« PreviousContinue »
of high respect, to receive the satisfaction I feel in || all the prisoners are now returned to you. But reflecting, that our correspondence, begun as com- as improper allurements may have been held out manders of hostile armies, should terminate as offi- to these men, it will be gratifying to my feelings cers of nations in amity.”. General Lambert an
to learn, that no investigation will be made, or swers major Woodruff, deputed by general Jackson to receive the prisoners, “ I have to request || duct of those who may, under such circumstances,
inflicted in consequence of the con
punishment that you will inform his excellency (Jackson) that have swerved from their duty.” This, we insist, immediately as soon as I receive the intelligence is strictly a parallel case to the one in which the from the person, charged by the British government to transmit it to all its military and naval question of slaves was debated. The British encommanders serving in America, I will give im- | ticed away the American slaves, and the Amerimediate notice of it, and be prepared to fulfil the
cans enticed away the British soldiers. The treaty in every respect." To gen. Jackson, in a
former could not, by any fair construction, have strain of cqually elevated courtesy, he writes | been regarded as deserters; the latter could have thus, when he receives the intelligence of the been considered in no other light. The British ratification of the treaty : “ As I may not have an
commander refuses to return the slaves, because other opportunity of addressing you, permit me to he conceives that the faith of his government crail myself of the present, to wish you health and stands pledged for their protection; the Ameri. happiness, and to express my regret, that circum- can commander, with a lofty and chivalric courstances will not allow me to assure you personally oftesy, does return the real deserters, because he the same.” When gen. Jackson received official | does not think that the honor of his govemment intelligence of the ratification of the treaty, he is bound to surrender them up. He does all this, writes to general Lambert, announcing the fact, || and only intimates his private wish that no inves. and concludes with these words : " Any facility || tigation might be made, or punishment inflicted. er accommodation that may be required for your supplies, or the comforts of your sick or wounded, will be given with the highest pleasure."
PECULIARITIES AND ANOMALIES OF THE
LATE EPIDEMIC. We hope to be excused if we state one more fact to the honor of the American general. It | We hold it to be one of the first duties of a public may be remembered, that we have already stated, || journalist, to give publicity to those medical lucu. that gen. Lambert declined the surrender of the brations which may serve to mark the character slaves who had joined the British standard, on the or the cure of those epidemics with which this ground that they were not captured, as he con- | country has been so often afflicted. The reader strued the words “ fallen into the hands of the
must not expect from such discussions to find officers of either party.” General Jackson here
amusement. The subject is too awful for levity; closes with his respectable opponent, (and the it involves the health of perhaps many reader will do us flagrant injustice, if he believes thousands of his fellow beings. If it pleases the word respectable, sarcastically applied. We Divine Providence in the course of his inscrutamean as we say, and nothing more.) It seems that some officer of the American army, without
ble dispensations to afflict one of the patrons of
the Rocister with this distressing maladusif his the privity of general Jackson, had seduced some of the English soldiers to quit the service of their physician ponders and hesitates, and knows not
what course to adopt to save him from the grave king. Here these two cases are exactly parallelif he should by the perusal of the following es--the British seduced the slaves from the service of their masters, and the Americans had seduced || says be able successfully to apply a remedy, he will the British soldiers to join our standard. Gen. then acknowledge his obligation to the writer Jackson acts in a character worthy of him ; he for having been thus instrumental in prolongthus addresses the British general : “Some of ing the term of his existence. We often amuse my officers, under a mistaken idea that deserters our readers with accounts of bloody battles, or were confined with the prisoners, have, as I have | of civil commotions, the progress of agriculture, understood, made improper applications to some
of manufactures or of the arts; and yet health, of the latter to quit your service. It is possible that first of earthly blessings, has been superci. that they may, in some instances, have succeeded liously neglected, or regarded as a thing of triin procuring either a feigned, or a real consent | Aling concern. While we are'upon this subject, to this effect; the whole of the transaction, how- it may not be improper to notice, that the shores ever, met with my marked reprehension; and of the Mediterranean are now visited by that hor.
FROM THE TELESCOPE.
rible malady; the Plague. Our commerce in affords but too ample an opportunity to industry those parts is wide and extensive. We may well and attentive remark to make accurate observa
tions and useful distinctions. entertain serious apprehensions. It is known Dr. Rush remarks that “the influenza passes that nothing retains the seeds of this malady more with the utmost rapidity through a country, and than rags, which are often imported into this affects the greatest number of people, in a given .country from that place, for the benefit ofour pa-| time, of any disease in the world,” in which he is
corroborated by many other writers. Bit our per-makers. We would seriously inquire whe- late epidemic was peculiarly slow in its progress ther the prevention of this malady is not a subject || in pervading the country. In its march from the of sufficient magnitude to awaken us from our to have been only from about one hundred to two
northward to the sduthward its progress appears lethargy-whether the rigid enforcement of our hundred and fifty miles per annum. In the winquarantine laws on vessels arriving from thatter of 1813 it was in Philadelphia ; in the winter quarter, is not a duty, the performance of wbich || of 1815 it had advanced as far southwardly as
Salisbury, N. C. and in this winter it has visited is imperiously demanded.
most parts of S. Carolina. Since its invasion of this
State, its progress from place to place has been [BY REQUEST.)
equally peculiar; appearing in spots or neighbor. hoods only thirty or forty miles distant from each
other, at periods of four, five, six or eight weeks This subject would appear at first view to bel apart. It was also peculiarly capricious in the more curious than useful; but when it is consi- circumscribed locality of its prevalence, attack. dered how far the peculiarities and anomaliesing one particular community, raging for eight or concomitant on a disease may tend to establish ten weeks, and then passing over a large interthe identity of its character, it will be found not mediate tract of country and seizing on another to be destitute of utility. It may also be of im- circumscribed community. In this way it has portance to the practitioner upon any new recur. been meandering through the State ever since rence of the disease, to be apprised of its anoma- early in last November, and at this time it is still lies and the consequences to which they lead, I raging in some neighborhoods adjacent to others and thereby saved from those perplexing embar-| where it prevailed early in the winter, and from rassments which new and singular appearances which it had long since passed off. sometimes impose upon him.
It has been peculiar in raging with the great* It has been the practice of medical writers to est severity in the interior of the country, whilst denominate all catarrhs which have prevailed the sea coast has been exempted or suffered comepidemically by one common appellation imply- paratively but little. And yet in the interior of ing an identity of character. From Sydenham the state, the most swampy situations, margins of upwards to Hippocrates it was known and is men- rivers and places most subject to the endemial tioned by the name of catarrhalis febris epide. | autumnal bilious fevers, have suffered most semica. Since Sydenham's time it has been vari- verely from the epidemic. ously named, but is now generally known by the
It was likewise peculiar in its manifest predi.. name of influenza." How far this may be correct | lection for male subjects in preference to females. and proper requires investigation.--In examining | The proportion of females attacked did not per. the history of epidemic catarrhs we find a very haps exceed one tenth or one fifteenth part; but great diversity both in the symptoms and in the
some few who were attacked seemed to have the methods of cure; scarcely any two of them in disease equally as violent as the males. Children immediate succession presenting a sameness of under four or five years of age were remarkably character. If nosological terms are to be contin: | exempted, and amongst children above that age ned in use, it is important that they should be the males most generally suffered. It was not applied with the utmost discrimination and strict- | peculiarly fatal to the aged nor to such as had a est precision ; otherwise unwary practitioners and prior tendency to pulmonic affections, but on the Nb aiseast Gray the usual name by which it had the disease severely; and, indeed, it fell is known, will take it for their guide, right or
with its greatest severity and mortality on the wrong, and perhaps not discover their error until robust, and on such as were in the prime of life.after the loss of several valuable lives. A great Corpulent persons appeared to enjoy an exempsource of this want of precision in former times tion; --and it was thought that Europeans and the was doubtless the seldom recurrence of these | natives of the Eastern States were much more exepidemics, as according to Dr. Fothergill they had | empted than the natives of more southern lati. appeared at uncertain intervals in England during tudes.. Females in a state of pregnancy were not the two hundred and fifty years last preceding the
more liable to abortions in this disease than in year 64, on an average of only once in thirty one
others of equal violence, which unhappily is not years ; but unfortunately for us in modern times the case in epidemical catarrhs generally. To this excuse does not apply, for since the year drunkards, as might have been expected, it was 1768, they have returned in England upon an generally fatal. average of one in only about every six years, and in this country since the year 1757 the average lcy to determine on the chest in the form of pneu
This disease was peculiar in its universal tenderhas been once in only about every seven years. It || monia. For although a small proportion of cases prevailed in America in the years 1757, '61, 72, determined to the head, blood vessels only, or '81, '89, '90, 1807 and '16, so that in this ratio it throat, yet the tendency to the chest was so ge. may return under the observation of one man, du neral as almost to warrant the denomination of ing an ordinary lifetime, six or eight times, which I an epidemic pleurisy or peripneumony rather
than that of influenza. It may also be remarked at the same minute in every twenty-four hours, that relapes were more seldom than in ordinary for four or five times. infiuenzas. It was peculiarly under the influence The matter of this secretion, had an intermedi. of temperature and humidity. Upon the recur- ate appearance between pus and mucus, of a rence of cold damp weather, of which we have white colour with a taste not easily described, but had an unusual share this winter, the cases im- more nearly resembling the taste of a raw egg mediately multiplied, and those who had been than any thing else. This secretion was followprevibusiy ill never failed to become worse. It | ed by evident and immediate relief to the chest. Was perhaps from this circumstance that it proved The respiration became more free, the lungs more in many places peculiarly fatal to negroes, as they easilyexpanded, the remaining pains and uneasiwere more exposed to the vicissitudes of the wea- ness about the chest were mitigated, and the conther, and their lodging generally cold and un- valescence was visibly more rapid. comfortable.-Exposure to the external atmost- These discharges gave an impression that they phere and cold, seemed constantly to predispose || proceeded from the rapture of vomicæ or abscesto the disease, and hence, perhaps, is the reason ses which had formed in the lungs. But that this why females, children and corpulent people were opinion was erroneous is obvious from the followa more exempted from it than others, as corpu- | ing circumstances. The matter was obviously lence serves as a defence against the influence | different from the matter of common abscesses, of cold.
as an experienced eye would readily perceive. In two anomalous cases in this town the local | If, however, it had been real pus, yet this alone determination to the brain was so sudden and would fall very far short of being proof that it proviolent in two robust men as to occasion convul- ceeded from an abscess ; for it is a fact long since sions, without any premonitory symptoms.--Both || established that pus may be, and very often is these cases proved fatal, one within 48 hours and formed from inflamed secreting surfaces, and the the other within a few days. In a lad of 14 or 15 || secreting surfaces of the bronchia most especialyears of age, the disease was ushered in by a ly are liable to take on this kind of secretion. sudden attack of stupor. He was travelling on The expectoration of this matter was moreover the road in company with some others and com- regularly periodical after certain intervals, It plained of nothing before he fell down in a state continued at each period about thic same length of of insensibility. This case recovered. A pneu-| time, and then gradually but rather abruptly monic case occurred, of a typhus nature accom- ceased ; after which not a single particle of it, panied with a cough in every respect resembling could be expectorated by any effort of coughing, the hooping-cough, except that the matter of cx- either spontaneous or intentional, until the next pectoration was uncommonly copious and puru. || regular period of its recurrence. Now it is ob. lent from the beginning. This is a recent case, vious that if this matter had proceeded from a and after a tedious illness seems likely to recover. I ruptured abscess, however rapid and copious the In three pneumonic cases towards the period of first discharge might have been, yet a supply of the crisis the dise.se precipitated itself upon the more or less matter must have been constantly extremities, producing an alarming state of formed in it until the abscess was healed; and phlegmonic inflammation, which terminated the must necessarily have been brouglịt up, from constitutional disease by establishing copious time to time, during the intervalsi, by coughing suppurations. In two of these cases it fell upon | To suppose the contrary, we must believe each the arms, and the inflamations and enormous | discharge to have been the consequence of the rupswellings extended from the fingers to the shoul- ture of a distinct abscess, and the more especialders. The suppurations took place around the ly as each succeeding discharge, and even the elbow, in both cases, forming extensive sinuses last, was equally as copious as the first; and then from which the discharge kept up for many we must admit the first preposterous conclusion weeks. These are both recovering, but threaten that each abscess was instantly healed upon being an anchylosis. The other case fell upon the les, emptied. A conclusion, unfortunately for the suppurated copiously and is doing well. subjects of pulmonary abscesses, contrary to all
I was informed by the physicians of this place experience. of three cases in which hæmorriages from one or L'pon the whole ļ conclude that these discharboth ears occurred, in which the patients lost ges were tlie ethettür Drucat au pannunary from ten to sixteen ounces of blood. One of these secretion); and that it was a mode of evacuation cases recovered. Three or four cases occurred attending the protracted crisis of the disease by in which the eruption of a raslı on the 2d or 3d which the lungs were uploaded of infractions, and day, put an end to the disease; and in one it ap- possibly the whole systein relieved of offending peared as late as the 4th or 5th week, in conjunc. | matter; for it ought to be remarked that both iion with the other usual symptoms attending the these cases had long passed the usual period of crisis, and seemed to be beneficial.
termination of the disease without the usual Two pneumonic cases occurred in which un- symptoms of expectoration, &ç. attending the common copious bronchial or pulmonary secre- crisis. tions took place at a late stage of the disease, In very many pneumonic cases a pain remained and after the condition of the patients had given on the seat of the inflammation during the whole hopes for several days of convalescence. This time of convalescence. This pain, from the cir. secretion occurred suddenly, and the matter of cumstance of its being so suddenly variable, some. it was expectorated by an exhausting paroxysm times better and sometimes worse in the course of coughing. The quantity expectorated at one of a few minutes, and seldom giving any uneasiness time was from about four ounces to two pounds | except by an expansion of the thorax or some exin the space of from fifteen minutes to two hours. ertion of the muscles about the part, was most In one of these cases, it récurred periodically || probably of a rheumatic nature. In one case with nice precision, at the same hour and almost they seemed to occupy every intercostal muscle,
giving considerable pain upon every expansion of found nothing in it of that precise and determithe chest, as by deep inspirations, &c. but occasion- nature, which alone, in this day of severe test for ing little or none of uneasiness when these muscles | medical disquisitions, can give them the slightest were relaxed or only in their ordinary state of currency. exertion. Although these pains were evidently I was in hopes, that we were now to learn seated in the intercostal muscles, yet there was something more, than what popular rumor waft. an evident connexion between them and the state led to us; as I make no doubt, that our epider ic of the lungs, insomuch that a few coughs and even is of the same nature with that which raged in small expectorations would occasion a mitigation Virginia last year. I was in hopes that some of them for some time.
light would be thrown on the nature of the disI have given the principal peculiarities and ano- ease; and that, at least, its general mode of malies that have attracted my attention, and beg treatment would be fixed on some solid foundaleave to close this communication with a notice tion; but I must acknowledge my disappoint. of some popular notions with regard to the pre- ||ment. vention of this formidable disease. I am inform- The first thing that I did expect was such a ed that the inhabitants of Williamsburgh district, description of the disease, as would shew us where it has made great ravages, believe that the whether it be of the typhoid, or inflammatory progress of the disease has been completely stop- | kind; whether we should look to the antiphlo. ped by burning their woods, and it is said that gistic or tonic plan, for a successful issue ; or, several circumstances afford considerable grounds shortly, whether we were to expect it from the for their opinion. I am also informed that a gen- use of the lancet, and other evacuants, or from tleman in the town o? Granby, where the morta- the bark, and a cordial regimen. Our essayist, lity has been almost unparalleled, had an early it is true, pronounces the disease to be of an inrecourse to burning tar in his yard and about his | Aammatory nature; but gives us no criterion to doors. His family escaped the disease. Another | judge by; for if we test his opiniou by the mode gentleman of Camden, whose negroes were situ- of treatment which he pursued, he leaves us perated on his plantation nor far from another where | fectly bewildered. He says, that “ the type of the negroes had experienced uncommon morta- the fever was inflammatory, or mixed ;” that is, lity, upon perceiving that the disease had made that it was either purely inflammatory, or half its appearance in one of his kitchens, lad recourse inflammatory ; synocha, or synochus. He says, to the same expedient, and the disease progress- ll that “ his treatment of the epidemic was regulated no farther. ' In Fairfield district a notion has led by the type of the fever which attended, prevailed that those who were employed in clear, which in that place, in a large proportion of the ing lands where great quantities of brush and cases, was inflammatory, or mixed. I saw not wood have been necessarily burned, have been || (hë says) a case of typhus, and yet it was called exempted from the disease. Is it impossible so generally ; but was made so by the stimulating that these notions should have some founda- || practice, which occasioned that prostration of tion in truth? The products of the combus- | the system, consequent to (on) a state of indirect tion of various kinds of vegetable matter, may debility”. A most serious charge this, by the by, contain some active and potent agents. It is against his fellow practitioners of Richmond ; known to chymists that the combustion of several amounting in fact to this, that they had stimulatsubstances, and especially the resinous wood of ed or inflamed their patients, already Jaboring pine, produces carburetted hydrogen-gass in very under an inflammatory disease, into the jaws of great abundance. This gass from its affinities death; for indirect debility is the next step to it, with some other species of matter is capable by and so far, it seems, did his fears extend, of pacombinations of totally changing their proper- tients in this epidemic being wound up to this ties.- Is it then impossible that this substance | point, that he takes upon him to instruci his corshould combine with the latenț remote cause of respondent how to obviate or reduce it; “ by the the epidemic in the atmosphere and destroy its vi- gradual abstraction of stimuli,” which is now rulence? Or is it impossible that carburetted hv. well known to be one of the elements in the al. drogen gas should so influence the animal system | phabet of medicine. as to destroy its susceptibilities to the impressi The Doctor says, that " he pursued the anti-ne u wc umore cause! inese ideas are altoge phlogistic course of practice throughout the fever. ther hypothetical, but perhaps not too absurd to Blood-letting was used, at the beginning, accorddemand some attention; nor to forbid a further in- ing to the state of the pulse, and the preceding quiry into the effects of combustion in arresting || health of the patient. In a majority of cases (he or destroying this all devouring nonster. says) I did not bloed at all; and yet I bled in
JAMES DAVIS. this disease more copiously than I ever had done Columbia, S. C. April 5, 1816.
before.” The Doctor appears to me, here, ob scure, or rather unintelligible. To pursue the
antiphlogistic plan in the general treatment of an FROM THE CHARLESTON EVENING POST.
epidemic, and yet not to bleed at all, in a majoMr. Editor, -On taking up your paper of Sa- rity of its cases, as here avowed, is to me an abturday evening last, I was highly gratified to find, surdity : it involves a direct contradiction; nor as I fondly anticipated from the manner the es- is this remedied by his saying, “yet I bled in say was ushered in, that some light was to be this disease more copiously than I had ever done thrown on the nature of the wide devastating ma- before ;" for, if he means any thing by this, after lady, that swept off so many of our citizens, in what he has previously said, it can only be, that, certain sections of this and our neighbouring in the few cases he did bleed in, he bled copie states; but I asşure you, that this gratification ously ; for, from many, whose brain or lungs were did not outlast the reading of the piece; for I threatened, he took, with the most happy effects
from 25 to 50 ounces of blood at once, and some- Ile tells us that “in the month of Nov. 1745, times repeated the detraction (the Doctor's | 2 catarrhal fever, affecting the head and breast, phrase) to nearly the sime quantity. The Doc- made its appearance: that in the next month, tor says further, that “the most common form of this was succeeded by very dangerous and morthe disease, was a congestion of the lungs; that tal epidemic peripneumonia fevers : in these, he where the brain or lungs were threatened with found great oppression, and weight at the breast, congestion, he bled copiously;" but that, in a ma- with only a slight and ohtuse sense of pain, to dejority of cases, which confessedly constituted the
note greater dinger, than where the pain was very common form of the disease, and which he express- acute; and he also found, that though bleeding had ly says, was a congestion of the lungs, he did not a good effect in the latter cases, that a repetition bleed at all. Here again, dipo conjectore opis of it was exceedingly detrimental in the former; est, our essayist has left us in the lurch. He fur- (which appears to have been the epidemic)-it ther informs his friend, that a cold skin, and con brought on, he says, great debility, a suppression tracted pulse, were generally treated by potations of expectoration, the greatest anxiety, want of of warm brandy or wine, which powerfully aided | sleep, delirium, tremor, cold sweats, and death : the disease in disorganizing the brain, throat, or the blood first drawn, in these cases, appeared lungs. This is another instance of the loose and lax in its texture, though florid ; and continued incorrect manner of the Doctor's expressing him- | long without a separation of its serum ; the crasself--for my part, I am yet to learn what can be || samentum, or island of the second blood, which meant by a disorganization of these parts, while
was drawn, was livid, and slightly coherent, swimlife yet remains.
ming in a large quantity of yellow, turbid, and Having no experience in this particular Epide greenish serum : the 3d was almost black, sanious, mic, I am entitled to offer nothing from myself, and scarce coagulating, while the blood of those on the subject, farther than what the established | laboring under the sporadic genuine pneumonia, principles of art, can bear me out in : I believe, was of its usual thick, coherent, and tuffy appear. that every professional man, will admit it, as a ance; and was taken from them, with manifest canon of his art, that few or no Epidemics'occur, || advantage.” Our author says, that “it is of the which are not of the typhoid type, or have an utmost consequence to rightly distinguish these immediate tendency thereto: To this, then, in the two species of pneumonia, from each other, in the present doubtful state of the question, I appeal, | onset, as the epidemic did not admit one-fourth of for the propriety of the tonic, and cordial plan, in the bleeding found necessary, in the genuinely the treatinent of this disease, till it be fiscd on a inflammatory species, though a great oppression better foundation. As far as my own experience at the breast, difficulty of breathing, high fever, goes, I can say, that I have seen more than one and violent coughi, equally accompanied both, and instance, of pneumonic epidemics; and that I seemed equally to indicate blood-letting.' have always found repeated blood-letting, pro- cious author then gives the following distinctive cure in them, the most fatal effects; and that a
marks, as a guide in these cases: “If the pulse be single false step, with respect to this, in the very quick, small, contracted, or soft, unequal and onset, was never to be recovered : a fatal effusion | unsteady, if the breathing be laborious, with frein the lungs, being the consequence. Fur be it | quent sighing, rather than with a fervid panting ; from me, to say, that bleeding, at this early peri- if there should be rather a sense of weight, than od of thie disease, may not be advantageous, in of pain, at the breast; if cold, partial sweats many instanccs: I have so great faith in the dis- || should break out; if there should be a great lan.turbance this Herculean remedy gives to the guor and trembling of the hands, he advises the morbid intestion, just conceived by the system, in greatest caution in bleeding; nay, seems doubtrigorous habits; and in the relaxation ; or, as the || ful if it be allowable at all in such cases;" but, if French physicians callit, detante, that it produces, ventured on, and that the blood should exhibit, instantaneousiy, that, at this stage of an acute on cooling, the characteristic appearances which disease, be its future character what it may, 1 he has described it to have had, in the epidemic, would not hesitate in bleeding my patient, if ill be desires to immediately forbear, unless you know him to be, previously, of a vigorous habit; would kill the patient. “Ne jugulare vis ægrer but, unfortunately, the plıysician is seldom called tanten." sufficiently early, to fulfil this intention; and in That this epidemic casts its influcntc or othor organic affections, not till the fuxion be fairly organs than the lungs, I am aware; though I fixed; and a state of debility at hand, It is at firmly believe, that the latter are never entirely that moment, in such circamstances, that the mind free in it: this, however, çannot vary the caution of the practitioner is suspended in doubtful bus necessary in bleeding ; nay, when it happens, I lance; and that his sagacity is put to the test : he think it an additional motive for it; for, if finds himself in the situation of a General, in that bleeding can ever be necessary in this epidemic, momento a battle, in which a single rapid glance, it must be, principally, when it assumes the form or coup d'auil, is to decide the fate of the day. of pnçumonia.
As this Epidemic has excited so general an in- As one of its most dangerous determinations is terest; and as nothing definite, and satisfactory, said to be on the larinx, i am astonished that the has been yet offered on the subject; and that, Seneka snake root has not been resorted to in that perhaps, we, unfortunately, may have a nearer form of the disease, after the evidence furnished acquaintance with it; I presume, that it would us by Dr. ARCHER, of Maryland, of its specific innot be unacceptable, to re-publish the opinion fluence on that organ; and after Bonaparte's and practice of Dr. HUXHAM, one of the best phy-prize question, seeking the best remedy for the sicians England ever produced, respecting an cynanche trachealis, being determined in favor, epidemic, of a similar nature. In the Diary which principally, of the candidate who proposed the he published, of the air and epidemics of his time; Seneka, to say nothing of its antiperipneumonic and which I never met translated from the Latin., virtues, and of the high estimation it was held in