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active aid for general purposes ; and consequent. || (if such payments were not thereby rendered gene. ly a subscription in the local currencies of the se- ral) must have been to put at hazard the collection veral states must have been contemplated as the of the revenue, in point of time and in point of prochief resource for procuring the public supplies, || duct; to deteriorate (if not to destroy) the only adas well as for discharging the public engage- equate medium of exchange, adopted by the comments. Under a sense, therefore, of the necessi- || mon consent of the nation, in a case of extreme nety which seems, for a time, to have reconciled the cessity; and, in short, to shake the very foundations whole nation to the suspension of payments in of private property. The powers of the treasury coin, the treasury continued to receive bank department were granted, for purposes contemnotes, in satisfaction of every public claim and de-plated by the legislature in making the grant ; mand; and Congress, after a session of six months, but it is not believed, that a case attended with adjoumed on the 3d of March, 1815, without inti- circumstances so extraordinary, embracing intermating any objection, or making any provision, l ests so extensive, and involving consequences so upon the subject.
important, was at any time anticipated by the leThe same state of things continued throughout |gislature; or that it could be properly subjected the year 1815; in the annual estimates communi. to any other than the legislative agency. Having cated to Congress, at the commencement of the therefore, made several ineffectual attempts to represent session, it was stated that the aggregate lieve the public embarrassment, it was deemed amount which would probably be realized | the duty of the department to repose, with confi. and received at the treasury during 1815, | dence, upon the wisdom and authority of Confrom revenue and loans, might be placed at the gress, for the application of a remedy suited to sum of about $30,400,000. But the gross amount the malady of the times. of treasury notes issued and tinredeemed in 1815 The period has arrived, when such a remedy could not be averaged higher than $16,000,000; || may be safely and surely applied. The opinion and the amount in actual circulation, must be ta- l expressed in the treasury report of the 6th of Deken at a much less sum; for whenever and where- | cember last, is still however entertained, that the ever the treasury notes rose to par, and above || currency in coin cannot at once be restored ; that par, they were for obvious reasons, withheld from it can only be restored through a gradual reducthe ordinary uses in exchange. Nor was it in the tion of the amount, attended by an amelioration power of the treasury to augment the issue of of the value of the existing paper medium, and treasury notes beyond the immediate demand for that the measures of reform must originated with fiscal purposes. Treasury notes have not hith- || state banks. It has been said, indeed, that tliose erto been regarded by the law as a substitute for institutions have already begun the salutary work; the national currency, and the authority to issue that the amount of their discounts has been reducthem is only granted, as an auxiliary for supply. || ed; that the issues of their paper have been reing the occasional deficiencies of the revenue. În | stricted; and that preparations are made for conthe New-England states alone, the banks still pro verting their capital of public stock into the more fessed to pay their notes upon demand in gold legitimate capital of gold and silver.. Public and silver; but, in fact, the issues of bank notes i confidence must naturally follow these just and in that quarter lave proved inadequate to meet | judicious arrangements; but the interposition of the wants of the community ; and the revenue is the government will still be required, to secure almost entirely collected in treasury notes, which a successful result. have been purchased at a considerable discount. It must at all times be a delicate task, to exact It is certain therefore that neither treasury notes the payment of duties and taxes in gold and silnor circulating coin, nor the notes of banks paying || ver, before the treasury is prepared, independent in coin could furnish, in 1815, a sufficient medi- || of any contingency, to give an assurance that the tim, to satisfy the amount of the duties, taxes and public creditors shall be paid in the same or an loans, for the year. But it is important here to equivalent medium. If, however, a national bank add, that while the interior of the country was as be now established, this assurance may be confidestitute of a currency in coin, as the cities and dently given; and it is believed that the appretowns upon the Atlantic, the treasury note medium hension will prove unfounded, which suggests was in effect, monopolised by the commercial ci-that the issue of bank paper will be increased, ties; and the local banks furnished all the means and consequently will depreciate by the operaWluich the planter or the farmer could collect for tion of such an institution. 'A demani for the pic the payment of his rent or his tax.
per of the national bank may diminish the deDuring the year 1815, the effects of the late mand for the paper of the stitc banks, but, after war upon public and private credit were still the restoration of the currency in coin, the whole felt; and the extraordinary event which involved issue of bank paper will be regulated by the ed Europe in a new conflict, threatened a con- whole demand; and the proportions of the issue tinuance of the drain upon our gold and silver ; to be enjoyed by the national bank and the state to be augmented, according to a general appre- || banks, respectively, will be thic subject of a fair hension, by the force of an unfavourable balance competition, without affecting the public interof trade. Under such circumstances, the restora- or convenience. If, therefore, the state tion of the national currencyofcoin, could not cease banks have resumed the payment of their notes to be desirable; but it must become more diffi- in coin, before the national bank shall be orgalicult in the accomplishment. The alternative is-ized, there will be no hazard of disappointment sue of the measure deserved, therefore, the most in promising a similar payment to the public creserious consideration; and it was to be determin- ditors; but even if that be not the case, the haed, not only upon views of fiscal interest and ac- zard will be slight, considering all the legislative commodation, but upon principles of national po- precautions which it is proposed to adopt. Adlicy and justice. The consequences of rejecting | ded to the metallic capital of the national bank, bank notes, which were not paid on demand in coin, the deposit of the revenue, collected in gold and
silver, must be a sufficient basis for a circulation I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully of coin; as the uses for the paper of the bank, || your most obedient servant, extending throughout the nation, will be constant
A, J. DALLAS. as wellas uniform.
The hon. J. C. Calhoun, Chairman Under these general impressions I hare the ho. of the Comunittee on the National Currency. nor to submit the specific answers to your inqui- On the 6th April Mr. Calhoun from the comries, in the following form:
mittee on a national currency reported a bill for 1. That it be made by law the duty of the se- the inore effectual collection of the revenue in cretary of the treasury to give public notice, that the lawful money of the United States, which was from and after the 31st day of December next, it twice read and committed. will not be lawful to receive in payments to the This bill provides, that all banks which do not United States, any thing but gold, silver and cop- pay specie by the 31st December next, after that per coins, constituting the lawful national cur. time their notes shall not be received in payment rency : Provided, That the secretary of the trea- of debts due the United States; and imposes on sury may, as heretofore, authorise and allow the such banks new stamp duties after the following receipt of the notes of such banks, as shall pay scale. their notes, on demand, in the lawful money of
Dolls. Cts. the United States.
On notes not exceeding
1 10 2. That from and after the same day, it shall Above 1 and not exceeding 2 not be lawful for the secretary of the treasury to Above 2 and not exceeding 3 30 authorise or allow deposits of the revenue to be Above 3 and not exceeding 5 50 made, or to be continued, in any bank which shall Above 5 and not exceeding
10 $1 not pay its notes and deposits, on demand, in Above 10 and not exceeding 20 2 the lawful money of the United States.
Above 20 and not exceeding 50 5 3. That from and after the same day it shall be Above 50 and not exceeding 100 10 the duty of the secretary of the treasury to take Above 100 and not exceeding 500 50 legal measures for obtaining payment in the law- Above 500
100 ful money of the United States, of all notes or Of wbich duties no composition was to be allowed, sums on deposit, belonging to the United States, || but to be "specifically collected for and upon the issued by or deposited in any bank which shall stamps affixed to the notes hereby charged therenot then pay its notes and deposits, on demand, with." in the lawful money of the United States.
This bill underwent much discussion in the 4. That from and after the same day, the notes i house and was variously modified, amended and reof banks and bankers shall be charged with a gra- amended, attacked and defended with much duated stamp duty, advanced at least 200 per warmth and spirit, from day to day until the 25th cent. upon the present duty, without the privi-April, when the final vote being called for, 119 lege of commutation ; saving, in that respect, all members out of 180 being present, it was rejected existing contracts : Provided, That if any banks | by a majority of one vote--the yeas and nays are or bankers shall, on or before the 1st day of No. as follows: vember next, notify the secretary of the treasury
YEAS.-Messrs. Alexander, Atherton, Bassett, that their notes will be paid in coin, upon de Bateman, Boss, Bradbury, Brown, Cady, Calboun, mand after the 31st of December; and if it be Champion, Chipman, Cilley, Condit, Conner, proved to his satifaction, that after that day pay-Chreighton, Cuthbert, Desha, Edwards, Griffin, ment was so made, then, with respect to such banks Grosvenor, Hale, Hawes, Huger, Hurgerford, or bankers, the rate of duty and the privilege of com- Johnson, Ky, Kent, Love, Loundes, Lumpkin, mutation, shall remain as now established by law. Marsh, Mayrant, M'Coy, M'Leane, Ky. Middle
Although the success of these measures is not ton, Nelson, M. S. Noyes, Ormsby, Parris, Pickin any degree doubted, it may be proper to add, ering, Pitkin, Pleasants, Read, Reynolds, Robertthat is it ever shall become necessary to increase son, Ruggles, Schenck, Sharpe, Sheffy, Stearns, their force, provision might be made, under the Sturges, Taggart, Taylor, s. C. Telfair, Tucker, constitutional power of Congress, to subject all Vose, Ward, N. Y. Webster, Wilcox, Woodward, banks and bankers, failing to pay their notes, ac. 59. cording to the terms of the contract, to a seizure NAYS —Messrs. Adgate, Archer, "Bear, Bes. of their estates and effects, for the benefit of their neit, Betts, Birdsall, Breckenridge, Brooks, Bry, creditors, as in a caso of legal bankruptcy. an, Caldwell, Clayton, Clopton, Cooper, Crawford,
I cannot conclude this letter, without an ex-i Crocheron, Culpepper, Darlington, Davenport, pression of some solicitude, at the present situa-Forncy, Gaston, Glasgow, Hahn, Hall, Hardin, tion of the treasury. The state banks have ceas- Heister, Henderson, Herbert, Ingham, Johnsoned to afford any accommodation for the transfer | Va. King N. C. Langdon, Law, Lewis, Lovett, of its funds. The revenue is paid (as already | Lyle, Lyon, Milnor, Murfree, Newton, Pickens, stuted) in trc sury notes, where treasury notes Powell, Randolph, Roane, Root, Savage, Smiths, are below par; and the public engagements can | Maryland, Southard, Stuart, Tate, Troup, Walonly be satisfactorily discharged in treasnry notes, lace, Ward, Ms. Whitesid, Wilkin, Williams, which are immediately funded at 7 per cent. Willoughby, Thos. Wilson, Wm. Wilson, Wright, Where treasury notes are above par, the local ac. Yates.-60. camulation of bank credits is beyond the local demands, and the excess cannot be used elsewhere. FUNDED DEBT AND TREASURY NOTES. Discontent and speculation are abroad; and all We have obtained from Washington an estimate the estimates of the
amount of the funded debt, of these points, which we meant to appear in ancreated since the commencement of the late war, other shape-but, as the information is much will probably fail, unless the wisdom of Congress wanting, we take this means of laying it immedishall effectually provide for the early restoration ately before the public-we need scarcely add, :11 uniform national carrency.
that the statements are perfectly authentic :
Washington, April 24. have been obtained since the 12th of February. From the annual report of the
Treasury notes to a considerable amount have Secretary of the 'Treasury of
been issued; but a much more considerable the 6th of Dec. last, (page 17
amount has been funded and paid in for duties and seq.) and his answer of
and taxes. From an estimate made on the best the 28th of February 1816,
grounds within the possession of the treasury, a to the Resolution of the
few days since the amount of treasury notes then House of Representatives of
actually in circulation was found to be about the 12th of February 1816, it
12,000,000 dollars. They are absorbed in the will be seen that the nominal
custom-houses and tax offices in the eastern and amount of the old six per
southern portions of the United States, at an ave. Cent, and Deferred Stocks,
rage rate of more than 250,000 dollars per week. on the 30th September,1815,
I think they may be estimated, on the 1st of May,
26,709,192 24 at about 11,000,000 still out. [Enquirer. Of which there had been then reimbursed
17,620,130 93 Leaving actually due
9,089,061 31 There was paid on
Extract from a report from the committee of the the 31st Dec. (per
house of commons, on the state of mendicity in Report of Feb. 28,
the metropolis, published in the New Monthly 1816.) 799,652 38
Magazine, December 1815. There was also paid
I would beg to state to the committee, that on the 31st March
from much observation I am satisfied that Sunday 1816, a sum which
schools, if properly conducted, are of essential cannot be precise
importance to the lower classes of society. I have ly stated, but it
had occasion to inspect several Sunday schools was about 280,000
for some years past, and I have particularly ob1,079,652 38 served the children, who at first came to the
schools dirty and ragged, in the course of a few Leaving as the present amount
months have become clean and neat in their perdue of the Old 6 and Deferred
sons; and their behaviour, from my own observaStocks,
8,809,408 87 tion, and the report of a great number of teach3 per cent. stock, 16,158,177 43
ers, has rapidly improved. I allude to those Exchanged 6 per cent. 2,984,746 72 schools where the teachers are gratuitous, as 6 per cent. of 1796, 80,000 find that no persons who are paid, do the 'work Louisiana 6 per cent. 10,923,500 half so well as those who do it from motives of
real benevolence. A large school wirich I fre
38,155,833 12 quently visit in Drury Lane, which has upwards 6 per cent. Stock
of 600 children, has produced many instances of of 1812 7,860,500
great mental and moral improvement among the Do. of 1813 (16,
lower classes of sociсty, 000,000 losin) 18,109,377 48
It is difficult to state facts, which prove ile disDo. do. (7,500,
rect influence Sunday and other schools have up-000 loan,) 1,498,581 95
on this evil. But the proper observance of the Do. of 1814 15,866,707 77
Sabbath by the lower orders of society, has a Do. of 1815 11,952,699 74
most important influence on the moral character Do. do. Treasury
and general comfort of their families; and it will notes, 2,057
rarely be found to happen that poor persons so 7 per cent Stock 6,084,820
brought up, and who had also the advantage of 68,374,748 94 suitable instruction, have become mendicants.
Sunday schools, perhaps, above every other Total funded debt at this time 106,580,577 06 means, promote among the poor, this much ire
glected duty ; the children are not only taught NOTE.-The three last items are liable to a dai- || the sacred obligation of the Sabbath, but are lialy increase ; and they have been increased since || bituated to observe it, by being regularly conductthe date of the Secretary's Report of the 28th Feed to public worship: Such is the effect on the bruary Jast ; but the precise amount of this in- poor in general, of a stated attendance on the crease cannot be stated.
public service of religion, tirat those who are acBy the two documents above stated, it will be customed to visit them, are in most cases able to found that the foating debt was estimated by the discern it in the very aspect of the family.-Secretary of the Treasury, on the 12th of Febru- Where the Sabbath is observed, you may expect ary last to be composed of the following items : to find, in even the poorest, cleanliness, decency, Temporary bank loans
1,000,000 and civil behaviour; but where it is violated, the Treasury notes of all descriptions,
reverse of these is often met with. In the course including interest on such as
of inspecting the condition of several hundred fabore interest,
15,920,115 41 milies, for the purpose of affording some relief to
the necessitous and deserving, the most filthy and 16,920,115 41 || wretched of the whole was one in which the fa
ther was found working at his trade on the SunBoth these items are also liable to daily varia- | day; his children having never to their recollections. Some additional temporary bank loans || tion, been in a place of worship and none of them
taught even the alphabet. Instead, however, of
ROME, Nov. 23, 1804. working on the Sunday, it is much more common My dear friend-In my letter from Marseilles I to find men of this class of the poor in bed at noon, || promised you a more detailed one from Italy, and and in a state of intoxication at night. Numerous | although, immersed as you are in business or pleaas are still such instances of depravity, more than || sure, you may possibly receive it rather as an un. fifteen of them outof twenty will be found to have welcome interruption, yet my heart will not permit had no such instruction in early life, as is at pre- me to withhold this testimony of my affection and sent afforded by Sunday schools. Persons who constant recollection of you. have been for many years connected with these I am now surrounded with objects highly interinstitutions, and have anxiously traced the desti- I esting to a mind in any degree acquainted with annations of many of the children that were former- cient history, or with the writings of the latin clasly under their care, can point out great numbers, sicks, and although 14 years laborious pursuits of who being grown up into life, are now good my profession had very much weakened, or nearly members of society; but they have never dis-leffaced, those impressions, which such writing's covered any instance of one becoming a mendi- would necessarily make on a mind so easily and cant. Youthful beggars are found, with few ex- | strongly impressible, yet I have found all my enceptions, unable to read. It has occasionally hap-|thusiasm renewed in presence of these objects, so pened, that such children have applicd for ad-calculated to produce the most powerful associamission to a Sunday school, sent by the kind in- ||tions. terference of persons who have seen and pitied In Italy every thing bears the marks of that cothem in the streets, but they seldom remain ma- lossal and august power which placed ancient ny weeks; either they are disinclined to submit Rome above all other nations, and of that highly to the restraint which the discipline of a school refined and cultivated taste for which the Romans imposes, or their worthless parents require their in the most briliant period of their history were services on that day as well as on others, Well distinguished. There must assuredly be someregulated Sunday schools are directly calculated thing in the climate of this country favourable to to counteract the dispositions and habits that human genius. It would not be sufficient to say might lead to mendicity. In the course even of that this superiority in the fine and useful arts a few months after the lowest order of children | might be attributed to the encouragement afforded have been admitted, their very appearance is ob- | by the emperors or even to the still more powerserved to undergo a decided improvement; they | ful stimulus of general luxury: These had a very are uniformly cleaner and more tidily dressed ; | extensive operation. But it should be remembers and their minds are evidently raised a degree fur- ed that scarcely any nation has been in a more ther from the meanness and degradation of men- wretched situation, as to government and general dicants. But they do not therefore become as- | prosperity, than Italy since the revival of letters. suming and impertinent; on the contrary, the or. Perhaps we may except a part of it, viz. Venice der and subjection to which they are trained, and under its aristocracy and i'uscany under the Medi. the instruction they receive in their moral and cis. Yet Italy has been, and still is almost, or religious duties, excite a more respectful beha- quite as superior to other nations in the fine and viour and more correct feeling towards their su- omamental arts, as she was in the days of the periors in general. The knowledge and moral twelve Cesars. The highest pretensions of West influence of which the children thus partake, they | or David do not extend further than to be the ricommunicate, in a greater or less degree to allvals, or perhaps successful pupils of Raphael, Cor. their various families. Not unfrequently too, the regio, Titian or Guido. In sculpture there have benefits, which in this way extend to the parents, been no attempts to equal Michael Angelo, or is confirmed by a word of counsel and admonition Bernini, except by their own countryman Canova, from a teacher, who calls perhaps to inquire after In architecture it is still more true that the Itaan absent child, or to afford relief in case of sick-lians have preserved their superiority, and this ness. Through such means multitudes of the country is still the school, as Greece formerly was poor, who were before notoriously vicious and to Rome, for all who would excel in this most useprofiigate, and were among the most likely to be. | ful and noble art. come mendicants, are now not less remarkable for Perhaps the fine specimens of ancient architec. the virtues by which families and society at large || ture and sculpture which escaped the ravages of are so much benefitted. These remarks, in a the barbarous hordes, and the more destructive great measure, apply to those day schools in | fury and cupidity of the modern vandals, together which the children are assembled on the Sunday, with the inheritance of such a reputation as their for moral and religious instruction, and are stat- ancestors bequeathed to them, may have stimulateilly conducted to public worship. If required, ed the pride of the Italians, and induced them to proof could be afforded of every part of the state- || preserve a glory so flattering to their nation. You ment.
will be anxious to know whether after the late ravages of the French there are still subsisting in this capital such specimens of Roman art as would
be sufficient to excite emulation and to form the LETTER FROM ROME.
taste. There are innumerable specimens of this
sort in every department of the fine arts. Every from the Boston Daily Advertiser. order of architecture from the hands of Grecian and
Roman artists is still to be found in a perfect state, MR, HALE,
if not in the same edifice, yet in different ones.It may possibly afford some amusement to your To be sure the finest specimens of sculpture have readers in this period of general tranquility to pe travelled westward, and have gone to adorn the use the following letter, written by an American triumphs of the victors. Yet there are some moat Rome to his friend in Boston, in the year 1804. || dels of eve species, of the colossal and of minia, titres, such as camaicus and intaglios, of the vigo-1 subdued it. The Spaniards have held it. The rous and of the beautiful, of Herculus and of Austrians have possessed it for a century or two. Venus of the Gods and of men. You are surround- || It has been always an easy, and of course, an ined with Jupiters, Minervas and Appollos, and with || glorious prey. But it may be said Buonaparte did Ciceros, Cesars, and Senecas. The works of Ber. not subdue the venerated Italians only, but the venini and Michael Angelo are almost all still in teran troops of Austria. And pray what did a geRome,
neral of Charles V.? Did he not vanquish on these I remarked that the specimens of ancient art very plains the flower of chivalry, the firmest and had suffered from the ravages of modern Vandals : || bravest troops of France, with their gallant moI did not mean to confine the remark to the French narch at their head? Did he not annihilate the alone. Long after the revival of letters, and when French power in Italy, and take the illustrious these ancient relicks became valuable, the popes Francis prisoner? But Buonaparte has twice passand their “nephews” who had an absolute domi- | ed the Alps with an army. The Alps are not denion over this country began to take great liberties fended by a single cannon. There is less danger with the objects of ancient art. Some they carried and difficulty in passing them with an army, than off' to decorate their palaces, others they stripped in crussing them with ladies, as I did in October. to ornament their churches, & even the accomplish-In what consists the danger or difficulty? They ed family of the Medicis, the Mecænases of modern must be passed on foot. Forty thousand can pass Italy are accused of having cut off the fine heads of as easily as a single man. Who has forgotten Su. the statues in bas relief which were placed on the warrow's noble retreat through the whole length arch of Constantine ! One hardly knows which most of Swiss mountains, much more difficult than to admire, the savagʻi disregard of the fine arts Mont Cenis or St. Bernard ? When he arrived in which such conduct betrays, or the weakness of Italy, Buonaparte met with a people already subthe policy which would have permitted it. dued, a degenerate, dejected race, oppressed by
Italy no longer dreaded for her power, or courted civil and religious tyranny. He offered them the for her favour, will be an objeci of attraction so phantom of liberty, and they flew to his standard. long only as she preserves these vestiges of for- But he fought some hard battles with the Austrimer and more splendid times. I cannot refrain | ans! Yes, but add the well known fact, that the from giving you one signal example of this destroy.revolutionary spirit infected the Austrian ranks ing spirit so fatal to Rome, and which calls down and paralized their efforts. It is no longer disputthe execration of all strangers.
ed that treachery, and even the baser crime of The Colisæum, or noble theatre of Vespasian, bribery, contributed as much as valour or skill to was the most perfect monument of architecture these famous victories. But the bridge of Lodi extant. The Huns, Goths, and Vistgoths, and all you exclaim!! That is the dazzling part of this the races of barbarians had spared it. It is still an hero's history. How it sinks as you approach it. elegant and interesting pile. But Paul II. and III. | A miserable little brook fordable without difficul. destroved one half of this magnificent edifice, to ly, and a contemptible bridge, that would require erect two modern palaces for their degenerate about 15 seconds to pass. The opposite shore leposterity, the fruits of their illicit connexions. vel, and undefended by batteries. If you
Enough of antiquities of which I dare say you other fact related to me by my landlord at Lodi, are now as tired as I am. I know no one who who lodgeçi the French officer's the night before took a livelier interest than you in Buonaparte's the battle, that the French soldiers were mule drunk campaigns in Italy. I have been carefully over all || before they went into action, and then this heroic the scenes of these celebrated battles, and with affair dwindles down into as insignificant a battle no common interest.
as ordinarily occurs. When we consider, that all Objects viewed at a distance appear in a very | Buonaparte's reputation bitherto reposes on his Itadifferent light, and not unfrequently a grander one lian victories; that his Egyptian expedition did not than they exhibit on approach. Heroes (especially || add one sprig to liis laurels, and that the later such as Buonaparte) appear more perfect when battle of Marengo was most assuredly lost, and known only by their inflated accounts, than when with it his fortunes, had it not been for an error of seen through a clearer medium. I will suppose the Austrians and the skill of Gen. Dessais; when your geographical knowledge to have been as im- we reflect also that Italy has been so often subdued, perfect - my own, if you will forgive the suppo- (for even the Romans themselves were the conquerSition. I had fomed an idea that the scene of the ors of Italy) it appears to me that impartial histofamous campaign in Italy, was very different; that || ry, in its account of the French achievements, will the country presented difficulties for the passage of place them only in the rank of ordinary conquertroops; I conceived from what had been said of || ors, and will not as some Americans have done, ILannibal and Buonaparte, that the passage of the consider them as "prodigies of this age, sent Alps was an achievement which surpassed those of by Heaven to show what a brave people can do, Theseus, or Jason, or Hercules. When I heard a and what can be achieved by a nation of heroes." bulletin giving an account of forcing the line of This language is gratifying to French pride, but the Adage or Tanaro, I formed an idea of such ri. I have always thought, and do now verily believe, vers as the Merrimack and Connecticut at the that they are not, nor ever have been superior, least, and when they spoke of the Po, the king of lif equal, to the rest of mankind; stimulated by Italian waters, my notions extended to a stream as the same thirst for plunder, and the same false respectable as the Hudson. These ideas were all notion of superiority.--Adieu. We soon hope to erroneous. No country is so indefensible as Lom- set our faces homeward, to enjoy again the soci. bardy. It is as easy for military operations, and ety and scenes of our native country, dearer to more so than the Jerseys. It is a level country, us than any which Europe can boast. without defiles, with admirable roads. Its rivers Rome in 1791 contained 160,000 inhabitants, are what an American would call large brooks. I which in 1813 were reduced to 100,000, 40,000 of has been easily conquered in all ages. Charlemagne whom were vinedressers, herdsmen and gardners.