. I recommend, consequently impart and ensure to that great also, an enlargement of the military academy, fund of national prosperity and independence, already established, and the establishment of an encouragement which cannot fail to be re others in other sections of the union. And I warded. cannot press too much on the attention of Con- Among the means of advancing the public gress, such a classification and organization of interest, the occasion is a proper one for recallthe militia, as will most effectually render it lling the attention of congress to the great im
portance of establishing throughout our coun- Under other aspects of our country, the strong. try the roads and canals which can best be ese- est features of its flourishing condition are seen, cuted, under the national authority. No obil in a population rapidly increasing, on a terrijects within the circle of political economy so tory as productive as it is extensive; in a gene. richly repay the expense bestowed on them; || ral industry, and fertile ingenuity, which find there are none, che utility of which is more their ample rewards; and in an affuent revenue, univeasally ascertained and acknowledged; which admits a reduction of the public bur. none that do more honor to the government, thens, without withdrawing the means of sus. whose wise and enlarged patriotism duly appre taining the public credit, or gradually discharge ciates them. Nor is there any country which ing the public deht, of providing for the neces. presents a field, where Nature invites more the saiy defensive and precautionary establish. art of man, to complete her own work for his ments; and of patronizing in every authorised accommodation and benefit. These conside-mode, undertakings conducive to the agere. rations are strengthened, moreover, by the po- gate wealth and individual comfort of our citilitical effect of these facilities for intercommunication, in bringing and binding more closc- It remains for the guardians of the public ly together the various parts of our extended welfare, to persevere in that justice and good confederacy. Whilst the states, individually, will towards other nations, which invite a rewith a laudable enterprize and emulation, availturn of these sentiments towards the Unjied themselves of their local advantages, by new States; to cherish institutions which guarantee roads, by navigable canals, and by improving their safety, and their liherties, civil and reli. the streams susceptible of navigation, the ge- gious; and to combine with a liberal system of neral government is the more urged to similar | foreign commerce, an improvement of the naundertakings, requiring a national jurisdiction, tural advantages, and a protection and exten. and national means, by the prospect of thus ) sion of the independent resources of our highly systematically completing so inestimable a favoured and happy country. work. And it is a happy reflection, that any In all measures having such objects, my defect of constitutional authority, which may faithful co-opperation will be afforded be encountered, can be supplied in a mode
JAMES MADISON. wbich the constitution itself has providently Washington, Dec. 5, 1815. pointed out.
The present is a favourable season also for bringing again into view the establishment of a national seminary of learning within the
TREATI WITHI ALGIERS. District of Columbia, and with means drawn
JAMES MADISON, from the property therein subject to the author ity of the general government.
Such an insti.
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, tution claims the patronage of Congress, as a monument of their solicitude for the advance.
To all and singular to whom these presents ment of knowledge, without which the bles.
shall come, greeting: sings of liberty cannot be fully enjoyed, or long preserved; as a model instructive in the forma- WHEREAS a Treaty of Peace and tion of other seminaries; as a nursery of en. | Amity, between the United States of lightened preceptors; as a central resort of America and His Highness Omar Bashaw, youth and genius from every part of their | Dey of Algiers, was concluded at Algiers, country, diffusing on their return examples of those national feelings, those liberal sentiments,
on the thirtieth day of June last, by Steand those congenial manners, which contri' || phen Decatur and William Shaler, Citibute cement to our union and strength to the
zens of the United States, on the part of great political fabric, of which that is the foun- | the United States, and the said Omar Badation.
shaw, Dey of Algiers, and was duly signIn closing this communication, I ought not ed and sealed by the said Parties, which to the happy lot of our country, and to the Treaty is in the words following, to wit: goodness of a superintending Providence to which we are indebted for it. Whilst other Treaty of Peace and Amity concluded beportions of mankind are laboring, under the
tween the United States of America, and distresses of war, or struggling with adversity
His Highness Omar Bashaw, Dey of in other forms, the United States are in the Algiers. tranquil enjoyment of prosperous and honore. ble peace. In reviewing the scenes through There shall be, from the conclusion of this which it has been attained, we can rejoice in treaty, affirm inviolable and universal peace and the proofs given, that our political institutions, | friendship between the President and the citifounded in human rights, and framed for their || zens of the United States of America, on theone preservation, are equal to the severest trials of part, and the Dey and subjects of the Regency of war, as well as adapted to the ordinary periods | Algiers in Barbary on the other, made by the of repose. As fruits of this experience, and of free consent of both parties, on the terms of the the reputation acquired by the American arms, most favored nations: and if either party shall on the land and on the water, the nations finds hereafter grant to any other nation any parti. itself possessed of a growing respect abroad, || cular favor or privilege in navigation or con and of a just confidence in itself, which are merce, it shall immediately become common among the best pledges for its peaceful career. to the other party, freely, when it is freely
granted to such other nations, but when the,, besides the rowers; these only shall be permitgrant is conditional, it shall be at the option ofted to go on board without first obtaining leave the contracting parties to accept, alter, or re- from the commander of said vessel, who shall ject such conditions, in such nanner as shall compare the passport, and immediately permit be most conductive to their respective interests. | said vessel to proceed on her voyage; and ARTICLE II.
should any of the subjects of Algiers insult or It is distinctly understood between the con- molest the commander or any other person on tracting parties, that no tribute, either as bien- | board a vessel so visited, or plunder any of the nial presents, or under any other form of name
property contained in her, on complaint being whatever, shall ever be required by the Dey made by the consul of the United States residand Regency of Algiers from the United Statesing in Algiers, and on his producing sufficient of America, on any pretext whatever
proof lo substantiate the fact, the commander
or Rais of said Algerine ship or vessel of war, The Dey of Algiers shall cause to be imme as well as the offenders, shall be punished in diately delivered up to the American Squadron, | the most exemplary manner. now off Algiers, all the American Citizens, All vessels of war, belonging to the United now in his possession, amounting to ten more States of America, on meeting a cruizer be. or less; and all the subjects of the Dey of Al- || longing to the regency of Algiers, on having giers, now in possession of the United States,
seen her passports and certificates from the amounting to 500 more or less, shall be delivered consul of the United States, residing in Alup to him, the United States, according to the giers, shall permit her to proceed on her cruize usages of civilized nations, requiring no ran unmolested, and without detention. No pass. som for the excess of prisoners in their favor. | pozts shall be granted by either party to any ARTICLE IV.
vessels, but such as are absolutely the property A just and full compensation shall be made of citizens or subjects of the said contracting by the Dey of Algiers, to such citizens of the parties, on any pretence whatever. United States, as have been captured and detained by Algerine Cruizers, or who have been
A citizen or subject of either of the contractforced to abandon their property in Algiers in ing parties, having bought a prize vessel conviolation of the twenty-second article of the demned by the other party, or by any other treaty of peace and amity, concluded between || nation, the certificates of condemnation and the United States and the Dey of Algiers, on bill of sale shall he a sufficient passport for such the 5th of September, 1795
vessel for six months, which, considering the And it is agreed between the contracting distance between the two countries, is no more parties, that in lieu of the above, the Dey of than a reasonable time for her to procure pra Algiers, shall cause to be delivered forth with
per passports. into the hands of the American Consul, resi
ARTICLE IX. ding at Algiers, the whole of a quantity of bales Vessels of either of the contracting parties, of cotton, left by the late consul general of the putting into the ports of the other, and having United States, in the public Magazines in Al- need of provisions or other supplies, shall be giers, and that he shall pay into the hands of the furnished at the market price, and if any said Consul the sum of 10,000 Spanish dollars.
vessel should so put in from a distance at sea,
and have occasion to repair, she shall be at liv If any goods belonging to any nation with berty to land, and re-embark her cargo, withwhich either of the parties are at war, should be loaded on board vessels belonging to the in no case shall she be compelled to land her
out paying any customs or duties whatever, but other party, they shall pass free and unmoles.
cargo. ted, and no attempts shall be made to lake or detain them.
Should a vessel of either of the contracting ARTICLE VI.
parties be cast on shore within the territories IS any citizen or subjects with their effects of the other, all proper assistance sball be given belonging to either party shall be found on board a prize vessel taken from an enemy by property shall remain at the disposal of the
to her crew; no pillage shall be allowed. The the other party, such citizens or subjects shall owners; and if re-shipped on board of any yesbe liberated immediately, and in no cace, on sel for exportation, no customs or duties 'whatany other pretence whatever, shall any Ameri- ever shall be required to be paid thereon, and can citizen be kept in captivity or confine- | the crew shall be protected and succoured, un. ment, or the property of any American citi til they can be sent to their own country. zens, found on board of any vessel belonging to any
other nation with which Algiers may If a vessel of ei' her of the contracting parties be at war, be detained from its lawful owners shall be atlacked by an enemy within connon after the exhibition of sufficient proofs of Amer-shot of the forts of the other, she shall be proican citizenship and of American property by tected as much as is possible. If she be in port, the Consul of the U. States, residing at Agiers. she shall not be seizes or atlacked, when it is
in the power of the other party to protect her; Proper passports shall immediately be given and, when she prorceds to sea, no enemy shall to the vessels of both the cont:acting parties, be permitted to pursue her from the same port, on.condition that the vessels of war, belonging within twenty-four hours after her departure. to the
regency of Algiers, on meeting with me:chant vessels belonging to the citizens of the The commerce between the United States of United States of America, shall not be permit | America and the Regency of Algiers, the protected to visit them with more than two persons II tions to begiven to merchants, diasters of vessels,
and seamen, the reciprocal rights of establishing || rank for rank; and it is agreed that prisoners consuls in each country, and the privileges, im- || shall be exchanged in twelve months after their munities and jurisdictions to be enjoyed by such capture, and the exchange may be effected by any cousuls are declared to be on the same footing in private individual, legally authorised by either of every respect with the most favoured nations res- | the parties. pectively. ARTICLE XIII.
If any of the Barbary States or other powers The consul of the United States of America | at war with the United States, shall capture any shall not be responsible for the debts contracted | American vessel and send into any port of the by citizens of his own nation, unless he previous-Regency of Algiers, they shall not be permitted ly gives written obligations so to do.
to sell her, but shall be forced to depart the port, ARTICLE XIV.
on procuring the requisite supply of provisions ; On a vessel or vessels of war, belonging to the but the vessels of war of the United States, with United States, anchoring before the city of Al-|| any prizes they may capture from their enemies, giers, the consul is to inform the Dey of her arri- shall have liberty to frequent the ports of Algiers, val, when she shall receive the salutes which are for refreshment of any kinds, and to sell such priby treaty or custom given to the ships of war of|| zes, in the said ports, without any other customs, the most favoured nations, on similar occasions, or duties, than such as are customary on ordinary and which shall be returned gun for gun; and if commercial importations. after such arrival, so announced, any christians whatsoever, captives in Algiers, make their escape If any of the citizens of the United States, or and take refuge on board any of the ships of war, any persons under their protection, shall have any they shall not be required back again, nor shall || disputes with each other, the consul shall decide the consul of the United States, or commander of between the parties, and whenever the consul said ships, be required to pay any thing for the shall require any aid or assistance from the gosaid christians.
vernment of Algiers to enforce his decisions, it ARTICLE XV.
shall be immediately granted to him; and if any As the government of the United States of Ame- || disputes shall arise between any citizens of the rica has itself no character of enmity against the United States and the citizens or subjects of any laws, religion, or tranquility of any nation, and as other nation having a consul or agent in Algiers, the said states have never entered into any volun- such disputes shall be settled by the consuls or tary war or act of hostility, except in defence of agents of the respective nations; and any disputes their just rights on the high seas, it is declared || or suits at law that may take place between any by the contracting parties, that no pretext arising || citizens of the United States and the subjects of from religious opinions shall ever produce an in- | the Regency of Algiers, shall be decided by the terruption of the harmony existing between the Dey in person, and no other. two nations; and the consuls and agents of both nations shall have liberty to celebrate the rites of If a citizen of the United States should kill, their respective religions in their own houses. wound, or strike a subject of Algiers, or, on the
The consuls respectively shall have liberty and contrary, a subject of Algiers should kill, wound personal security given them to travel within the or strike a citizen of the United States, the law territories of each other, both by land and sea, of the country shall take place, and equal justice and shall not be prevented from going on board || shall be rendered, the consul assisting at the trial; any vessels they may think proper to visit; they but the sentence of punishment against an Ameshall likewise have the liberty to appoint their own rican citizen shall not be greater or more severe, drogoman and broker.
than it would be against a Turk in the same preARTICLE XVI.
dicament; and if any delinquent should make his In case of any dispute arising from the violation escape, the consul shall nct be responsible for him of any of the articles of this treaty, no appeal in any manner whatever. shall be made to arms, nor shall war be declared on any pretext whatever ; but if the consul resid.
The consul of the United States of America ing at the place where the dispute shall happen, || shall not be required to pay any customs or duties shall not be able to settle the same, the govern- || whatever on any thing he imports from a foreign ment of that country shall state their grievance | country for the use of his house and family, in writing, and transmit the same to the government of the other, and the period of three months Should any of the citizens of the United States shall be allowed for answers to be returned, dur- of America die within the limits of the Regency ing which time no act of hostility shall be permit- of Algiers, the Dey and his subjects shall not in. ted by either party; and in case the grievances terfere with the property of the deceased, but it are not redressed, and a war should be the event, shall be under the immediate direction of the the consuls and citizens and subjects of both par-| consul, unless otherwise disposed of by will. ties respectively, shall be permitted to embark | Should there be no consul, the effects shall be de with their effects unmolested, on board of what posited in the hands of some person worthy of vessel or vessels they shall think proper, reason- trust until the party shall appear who has a right able time being allowed for that purpose. to demand them, when they shall render an 20
count of the property, neither shall the Dey or If in the course of events, a war should break || his subjects give hindrance in the execution of out between the two nations, the prisoners cap- any will that may appear. tured by either party shall not be made slaves, they shall not be forced to hard labour, or other
Now, therefore, be it known, that I, confinement than such as may be necessary to se
JAMES Madison, President of the United are their safe keeping, and shall be exchanged States of America, having seen and consi