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connected ;-and he hoped that the course which the government of each country was pursuing was such as would consolidate the subsisting peace, promote harmony between the nations, so as to prevent on either side the recurrence of any acts of animosity. Above all he deprecated the spirit of imputation against foreign governments, which, with whatever intention they might be thrown out, were always productive of the worst consequences. Conjectures, on counsels not understood, were ignorantly hazarded even on matters unconnected with the affairs of this country. (Hear, hear!) He was bappy that on the subject he had met with an ally in the right honorable gentleman opposite (Mr. Ponsonby,) and hoped they would cordially co-operate in the encouragement of feelings of friendship and good will between America and this country.(Hear)

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career.

I had the honour to be among the members of the cortes at Cadiz that were animated with zeal

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more than once in the United States. Ferdinand VII it appears, has demanded me of the American government, in order to increase the vast number of victims already immolated in honour of his return to the Spanish throne; and I suppose the next thing we shall hear is a bull from the pope, hurling the thunders of the Vatican against the republic of the United States for having granted me the rights of hospitality.

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It does not become me to anticipate the conduct of the American government on this occasion, further than to remark I feel perfectly tranquil under the guardianship of the laws of nations as well as those of the United States; and much do I wish that I had nothing else to disturb my serenity than the Quixotic menaces of a fantastic monarch.

During the campaign against the British in Louisiana, I had the honour to act as a soldier, and I should be proud of any future occasion to manifest my zeal in the service of the United States: and if during my residence in this country, I should be so fortunate as to inspire this government or the people with a disposition to aid my fellow citizens of Mexico, in their struggles for liberty, I shall not, I hope, on this account be considered criminal, either by this nation or in the eyes of the universe.

If I am not mistaken we are fast approaching that epoch when the legitimate monarchs of Europe will openly avow their hostility to the American republic. Already are they maturing a future crusade against the liberties of the human race in the western hemisphere, and the first step in this holy enterprize has been taken by the pious and magnanimous Ferdinand.

The progress of liberty in the new world is filling the potentates of Europe with dismay. The vicinage of the United States to the Mexican empire, excites not only the fears of Spain, but Great Britain. If six million of Mexicans become identified in interest and feeling with the citizens of the United States, we might then bid defiance to the machinations of the old world. vast and growing population of the western parts of the United States, would find in the internal provinces of Mexico a vast and permanent vent for their surplus industry.

for the freedom and glory of our country, desi-
rous of breaking the fetters and dissipating the
prejudices which for ages had loaded and dis-
graced the Spanish character. It is for those ex-
ertions at a memorable epoch, that myself and
colleagues have become obnoxious to the despot
Ferdinand, and his fanatick counsellors. The
same Ferdinand who owes his life and his throne
to the patriotism of a few members of the cor-
tes, during the most stormy season of the revolu-The
tion; this same Ferdinand since his return to the
throne, has already immolated on the altars of
revenge and ingratitude, almost every individual
of the cortes that thought, spoke, or acted as
I have done; and had I not taken the resolutioning
of departing from that land of despotism at the
period I did, there is no doubt that my name long
ere this would have been added to the catalogue
of sacrifices.

The gold and silver of Mexico in place of flowdirect to Great Britain and Spain, and furnishing the sinews of ambitious wars, would find a channel to and through the United States; a new and powerful stimilus would be thus given to the industry and enterprise of this country, and the period is perhaps not remote when the United States could supply all that Mexico requires, as cheap as can at present be done from Europe.

I came to America with a determination to use all my efforts to effect its separation from a government, that for three centuries had filled the new world with chains, with groans, and with tears. When I undertook this enterprise, I knew the fate that awaited me in case I did not succeed; but to those who are inspired with a love

To promote these objects may be deemed criminal by despots, aud by those who affect to think the Mexican population are unworthy the

of country, who feel that their actions are ground-blessings of freedom-but to those who have been born and bred in the land of liberty, my views and motives, I hope, will be appreciated and supported.

ed on the freedom and happiness of their fellow citizens, it is not likely they are to be deterred from pursuing those patriotic views, merely because they are exposed to death and persecution. If Washington and his associates had trembled at the menaces of despotism, the United States would never have become independent.

Assassins have been hired to murder me, as can be proved by authentic documents in my possession. Attempts on my life have been made

It has been said by some politicians that the Mexicans are not yet sufficiently advanced in civilization to be susceptible of rational freedom. Alas! how little are these people known or understood. There is not a people under the sun of more mental aptitude than the Mexicans. This homage has been paid to them by a every liberaf

traveller that visited them. But the present
state of the revolution speaks more decisively in
their favour. Without foreign assistance, with-
out scarcely a single musket, and in fact with
only stones and clubs they began the revolution
against their cruel oppressors. They have at
last so far succeeded as to make the cause of
freedom felt and circulated from the Mexican
gulph to the extremities of California. Organi-ing
zation has succeeded tumults and a government
founded on republican principles, has been form-
ed; and notwithstanding a train of difficulties
more serious than ever before a people had to en-
counter, they have attained a strength that insures
their emancipation from Spain. The final ac-
complishment of their independence may be re-
tarded weeks, months or years, but the issue is
as certain as the rising of to-morrow's sun.

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Spain may perhaps be enabled to keep possession of the city of Mexico and some few strong places for a little while longer, because the republican forces have not as yet either trains of artillery or the means of assaulting fortified places, but the omnipotence of Spain over the affections and on the fears of the Mexican people, is forever lost. There is not a Creole mother throughout this vast empire that does not while nourishing her offspring secretly or openly chant to the infant ear the song of liberty; nor is there among six millions of people of all classes and colours, one hundred thousand persons sincerely opposed to the independence of Mexico. It may be asked, if this is the fact, why has not the republican party already fixed the destiny of their country? The answer is plain-it is because they have not yet been supplied with any munitions of war essential for the operations of a considerable army. Almost every musket and pound of powder in their possession has been taken from armed men by an unarmed multitude. Shut out from all intercourse by sea with any of the nations of the world, and deprived of any trade (until very recently) either by land or water, even with the United States, is it not surprising that the revolution has not long ere this been crushed? And if it has reached the point I have stated, is there not good ground to believe in its speedy and eventual triumph? For the developement of these facts and my opinions, i am indebted to the chevalier Onis; for most surely I should not have introduced myself to the public, if that chevalier had not marked me out as a victim to Spanish vengeance.

Extraordinary vicissitudes have taken place since that time among the nations of Europe, and conformably to the legitimate arrangements at Vienna, every brother monarch is to support the pretensions of each other, more especially when such pretensions accord with the views of the British government.

The question brought forward by Spain relatto West Florida, did not originate in the cabinet of Ferdinand-its source springs from a higher and deeper authority; it may be traced to the councils and policy of Great Britain. That Spain has ceded her rights to the Floridas to Great Britain, no doubt exists in my mind, and that the great maratime port of Havanna may likewise be required by and ceded to England, is highly probable.

England in possession of the Floridas and the port of Havanna, would hold in her hand the keys of the commerce of the Mississippi and the Mexican Gulph, and would be ready in case of necessity or policy to take the empire of Mexico into her safe-keeping. All this and more may be attempted in this age of political miracles.

To check the daring progress of the republic of the United States, has been openly avowed by British statesmen, and is now openly inculcated by the British writers of the present times. If the girdle that was proposed at Ghent to encircle this country, could not be accomplished, that is no reason why Great Britain will hesitate now to plant her sceptre in the vicinage of the United States.

Americans, be on your guard. Be assured that the coalition of legitimates in Europe are disposed for a crusade against whatever people or country that have hoisted the banners of liberty.

Mexico free and independent, and allied to the United States by interest and gratitude as well as by the laws of nature, would be of more impor tance to the human race and to the civilized world than any event that has occurred since the 4th day of July, 1776.

JOSE ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO.

Plan of a Botanic Garden,

To be established near
THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA,

BY THE

Cabinet of Sciences.

Among the inscrutable operations of the Deity, it appears he could not have selected a more suitable instrument to promote the separation of America from Spain, than in permitting Ferdinand to reascend the Spanish throne. Every act of this imbecile mortal has tended to widen the breach between his American subjects and the Spanish peninsula; and if among his other follies he will only persist in his Quixotic demands on the United States, it will be the happiest event that ever occurred to Mexico or South America.lightened benefactors of man; while in America, where a boundless range of unexplored country presents to the eye of Science and Philanthropy the most attractive inducements to unwearied ex

These demands have excited in me no wonder, for I recollect that when I was in the cortes, the the Spanish government then intended to declare war against the United States, and was only pre-ertion, very little has yet been achieved. With vented from so doing by an exhausted treasury, a view, therefore, to point the people of Ameriand by subserviency to the British cabinet, who ca to an object eminently useful, to excite a taste did not think it politic, at that time, to promote laudable and elegant, and to collect in one assem the rupture. blage all the varieties of the Vegetable World

IN EUROPE, where comparatively little remains to attract the inquiries of the Naturalist, the importance of the cultivation of BOTANY, as it regards the developement of the alimentary and medicinal properties of Plants, is universally acknowledged and justly appreciated. There the study of this science in all its practical bearings, is pursued with an avidity worthy of its object, and ranks among its votaries the most distinguished cultivators of Science, the most liberal and en

which the Creator has poured profusely over our soil, and also to procure the rare and useful plants of other climates, the CABINET OF SCIENCES have determined to establish a

In January 1816, the establishment of a Botanic Garden was suggested by one of the members of the Cabinet of Sciences, and a sketch of a Plan laid before the Society, which was referred to a committee appointed for the purpose of per. fecting it. The Report was adopted, and the Plan, now published, was, early in February,

BOTANIC GARDEN.

Aware of the magnitude of the undertaking, and believing that its importance will be justly appreciated by an enlightened public, the socie-printed and circulated, and many subscribers ty is induced to appeal to its liberality for assistwere obtained. Loans to a very considerable aance in accomplishing an object so desirable. mount were offered, and those gentlemen, whose taste has led them to form extensive botanical

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In two of the cities of the union, similar establishments have, within a few years, been form-collections in their private gardens, have promised, and are now in a flourishing condition. The ed a supply of seeds, duplicates, and cuttings of exertions of individuals, which were alone nearly numerous specimens. Encouraged also by the sufficient, have been upheld by legislative aid, promise of assistance from many influential and and the hopes of the founders have been amply wealthy citizens, and being confident that the liberality of Philadelphians will not allow other PLAN. smaller and less wealthy cities to surpass them in public spirit, they now offer their Plan to the public for support.

realized.

Animated by liberal assurances, and flattering prospects, the Cabinet has made considerable exertion to bring the establishment of a Botanic Garden as soon as possible into effect. Committees have ranged the vicinity of Philadelphia, and have viewed many situations which were esteemed suitable scites for the Garden; and the Society have the pleasure of announcing, that they have ascertained that some of them may be procured, possessing all the requisite advantages, abundance of water, variety of soil and aspect, and a prospect as commanding and pleasing as any near the city upon moderate terms, whenever the liberality of the citizens shali have entrusted them with sufficient funds for the pur

1. The Garden shall be distinguished by the

name of THE PENNSYLVANIA BOTANIC GARDEN.

2. To enable the Society to attain the objects stated in the preceding preamble, papers containing a full exposition of its views, shall be presented by the committee or deputations therefrom, to families of respectability residing in the city or elsewhere, soliciting their patronage; and when, or sooner, if judged expedient, the sum of ten thousand dollars shall have been subscribed, a meeting of the stockholders shall be called, and the establishment go into operation. 3. Any person paying twenty-five dollars, shall be entitled to a share, and have the privilege of voting.

4. The stockholders, with those persons immediately composing their families, shall have the perpetual right of visiting the garden, and their names shall be recorded as patrons and benefactors of the establishment.

5. The public shall be admitted under such regulations as the directors may judge proper.

6. The garden shall be the property of the stockholders and society, and under their joint management.

7. The stockholders and society shall annually choose from among themselves twelve directors, whereof one half shall be resident members of the society, and the duty of said directors shall be to superintend the management of the garden, make collections of plants, correspond on Botanical subjects, and make semi-annual reports of their proceedings to the stockholders and society.

8. The receipts arising from donations, shares, sales of supernumerary plants at the garden, and for tickets of admission, shall be appropriated exclusively for enlarging the establishment, and defraying the expenses attending its concerns.

9. For losses, debts or accidents, the property or persons of the stockholders, shall not be indi. vidually liable; but in all cases whatever, such debts, losses or accidents, shall be paid and sustained by the joint funds, and no other.

10. Bye laws for the immediate government of the establishment, shall be made by the directors, subjected to the emendation of the stockholders and the society.

11. Shares in the stock shall be transferable.
By order of the society,
N. S. Allison,
Secretary.

Philadelphia, Feb. 12, 1816.

pose.

It will be seen by the Plan that the money to be raised for the Botanic Garden will be thrown into stock, which we confidently anticipate will in time become productive property; and also, that the public will be entitled to an equal share in the management of the establishment with the society, one half of the Directors being chosen by the latter, and one half by the stockholders. Such an arrangement, it is hoped, will place the establishment on a more permanent basis, one more acceptable to all, than if the Society should have retained it exclusively within its own controul.

By order of the Society, JOSEPH CLOUD, Pres'dt. Philadelphia, April 17.

THE FINE ARTS.

Dead Man, who touched the bones of Elisha,
Mr. Allston's Picture of the Raising of the
wants no faint praises of mine. Its merits will
soon spread over this vast, and almost unbounded
country: for it is a Picture of such universal
pretensions, that all are pleased who have been
favoured with a sight of it. When this Picture
was first begun in London, a youth (now study-
observes" Allston has begun a Picture on a most
ing there,) in writing to his correspondent here,
difficult subject, in which few ideas are accorded
to him from the text he has chosen in Holy
Writ: therefore, he must depend almost entirely
on his own creative genius; which, in this in-
stance, I fear will fail him." After the Pic-
ture was finished, the same youth writes—
"Allston has finished his famous Picture,
and has infinitely surpassed my most sanguine

expectations; it is truly grand and sublime, and I will immortalize our dear countryman. I despair ever to reach such excellence. Every one who has seen it, is much pleased, and (except his modest self,) praise it as one of the first productions of the ENGLISH SCHOOL" Mark this.-Thus far was written by an amiable Youth, who likewise promises to do honour to the self same English School. Need it be added, that this modest gen-years old; and in any case is the oldest copy of the tleman's picture, was exhibited to an admiring law extant. There is reason to believe it has been multitude, in the populous city of London: and above 800 years in one family, on the continent. excited so great an interest, that on mature deli-It is well known to what a degree the Jews veneberation of the proper authorities, Mr. Allston rate their sacred books, and with what care they had awarded to him two hundred guineas, (up- preserve them; it will therefore, be believed, that wards of nine hundred dollars,) being the high-nothing but the most afflicting and imperious cirest prize in their power to bestow.-Ponder on cumstance could induce a family, loving their law, this my countrymen-what honour, what pride, to part with a treasure so precious. During the we ought to feel, in calling this man an AME- calamities which followed the train of Bonaparte's wars, a Jewish family of opulence, was reduced to utter ruin, and compelled to emigrate.-They came to Holland in their exile, and were there so reduced as to be obliged to pledge, as their

RICAN.

remaining resource, this manuscript of the law under a limitation of a considerable time for its redemption. The time expired, the pledge was not redeemed, and the property was sold in Holland by the person who lent his money on it. This most valuable and antique performance is now likely to be a public benefit.

Cannot we have an American School of the Fine Arts? Most assuredly yes-but we must cherish native Genius. Let us follow the laudable example of Russia, who sends (annually) a certain num-last ber of young gentlemen to Rome, London, &c. in the various departments of Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, &c. &c. and after a certain period they return, accomplished in those various departments of professional study, to adorn their native country, likewise in manners and enlightened understandings. Perhaps Petersburgh is now one It has been preserved with the greatest care, in of the first cities in the world for the encourage- a rich cover, fringed with a fine silk and lined. ment of the Beaux Arts, and the ground whereon The rollers. on which the manuscript runs, are beauSt. Petersburgh stands, (let it be remembered, tiful mahogany or iron wood. It has been seen by my fellow citizens,) was a swamp when Philadel- a number of Hebrew scholars and Jews; the forphia had become a respectable town. It will be mer always expressing a literary enthusiasm, and said, that under arbitrary governments, the Fine the latter treating it with the most solemn reverArts will flourish if the monarch encourages ence. It has been collated by a very learned man them. This is true; but Greece and Rome pro-and its readings preferred to the most ancient coduced some of its finest works under the repub-pies we have; so that this may justly be thought lican form of government. It would be presump- to be unique as well as the most ancient copy of tion in me to dictate to a Nation; but let me ask, the five books of Moses in existence. shall so proud a people as the American, with all the advantages of their Forefather's experience, and their own native genius, shrink from the pleasing task of fostering that heaven-born spark in its own citizens? Arouse from this lethargy! Do not suffer our country to lay under the stigma of (after protecting every useful Art,) neglecting by cold indifference that which ennobles ment, and enlarges the action of the soul. AN OLD CORRESPONDENT.

[Poulson's American.

ed very neatly to the others with a kind of substance, in appearance not unlike cat-gut.

The antiquity of this manuscript may be inferred by its being written in leather, a circumstance which would hardly have taken place after the invention of vellum was made. It was recently procured from the continent under the most interesting circumstances. It is believed to be from 14 to 1500

These facts naturally give birth to a few reflec-. tions. Is not such a manuscript a national object? Ought it not to be purchased for the British Museum, or the universities of Oxford or Cambridge? There are many noblemen and literati, who would not scruple the most generous price, only its present possessor ought to be induced to part with. senti-The writer of this article having seen it, thinks if he may hazard an opinion that its least value must be 2000 guineas. Surely, such a national object ought not to be allowed to be in any private hands whatever; but either the universities, or some other public body, should purchase and place it, where, under regular superintendence, it may be occasionally open to the learned, and to those who are curious for the accurate knowledge of all that pertains to the records of that wonderful people, the ancient Israelites.

[Manchester Exchange Herald.

JEWISH MANUSCRIPT.
Curious and Unique Manuscript.

The literati are likely to be highly interested with an original, ancient, and complete manuscript of the Pentateuch now in the possession of Mr. Joseph Sums, of Darlington, Durham.

The original copy is of leather, it is in two volumes, about two feet wide, and measures 169 feet long. It is supposed to be of goat skin leather, and is most excellently dressed, so as to have an exquisite softness to the touch. Each sheet or skin is divided into pages, five inches and a half in width. The letters are very large, and not only most excellently written, but ornamented with a number of Tagin or coronac, which is a thing peculiar to the most ancient manuscripts. Each sheet of leather is stitch

Summary of Foreign Events.

Letter from the Portuguese Vice Consul at Trieste,
to his government, dated January 17.
"The plague, which I informed you was intro-
duced in Macarsa, has recently spread to the coast
of Dalmatia, and from thence has passed over to
the opposite coast of the kingdom of Naples.
The principal health officer, has informed me,
that on the first days of this month, a contagious

disorder made its appearance in the little city of || Munich. The difference between these powers are Noja, with all the symptoms of the plague. In 4 not so near to a close as some papers have stated. days, in a population of 4000, 25 persons died. The war being now at an end, the legitimate It has since spread to Leece, and Francavilla.-governments of the continent have time to look afThe Nepolitan government is taking the most en- ter their domestic affairs, and particularly the pub. ergetic measures to prevent its further propaga-lic press. The trial of the editor of the Rhenish tion, and to cause it to disappear. Mercury, commenced at Coblentz on the 17th last, "In Cunna, in the neighborhood of Raguza, in before the correctional tribunal. The defendant Spalatro, and in divers places of Austrian Coratia,objected to the competence of the court. The on the borders of the Ottoman States, the plague court deferred giving judgment upon this plea unhas been introduced; as well as in Corfu. In which til the 23d. This cause has excited great interest. last place it was introduced in consequence of a vessel from Egypt, being wrecked on the Island. Some of the islanders saved part of the cargo without the knowledge of the government, and of course without fumigation or any caution. Among these the plague appeared.

Gen. Bulow, who commanded the Prussian cavalry in the Battle of Waterloo, died on the 25th of February at Koenigsberg, in his 61st year.

A Paris paper of the 24th of February, gives a report, that Lucien Bonaparte had converted his property into specie, and embarked for America a Civita Vecchia.

"The government here is taking efficacious measures to prevent the introduction of this scourge. It even subjects to a rigerous quarantine, produce and merchandize from the neighboring coast of Istria. By the blessing of providence, this city never enjoyed better health."

Lisbon, Feb. 26-The directors of the royal fabric of silks, have ordered the following edict to be published:

The prince regent our lord, by his sovereign resolve of the 5th Oct. 1815, with the advice of the directors of the royal fabric of silks, and works of aguas livres, has been pleased to prohibit generally the introduction in this kingdom of manufactured silks of all qualities, coming from foreign countries; exceping however, the stipu-and lations of the treaty of commerce between said august lord and his Britannic majesty.

By the arrival of the ship Galen, at Boston, 43 days from London, and 33 days from the Isle of Weight, no important information is furnished. The few articles worth noticing are those which follow:

Sir Robert wilson, and Messrs. Bruce and Hutchinson, who favoured the escape of Lavelette, were to be tried about the 20th March, before the French chamber of peers. Paris papers of the 9th March, are silent on the subject.

The trial of Ad. Linois and colonel Boyer, had taken place, Ad. Linois was acquitted, but colonel Boyer sentenced to death.

The London Morning Chronicle, of the first of March, states, that "on tuesday, ministers received despatches from Italy by two messengers, one followed by another. By the first they were informed, that Lucien Bonaparte had set off from Rome with great Privacy, and his flight was considered to he of so much importance, that a cabinet council was convened. They had scarcely met when the second messenger brought an account that Lucien had been recognized at Florence, and that the post-master had refused to give him horses; that, however, he had contrived to get on a post or two further, but finding himself discovered and followed, he had of his own accord turned about, was on his way back to Rome." LONDON, March 1. The cotton trade, after a temporary heaviness, has again revived: letters received this morning from Manchester state, that on Tuesday last above 3000 bales of cotton were sold at Liverpool, and that the trade of Manchester was never more animated. The same paper contains the susequent official note.

DANISH GENERAL CONSULATE. "London. Eeb. 29, 1816. "Sir-It is with much satisfaction that I communicate to you, for the information of the subsribers to Lloyd's, and others, that official information has been received at this consulate of the differences between his Majesty the King of Denmark and the Pacha of Tripoli, having been adjusted, and that the Danish flag has henceforth nothing to ap

Letters from Cambray via Brussels state" that on the 1st of March, the right wing of the army of occupation was entirley organized and estab-prehend from that quarter, Denmark being now at lished in its position. These positions form a peace with all the Barbary powers. I am &c. "H. F. HORNEMAN, triple line, connected by posts placed at certain distances, so that the service is every where per"His Danish majesty's consul gén. formed with the greatest exactness, and in case of " Mr. J Bennet, sec. to the committee of Lloyd's." need these 70,000 men might be united with the greatest ease and promptness; but it is not at all probable that such a measure will ever become necessary. Order, peace, repose, the happiness of being able to breathe after so many agitations and misfortunes, these are the sentiments which animate the immense majority of the inhabitants of Picady, Artois, and French Flanders. The arrvial of Lord Wellington is still uncertain.

"Above 300 waggons, loaded with amunition, &c. have lately arrived at Valenciennes, to be distributed in all the fortresses garrisoned by the army of occupation."

The negociations between Austria and Bavaria, which commenced at Milan, have been resumed at

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The accounts from Lower Italy are limited to two subjects-the Jesuits and the plague. The first had spread themselves as far as the Po; but the latter had assumed a more favorable aspect.

PARIS, March 4-His majesty is occupied in forming a new administration.-It is understood that the Duc D'Angouleme will not only have a seat and voice in the cabinet, but that he will preside at the council of ministers-Chataubriand is mentioned as the person most likely to succeed the minister of the interior Mons Vaublanc.

The governor has found it necessary to send an armed force to Lyons, where symptoms of fermentation and revolt have again manifested themselves.

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