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connected ;-and he hoped that the course which more than once in the United States. Ferdinand the government of each country was pursuing || VII it appears, has demanded me of the American was such as would consolidate the subsisting government, in order to increase the vast number peace, promote harmony between the nations, so of victims already immolated in honour of his reas to prevent on either side the recurrence of any turn to the Spanish throne; and I suppose the acts of animosity. Above all he deprecated the next thing we shall hear is a bull from the pope, spirit of imputation against foreign governments, hurling the thunders of the Vatican against the which, with whatever intention they might be republic of the United States for having granted thrown out, were always productive of the worst me the rights of hospitality. consequences. Conjectures, on counsels not un. It does not become me to anticipate the conderstood, were ignorantly hazarded even on mat. || duct of the American government on this occaters unconnected with the affairs of this country. I sion, further than to remark I feel perfectly tranHear, hear!) He was bappy that on the sub- quil under the guardianship of the laws of nations ject he had met with an ally in the right honor- as well as those of the United States; and much able gentleman opposite (Mr. Ponsonby,) and do I wish that I had nothing else to disturb my hoped they would cordially co-operate in the serenity than the Quixotic menaces of a fantastic encouragement of feelings of friendship and monarch. good will between America and this country.- During the campaign against the British in (Hear)
Louisiana, I had the honour to act as a soldier,
and I should be proud of any future occasion to
manifest my zeal in the service of the United DON JOSE ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO.
States: and if during my residence in this coun:
try, I should be so fortunate as to inspire this goFrom the Louisiana Courier.
vernment or the people with a disposition to aid The article published in the newspapers of this my fellow citizens of Mexico, in their struggles city, extracted from a letter written by Mr. B. for liberty, I shall not, I hope, on this account be Robertson, did not excite my surprise.
considered criminal, either by this nation or in That I should be brought into public view by the eyes of the universe. the Chevalier Onis, and selected as a conspicuous
If i am not mistaken we are fast approaching victim to the hatred and vengeance of the Spa- | that epoch when the legitimate monarchs of Ev. nish government, will not appear extraordinary | rope will openly avow their hostility to the Ameto those acquainted with my principles and rican republic. Already are they maturing a
future crusade against the liberties of the human I had the honour to be among the members of race in the western hemisphere, and the first step the cortes at Cadiz that were animated with zeal in this holy enterprize has been taken by the for the freedom and glory of our country, desi- | pious and magnanimous Ferdinand. rous of breaking the fetters and dissipating the The progress of liberty in the new world is prejudices which for ages had loaded and dis- | filling the potentates of Europe with dismay. graced the Spanish character. It is for those ex- The vicinage of the United States to the Mexi. ertions at a memorable epoch, that myself and can empire, excites not only the fears of Spain, colleagues have become obnoxious to the despot but Great Britain. If six million of Mexicans beFerdinand, and his fanatick counsellors. The come identified in interest and feeling with the same Ferdinand who owes his life and his throne citizens of the United States, we might then bid to the patriotism of a few members of the cor
defiance to the machinations of the old world. tes, during the most stormy season of the revolu- | The vast and growing population of the western tion; this same Ferdinand since his return to the parts of the United States, would find in the inthrone, has already immolated on the altars of ternal provinces of Mexico a vast and permanent revenge and ingratitude, almost every individual || vent for their surplus industry: of the cortes that thought, spoke, or acted as
The gold and silver of Mexico in place of flow.' I have done; and had I not taken the resolution | ing direct to Great Britain and Spain, and furof departing from that land of despotisin at the | nishing the sinews of ambitious wars, would find period I did, there is no doubt that my name long
a channel to and through the United States; a ere this would have been added to the catalogue | new and powerful stimilus would be thus given of sacrifices.
to the industry and enterprise of this country, I came to America with a determination to use
and the period is perhaps not remote when the all
my efforts to effect its separation from a go- United States could supply all that Mexico revernment, that for three centuries had filled the || quires, as cheap as can at present be done froin new world with chains, with groans, and with Europe. tears. When I undertook this enterprise, I knew To promote these objects may be deemed cri. the fate that awaited me in case I did not suc
minal by despots, aud by those who affect to ceed; but to those who are inspired with a love think the Mexican population are unworthy the of country, who feel that their actions are ground blessings of freedom-but to those who have ed on the freedom and happiness of their fellow
been born and bred in the land of liberty, my citizens, it is not likely they are to be deterred
views and motives, I hope, will be appreciated from pursuing those patriotic views, merely be.
and supported. cause they are exposed to death and persecution. | Mexicans are not get sufficiently advanced in ci
It has been said by some politicians that the If Washington and his associates had trembled at the menaces of despotism, the United Statesvilization to be susceptible of rational freedom. would never have become independent.
Alas! how little are these people known or unAssassins have been hired to murder me, as
derstood. There is not a people under the sun can be proved by authentic documents in my pos- of more mental aptitude than the Mexicans. This session. Attempts on my life have been made homage has been paid to them by a every liberal
traveller that visited them. But the present Extraordinary vicissitudes have taken place state of the revolution speaks more decisively in since that time among the nations of Europe, and their favour. Without foreign assistance, with conformably to the legitimate arrangements at out scarcely a single musket, and in fact with || Vienna, every brother monarch is to support the only stones and clubs they began the revolution || pretensions of each other, more especially when against their cruel oppressors. They have at such pretensions accord with the views of the last so far succeeded as to make the cause of British government. freedom felt and circulated from the Mexican The question brought forward by Spain relatgulph to the extremities of California. Organi- ing to West Florida, did not originate in the cazation has succeeded tumults and a government || binet of Ferdinand its source springs from a founded on republican principles, has been form- higher and deeper authority; it may be traced to ed; and notwithstanding a train of difficulties the councils and policy of Great Britain. That more serious than ever before a people had to en-Spain has ceded her rights to the Floridas to counter, they have attained a strength that insures | Great Britain, no doubt exists in my mind, and their emancipation from Spain. The final ac- that the great maratime port of Havanna may likecomplishment of their independence may be re. wise be required by and ceded to England, is tarded weeks, months or years, but the issue is highly probable. as certain as the rising of to-morrow's sun.
England in possession of the Floridas and Spain may perhaps be enabled to keep pos- the port of Havanna, would hold in her hand the session of the city of Mexico and some few strong || keys of the commerce of the Mississippi and the places for a little while longer, because the re- Mexican Gulph, and would be ready in case of publican forces have not as yet either trains of necessity or policy to take the empire of Mexico artillery or the means of assaulting fortified pla- | into her safe-keeping. All this and more may be ces, but the omnipotence of Spain over the af- || attempted in this age of political miracles. fections and on the fears of the Mexican people, To check the daring progress of the republic is forever lost. There is not a Creole mother of the United States, has been openly avowed by throughout this vast empire that does not while British statesmen, and is now openly inculcated nourishing her offspring secretly or openly chant || by the British writers of the present times. If to the infant ear the song of liberty; nor is there tho girdle that was proposed at Ghent to encircle among six millions of people of all classes and this country, could not be accomplished, that is colours, one hundred thousand persons sincerely || no reason why Great Britain will hesitate now to opposed to the independence of Mexico. It may plant her sceptre in the vicinage of the United be asked, if this is the fact, why has not the re. States. publican party already fixed the destiny of their Americans, be on your guard. Be assured that country? The answer is plain—it is because they.ll the coalition of legitimates in Europe are disposed have not yet been supplied with any munitions of for a crusade against whatever people or country war essential for the operations of a considerable that have hoisted the banners of liberty, army. Almost every musket and pound of pow- Mexico free and independent, and allied to the der in their possession has been taken from United States by interest and gratitude as well as armed men by an unarmed multitude. Shut out by the laws of nature, would be of more imporfrom all intercourse by sea with any of the na- tance to the human race and to the civilized tions of the world, and deprived of any trade world than any event that has occurred since the (until very recently) either by land or water, || 4th day of July, 1776. even with the United States, is it not surprising
JOSE ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO. that the revolution has not long ere this been crushed? And if it has reached the point I have stated, is there not good ground to believe in its speedy and eventual triumph! For the deve.
Plan of a Botanic Garden, lopement of these facts and my opinions, i am
To be established near indebted to the chevalier Onis; for most surely THE CITY OF PIIILADELPHIA, I should not have introduced myself to the public, if that chevalier had not marked me out as a
Cabinet of Sciences. victim to Spanish vengeance.
Among the inscrutable operations of the Deity, IN EUROPE, where comparatively little re. it appears he could not have selected a more mains to attract the inquiries of the Naturalist, suitable instrument to promote the separation of the importance of the cultivation of BOTANY, as America from Spain, than in permitting Ferdi- it regards the developement of the alimentary and nand to reascend the Spanish throne. Every act medicinal properties of Plants, is universally acof this imbecile mortal has tended to widen the knowledged and justly appreciated. There the breach between his American subjects and the study of this science in all its practical bearings, Spanish peninsula ; and if among his other follies is pursued with an avidity worthy of its object, he will only persist in his Quixotic demands on and ranks among its votaries the most distinguishthe United States, it will be the happiest event ed cultivators of Science, the most liberal and enthat ever occurred to Mexico or South America. | lightened benefactors of man; while in America,
These demands have excited in me no wonder, I where a boundless range of unexplored country for I recollect that when I was in the cortes, the presents to the eye of Science and Philanthropy the Spanish government then intended to declare the most attractive inducements to unwearied exwar against the United States, and was only pre-ertion, very little has yet been achieved. With vented from so doing by an exhausted treasury, a view, therefore, to point the people of Ameri. and by subserviency to the British cabinet, who ca to an object eminently useful, to excite a taste did not think it politic, at that time, to promote laudable and elegant, and to collect in one assem
blage ail the varieties of the Vegetable World
which the Creator has poured profusely over our
In January 1816, the establishment of a Bota. soil, and also to procure the rare and useful plants | nic Garden was suggested by one of the members of other climates, the CABINET OF SCIENCES of the Cabinet of Sciences, and a sketch of a hawe determined to establish a
Plan laid before the Society, which was referred BOTANIC GARDEN.
to a committee appointed for the purpose of per. Aware of the magnitude of the undertaking, I fecting it. The Report was adopted, and the and believing that its importance will be justly Plan, now published, was, early in February, appreciated by an enlightened public, the socie- printed and circulated, and many subscribers ty is induced to appeal to its liberality for assist
were obtained. Loans to a very considerable aance in accomplishing an object so desirable. mount were offered, and those gentlemen, whose In two of the cities of the union, similar esta
taste has led them to form extensive botanical blishments have, within a few years, been form-collections in their private gardens, have promis. ed, and are now in a flourishing condition. The ed a supply of seeds, duplicates, and cuttings of exertions of individuals, which were alone nearly numerous specimens. Encouraged also by the sufficient, have been upheld by legislative aid, promise of assistance from many influential and and the hopes of the founders have been amply wealthy citizens, and being confident that the lirealized.
berality of Philadelphians will not allow other PLAN.
smaller and less wealthy cities to surpass them in 1. The Garden shall be distinguished by the public spirit, they now offer their Plan to the
public for support. name of The PENNSYLVANIA BOTANIC GARDEX.
Animated by liberal assurances, and flattering 2. To enable the Society to attain the objects | prospects, the Cabinet has made considerable stated in the preceding preamble, papers con
exertion to bring the establishment of a Botanic taining a full exposition of its views, shall be pre-Garden as soon as possible into effect. Commitsented by the committee or deputations there- || tees have ranged the vicinity of Philadelphia, from, to families of respectability residing in the and have viewed many situations which were escity or elsewhere, soliciting their patronage ; || teemed suitable scites for the Garden; and the and when, or sooner, if judged expedient, the Society' have the pleasure of announcing, that sum of ten thousand dollars shall have been sub- | they have ascertained that some of them may be scribed, a meeting of the stockholders shall be procured, possessing all the requisite advantages, called, and the establishment go into operation. || abundance of water, variety of soil and aspect,
3. Any person paying twenty-five dollars, shall and a prospect as commanding and pleasing as be entitled to a share, and have the privilege of any near the city upon moderate terms, whenvoting:
ever the liberality of the citizens shali have en4. The stockholders, with those persons im- trusted them witli sufficient funds for the purmediately composing their families, shall have
pose. the perpetual right of visiting the garden, and It will be seen by the Plan that the money to their names shall be recorded as patrons and be- ll be raised for the Botanic Garden will be thrown nefactors of the establishment.
into stock, which we confidently anticipate will 5. The public shall be admitted under such re. in time become productive property; and also, gulations as the directors may judge proper. that the public will be entitled to an equal share
6. The garden shall be the property of the in the management of the establishment with the stockholders and society, and under their joint | society, one half of the Directors being chosen management.
by the latter, and one half by the stockholders. 7. The stockholders and society shall annually || Such an arrangement, it is hoped, will place the choose from among themselves twelve directors, establishment on a more permanent basis, one whereof one half shall be resident members of more acceptable to all, than if the Society should the society, and the duty of said directors shall have retained it exclusively within its own conbe to superintend the management of the garden, || troul. make collections of plants, correspond on Bota
By order of the Society, nical subjects, and make semi-annual reports of
JOSEPH CLOUD, Pres'dt. their proceedings to the stockholders and so
Philadelphia, April 17. ciety. 8. The receipts arising from donations, shares,
THE FINE ARTS. sales of supernumerary plants at the garden, and for tickets of admission, shall be appropriated Dead Man, who touched the bones of Elisha;
Mr. Allston's Picture of the Raising of the exclusively for enlarging the establishment, and defraying the expenses attending its concerns.
wants no faint praises of mine. Its merits will 9. For losses, debts or accidents, the property
soon spread over this vast, and almost unbounded or persons of the stockholders, shall not be indic country: for it is a Picture of such universal vidually liable ; but in all case's whatever, such pretensions, that all are pleased who have been debts, losses or accidents, shall be paid and sus
favoured with a sight of it. When this Picture tained by the joint funds, and no other.
was first begun in London, a youth (now study. 10. Bve laws for the immediate government of observes - Allston has begun a Picture on a most
ing there,) in writing to his correspondent here, the establishment, shall be made by the direc- | difficult subject, in which few ideas are accorded tors, subjected to the emendation of the stock. bolders and the society,
to him from the text he has chosen in Holy 11, Shares in the stock shall be transferable.
Writ: therefore, he must depend almost entirely By order of the society,
on his own creative genius; which, in this in.
stance, I fear will fail him." After the PicN. S. Allison,
ture was finished, the same youth writes
Secretary “ Allston has finished his famous Picture, Philadelphia, Feb. 12, 1816.
and has infinitely surpassed my most sanguine
expectations; it is truly grand and sublime, and ||ed very neatly to the others with a kind of subwill immortalize our dear countryman. I despair stance, in appearance not unlike cat-gut. ever to reach such excellence. Every one who The antiquity of this manuscript may be inferred has seen it, is much pleased, and (except his mo- by its being written in leather, a circumstance which dest self,) praise it as one of the first productions would hardly have taken place after the invention of the Exelish School”. Mark this.—Thus far of vellum was made. It was recently procured was written by an am iable Youth, who likewise from the continent under the most interesting cirpromises to do honour to the self same English | cumstances. It is believed to be from 14 to 1500 School. Need it be added, that this modest gen- years old; and in any case is the oldest copy of the tleman's picture, was exhibited to an admiring | law extant. There is reason to believe it has been multitude, in the populous city of London: and above 800 years in one family, on the continent. excited so great an interest, that on mature deli. It is well known to what a degree the Jews veneberation of the proper authorities, Mr. Allston rate their sacred books, and with what care they had awarded to him two hundred yuineas, (up- || preserve them; it will therefore, be believed, that wards of nine hundred dollars,) being the high-nothing but the most afflicting and imperious cirest prize in their power to bestow.- Ponderon cumstance could induce a family, loving their law, this my countrymen—what honour, what pride, to part with a treasure so precious. During the we ought to feel, in calling this man an Ame- calamities which followed the train of Bonaparte's
wars, a Jewish family of opulence, was reduced Cannot we have an American School of the Fine | to utter ruin, and compelled to emigrate.-They Arts ? Most assuredly yesbut we must cherish came to Holland in their exile, and were there so native Genius. Let us follow the laudable exam- reduced as to be obliged to pledge, as their ple of Russia, who sends (annually) a certain num- last remaining resource, this manuscript of the law, ber of young gentlemen to Rome, London, &c. in under a limitation of a considerable time for its rethe various departments of Painting, Sculpture, | demption. The time expired, the pledge was not Architecture, &c. &c. and after a certain period redeemed, and the property was sold in Holland they return, accomplished in those various depart- by the person who lent his money on it. This ments of professional study, to adorn their native most yaluable and antique performance is now like. country, likewise in manners and enlightened || ly to be a public benefit. understandings. Perhaps Petersburgh is now one It has been preserved with the greatest care, in of the first cities in the world for the encourage a rich cover, fringed with a fine silk and lined. ment of the Beaux Arts, and the ground whereon The rollers. on which the manuscript runs, are beauSt. Petersburgh stands, (let it be remembered, tiful mahogany or iron wood. It has been seen by my fellow citizens,) was a swamp when Philadel || a number of Hebrew scholars and Jews; the forphia had become a respectable town. It will be mer always expressing a literary enthusiasm, and said, that under arbitrary governments, the Fine the latter treating it with the most solemn rever. Arts will flourish if the monarch encourages ence. It has been collated by a very learned man them. This is true ; 'but Greece and Rome pro- and its readings preferred to the most ancient coduced some of its finest works under the repub- pies we have ; so that this may justly be thought lican form of government. It would be presump- to be unique as well as the most ancient copy of tion in me to dictate to a Nation ; but let me ask, the five books of Moses in existence. shall so proud a people as the American, with all These facts naturally give birth to a few reflec-. the advantages of their Forefather's experience, tions. Is not such a manuscript a national object? and their own native genius, shrink from the ought it not to be purchased for the British Muse. pleasing task of fostering that heaven-born spark | um, or the universities of Oxford or Cambridge ? in its own citizens ? Arouse from this lethargy! | There are many noblemen and literati, who would Do not suffer our country to lay under the stigma | not scruple the most generous price, only its preof (after protecting every useful Art,) neglecting sent possessor ought to be induced to part with. by cold indifference that which ennobles senti-The writer of this article having seen it, thinks if ment, and enlarges the action of the soul. he may hazard an opinion that its least value must
AN OLD CORRESPONDENT. be 2000 guineas. Surely, such a national object [Poulson's American. ought not to be allowed to be in any private hånds
whatever; but either the universities, or some other public body, should purchase and place it, where,
under regular superintendence, it may be occasionJEWISH MANUSCRIPT.
ally open to the learned, and to those who are cu. Curious and Unique Manuscript.
rious for the accurate knowledge of all that per.
tains to the records of that wonderful people, the The literati are likely to be highly interested | ancient Israelites. with an original, ancient, and complete manuscript
(Manchester Erchange Herald. of the Pentateuch now in the possession of Mr. Joseph Sums, of Darlington, Durham. The original copy is of leather, it is in two vol
Summary of Foreign Events. umes, about two feet wide, and measures 169 feet long It is supposed to be of goat skin leather, and is Letter from the Portuguese Vice Consul at Trieste, most excellently dressed, so as to have an exquisite to his government, dated January 17. softness to the touch. Each sheet or skin is divided “ The plague, which I informed you was introinto pages, five inches and a half in width. The duced in Macarsa, has recently spread to the coast letters are very large, and not only most excellent- of Dalmatia, and from thence has passed over to ly written, but ornamented with a number of Tagin the opposite coast of the kingdom of Naples. or coronac, which is a thing peculiar to the most The principal health officer, has informed me, ancient manuscripts. Each sheet of leather is stitch that on the first days of this month, a contagious
disorder made its appearance in the little city of Munich. The difference between these powers are Noja, with all the symptoms of the plague. In 4 ||not so near to a close as some papers have stated. days, in a population of 4000, 25 persons died. The war being now at an end, the legitimate It has since spread to Leece, and Francavilla.-- | governments of the continent have time to look af. The Nepolitan government is taking the most en- ter their domestic affairs, and particularly the pub. ergetic measures to prevent its further propaga- lic press. The trial of the editor of the Rhenish tion, and to cause it to disappear.
Mercury, commenced at Coblentz on the 17th last, “ In Cunna, in the neigh hood of Raguza, in before the correctional tribunal. The defendant Spalatro, and in divers places of Austrian Coratia, objected to the competence of the court. The on the borders of the Ottoman States, the plague court deferred giving judgment upon this plea unhas been introduced; as well as in Corfu. In which til the 23d. This cause has excited great interest. last place it was introduced in consequence of a Gen. Bulow, who commanded the Prussian caval. vessel from Egypt, being wrecked on the Island. |ry in the Battle of Waterloo, died on the 25th of Some of the islanders saved part of the cargo February at Koenigsberg, in his 61st year. without the knowledge of the government, and A Paris paper of the 24th of February, gives a of course without fumigation or any caution report, that Lucien Bonaparte had converted his Among these the plague appeared.
property into specie, and embarked for America a “The government here is taking efficacious mea- Civita Vecchia. sures to prevent the introduction of this scourge, The London Morning Chronicle, of the first of It even subjects to a rigerous quarantine, produce March, states, that “on tuesday, ministers receivand merchandize from the neighboring coast of led despatches from Italy by two messengers, one Istria. By the blessing of providence, this city followed by another. By the first they were never enjoyed better health?"
informed, that Lucien Bonaparte had set off from Lisbon, Feb. 26–The directors of the royal || Rome with great Privacy, and his flight was confabric of silks, have ordered the following edict sidered to he of so much importance, that a cabinet to be published:
council was convened. They had scarcely met The prince regent our lord, by his sovereign when the second messenger brought an account resolve of the 5th Oct. 1815, with the advice of that Lucien had been recognized at Florence, and the directors of the royal fabric of silks, and that the post-master had refused to give him horses; works of aguas livres
, has been pleased to prohibit that, however, he had contrived to get on a post or generally the introduction in this kingdom of two further, but finding himself discovered and manufactured silks of all qualities, coming from followed, he had of his own accord turned about, foreign countries; exceping however, the stipu
and was on his way back to Rome.” lations of the treaty of commerce between said
LONDON, March 1. august lord and his Britannic majesty,
The cotton trade, after a temporary heaviness, has again revived: letters received this morning
from Manchester state, that on Tuesday last above By the arrival of the ship Galen, at Boston, 433000 bales of cotton were sold at Liverpool, and that days from London, and 33 days from the Isle of the trade of Manchester was never more animated. Weight, no important information is furnished. The same paper contains the susequent official The few articles worth noticing are those which note. follow:
Sir Robert Wilson, and Messrs. Bruce and Hutchinson, who favoured the escape of Lavelette, were to be tried about the 20th March, before the French
“ London. Eeb, 29, 1816. chamber of peers. Paris papers of the 9th March, « Sir-It is with much satisfaction that I com. are silent on the subject.
municate to you, for the information of the subThe trial of Ad. Linois and colonel Boyer, had | sribers to Lloyd's, and others, that official informataken place, Ad. Linois was acquitted, but colonel || tion has been received at this consulate of the dif: Boyer sentenced to death.
ferences between his Majesty the King of Denmark Letters from Cambray via Brussels state “ that and the Pacha of Tripoli, having been adjusted, and on the 1st of March, the right wing of the army | that the Danish flag has henceforth nothing to apof occupation was entirley organized and estab-prehend from that quarter, Denmark being now at lished in its position. These positions form a peace with all the Barbary powers. I am &c. triple line, connected by posts placed at certain
“ H. F. HORNEMAN, distances, so that the service is every where per
“ His Danish majesty's consul gén. formed with the greatest exactness, and in case of|“ Mr. J Bennet, sec. to the committee of Lloyd's." need these 70,000 men might be united with the greatest ease and promptness; but it is not at all The accounts from Lower Italy are limited to probable that such a measure will ever become ne- two subjects—the Jesuits and the plague. The cessary. Order, peace, repose, the happiness of first had spread themselves as far as the Po; but being able to breathe after so many agitations and the latter had assumed a more favorable aspect. misfortunes,' these are the sentiments which ani- Paris, March 4-His majesty is occupied in for. mate the immense majority of the inhabitants of ming a new administration. It is understood that Picady, Artois, and French Flanders. The arrvial | the Duc D'Angouleme will not only have a seat of Lord Wellington is still uncertain.
and voice in the cabinet, but that he will preside at “ Above 300 waggons, loaded with amunition, the council of ministers-Chataubriand is mentioned &c. have lately arrived at Valenciennes, to be dis- | as the person most likely to succeed the minister tributed in all the fortresses garrisoned by the army of the interior Mons Vaublanc. of occupation."
The governor has found it necessary to send an The negociations between Austria and Bavaria, armed force to Lyons, where symptoms of fermenwhich commenced at Milan, have been resumed at || tation and revolt have again manifested themselves.
DANISH GENERAL CONSULATE.