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as improper allurements may have been held out to these men, it will be gratifying to my feelings to learn, that no investigation will be made, or

of high respect, to receive the satisfaction I feel in || all the prisoners are now returned to you. But reflecting, that our correspondence, begun as commanders of hostile armies, should terminate as officers of nations in amity." General Lambert answers major Woodruff, deputed by general Jack-punishment inflicted in consequence of the conduct of those who may, under such circumstances, have swerved from their duty." This, we insist, is strictly a parallel case to the one in which the question of slaves was debated. The British en

son to receive the prisoners, "I have to request that you will inform his excellency (Jackson) that immediately as soon as I receive the intelligence from the person, charged by the British government to transmit it to all its military and naval

commanders serving in America, I will give im-ticed away the American slaves, and the Americans enticed away the British soldiers. The former could not, by any fair construction, have been regarded as deserters; the latter could have been considered in no other light. The British commander refuses to return the slaves, because he conceives that the faith of his government stands pledged for their protection; the Ameri

mediate notice of it, and be prepared to fulfil the treaty in every respect." To gen. Jackson, in a strain of equally elevated courtesy, he writes thus, when he receives the intelligence of the ratification of the treaty: "As I may not have another opportunity of addressing you, permit me to avail myself of the present, to wish you health and happiness, and to express my regret, that circum-can commander, with a lofty and chivalric courstances will not allow me to assure you personally of tesy, does return the real deserters, because he the same." When gen. Jackson received official does not think that the honor of his government intelligence of the ratification of the treaty, he is bound to surrender them up. He does all this, writes to general Lambert, announcing the fact, and only intimates his private wish that no invesand concludes with these words: "Any facility || tigation might be made, or punishment inflicted. or accommodation that may be required for your supplies, or the comforts of your sick or wounded, will be given with the highest pleasure.”



We hope to be excused if we state one more fact to the honor of the American general. It may be remembered, that we have already stated, that gen. Lambert declined the surrender of the slaves who had joined the British standard, on the ground that they were not captured, as he construed the words "fallen into the hands of the officers of either party." General Jackson here closes with his respectable opponent, (and the reader will do us flagrant injustice, if he believes the word respectable, sarcastically applied. We mean as we say, and nothing more.) It seems that some officer of the American army, without the privity of general Jackson, had seduced some of the English soldiers to quit the service of their king. Here these two cases are exactly parallel -the British seduced the slaves from the service-if he should by the perusal of the following esof their masters, and the Americans had seduced says be able successfully to apply a remedy, he will the British soldiers to join our standard. Gen. then acknowledge his obligation to the writer Jackson acts in a character worthy of him; he for having been thus instrumental in prolongthus addresses the British general: "Some of ing the term of his existence. We often amuse our readers with accounts of bloody battles, or my officers, under a mistaken idea that deserters were confined with the prisoners, have, as I have of civil commotions, the progress of agriculture, understood, made improper applications to some of manufactures or of the arts; and yet health, of the latter to quit your service. It is possible that first of earthly blessings, has been supercithat they may, in some instances, have succeeded || liously neglected, or regarded as a thing of triin procuring either a feigned, or a real consent fling concern. While we are upon this subject, to this effect; the whole of the transaction, how-it may not be improper to notice, that the shores ever, met with my marked reprehension; and of the Mediterranean are now visited by that hor

We hold it to be one of the first duties of a public journalist, to give publicity to those medical lucu brations which may serve to mark the character or the cure of those epidemics with which this country has been so often afflicted. The reader must not expect from such discussions to find amusement. The subject is too awful for levity; health of perhaps many it involves the thousands of his fellow beings. If it pleases Divine Providence in the course of his inscruta ble dispensations to afflict one of the patrons of the Register with this distressing maladu-if his what course to adopt to save him from the grave physician ponders and hesitates, and knows not

Dr. Rush remarks that "the influenza passes
with the utmost rapidity through a country, and
affects the greatest number of people, in a given
pa-corroborated by many other writers.
time, of any disease in the world," in which he is
But our

rible malady, the Plague. Our commerce in
those parts is wide and extensive. We may well
entertain serious apprehensions. It is known
that nothing retains the seeds of this malady more
than rags, which are often imported into this
country from that place, for the benefit ofour
per-makers. We would seriously inquire whe-late epidemic was peculiarly slow in its progress
ther the prevention of this malady is not a subject in pervading the country. In its march from the
of sufficient magnitude to awaken us from our to have been only from about one hundred to two
northward to the southward its progress appears
lethargy-whether the rigid enforcement of our hundred and fifty miles per annum. In the win-
quarantine laws on vessels arriving from thatter of 1813 it was in Philadelphia; in the winter
quarter, is not a duty, the performance of which Salisbury, N. C. and in this winter it has visited
of 1815 it had advanced as far southwardly as
is imperiously demanded.
most parts of S. Carolina. Since its invasion of this
State, its progress from place to place has been
equally peculiar; appearing in spots or neighbor-
hoods only thirty or forty miles distant from each
other, at periods of four, five, six or eight weeks
apart. It was also peculiarly capricious in the
circumscribed locality of its prevalence, attack-
ing one particular community, raging for eight or
ten weeks, and then passing over a large inter-
mediate tract of country and seizing on another
circumscribed community. In this way it has
been meandering through the State ever since
early in last November, and at this time it is still
raging in some neighborhoods adjacent to others
where it prevailed early in the winter, and from
which it had long since passed off.

It has been peculiar in raging with the great-
est severity in the interior of the country, whilst
the sea coast has been exempted or suffered com-

It was likewise peculiar in its manifest predilection for male subjects in preference to females. The proportion of females attacked did not perhaps exceed one tenth or one fifteenth part; but

It has been the practice of medical writers to
denominate all catarrhs which have prevailed
epidemically by one common appellation imply-paratively but little. And yet in the interior of
ing an identity of character. "From Sydenham the state, the most swampy situations, margins of
upwards to Hippocrates it was known and is men- rivers and places most subject to the endemial
tioned by the name of catarrhalis febris epide. autumnal bilious fevers, have suffered most se-
mica. Since Sydenham's time it has been vari-verely from the epidemic.
ously named, but is now generally known by the
name of influenza." How far this may be correct
and proper requires investigation.-In examining
the history of epidemic catarrhs we find a very
great diversity both in the symptoms and in the
methods of cure; scarcely any two of them in
immediate succession presenting a sameness of
character. If nosological terms are to be contin-
ued in use, it is important that they should be
applied with the utmost discrimination and strict-
est precision; otherwise unwary practitioners and
ntb ar&isease finder the usual name by which it
is known, will take it for their guide, right or
wrong, and perhaps not discover their error until
after the loss of several valuable lives. A great
source of this want of precision in former times
was doubtless the seldom recurrence of these
epidemics, as according to Dr. Fothergill they had
appeared at uncertain intervals in England during
the two hundred and fifty years last preceding the
year 64, on an average of only once in thirty one
years; but unfortunately for us in modern times
this excuse does not apply, for since the year
1768, they have returned in England upon an
average of one in only about every six years, and
in this country since the year 1757 the average
has been once in only about every seven years. It
prevailed in America in the years 1757, 561, 72,
381, '89, '90, 1807 and '16, so that in this ratio it
may return under the observation of one man, dur-neral as almost to warrant the denomination of
ing an ordinary lifetime, six or eight times, which an epidemic pleurisy or peripneumony rather

some few who were attacked seemed to have the
disease equally as violent as the males. Children
under four or five years of age were remarkably
exempted, and amongst children above that age
the males most generally suffered. It was not
peculiarly fatal to the aged nor to such as had a
prior tendency to pulmonic affections, but on the
Cetrary are very old people recovered who
had the disease severely; and, indeed, it fell
with its greatest severity and mortality on the
robust, and on such as were in the prime of life.--
Corpulent persons appeared to enjoy an exemp-
tion;-and it was thought that Europeans and the
natives of the Eastern States were much more ex-
empted than the natives of more southern lati-
tudes. Females in a state of pregnancy were not
more liable to abortions in this disease than in
others of equal violence, which unhappily is not
the case in epidemical catarrhs generally. To
drunkards, as might have been expected, it was
generally fatal.

cy to determine on the chest in the form of pneu
This disease was peculiar in its universal tenden-
monia. For although a small proportion of cases
determined to the head, blood vessels only, or
throat, yet the tendency to the chest was so ge-



This subject would appear at first view to be more curious than useful; but when it is considered how far the peculiarities and anomalies concomitant on a disease may tend to establish the identity of its character, it will be found not to be destitute of utility. It may also be of importance to the practitioner upon any new recurrence of the disease, to be apprised of its anomalies and the consequences to which they lead, and thereby saved from those perplexing embarrassments which new and singular appearances sometimes impose upon him.

affords but too ample an opportunity to industry
and attentive remark to make accurate observa-

tions and useful distinctions.

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than that of influenza. It may also be remarked that relapes were more seldom than in ordinary influenzas. It was peculiarly under the influence of temperature and humidity. Upon the recurrence of cold damp weather, of which we have had an unusual share this winter, the cases immediately multiplied, and those who had been previously ill never failed to become worse. It was perhaps from this circumstance that it proved in many places peculiarly fatal to negroes, as they were more exposed to the vicissitudes of the weather, and their lodging generally cold and uncomfortable.-Exposure to the external atmostphere and cold, seemed constantly to predispose to the disease, and hence, perhaps, is the reason why females, children and corpulent people were more exempted from it than others, as corpulence serves as a defence against the influence of cold.

at the same minute in every twenty-four hours, for four or five times.

The matter of this secretion.had an intermediate appearance between pus and mucus, of a white colour with a taste not easily described, but more nearly resembling the taste of a raw egg than any thing else. This secretion was followed by evident and immediate relief to the chest. The respiration became more free, the lungs more easily expanded, the remaining pains and uneasiness about the chest were mitigated, and the convalescence was visibly more rapid.


These discharges gave an impression that they proceeded from the rupture of vomica or abscesses which had formed in the lungs. But that this opinion was erroneous is obvious from the following circumstances. The matter was obviously different from the matter of common abscesses, as an experienced eye would readily perceive. In two anomalous cases in this town the local If, however, it had been real pus, yet this alone determination to the brain was so sudden and would fall very far short of being proof that it proviolent in two robust men as to occasion convul- ceeded from an abscess; for it is a fact long since sions, without any premonitory symptoms.-Both established that pus may be, and very often is these cases proved fatal, one within 48 hours and formed from inflamed secreting surfaces, and the the other within a few days. In a lad of 14 or 15|| secreting surfaces of the bronchia most especialyears of age, the disease was ushered in by a ly are liable to take on this kind of secretion. sudden attack of stupor. He was travelling on The expectoration of this matter was moreover the road in company with some others and com- regularly periodical after certain intervals, It plained of nothing before he fell down in a state continued at each period about the same length of of insensibility. This case recovered. A pneu- time, and then gradually but rather abruptly monic case occurred, of a typhus nature accom- ceased; after which not a single particle of it panied with a cough in every respect resembling could be expectorated by any effort of coughing, the hooping-cough, except that the matter of ex- either spontaneous or intentional, until the next pectoration was uncommonly copious and puru. regular period of its recurrence. Now it is oblent from the beginning. This is a recent case, vious that if this matter had proceeded from a and after a tedious illness seems likely to recover. ruptured abscess, however rapid and copious the In three pneumonic cases towards the period of first discharge might have been, yet a supply of the crisis the disease precipitated itself upon the more or less matter must have been constantly extremities, producing an alarming state of formed in it until the abscess was healed; and phlegmonic inflammation, which terminated the must necessarily have been brought up, from constitutional disease by establishing copious time to time, during the intervals, by coughing. suppurations. In two of these cases it fell upon To suppose the contrary, we must believe each the arms, and the inflamations and enormous discharge to have been the consequence of the rupswellings extended from the fingers to the shoul-ture of a distinct abscess, and the more especialders. The suppurations took place around the ly as each succeeding discharge, and even the elbow, in both cases, forming extensive sinuses last, was equally as copious as the first; and then from which the discharge kept up for many we must admit the first preposterous conclusion weeks. These are both recovering, but threaten that each abscess was instantly healed upon being an anchylosis. The other case fell upon the leg, emptied. A conclusion, unfortunately for the suppurated copiously and is doing well. subjects of pulmonary abscesses, contrary to all experience.


I was informed by the physicians of this place of three cases in which hemorrhages from one or Upon the whole I conclude that these discharboth ears occurred, in which the patients lost ges were the effect or broncinal and pu from ten to sixteen ounces of blood. One of these secretion; and that it was a mode of evacuation cases recovered. Three or four cases occurred attending the protracted crisis of the disease by in which the eruption of a rash on the 2d or 3d which the lungs were unloaded of infractions, and day, put an end to the disease; and in one it ap- possibly the whole system relieved of offending peared as late as the 4th or 5th week, in conjunc-matter; for it ought to be remarked that both tion with the other usual symptoms attending the these cases had long passed the usual period of crisis, and seemed to be beneficial. termination of the disease without the usual


Two pneumonic cases occurred in which un-symptoms of expectoration, &c. attending the common copious bronchial or pulmonary secretions took place at a late stage of the disease, and after the condition of the patients had given hopes for several days of convalescence. This secretion occurred suddenly, and the matter of it was expectorated by an exhausting paroxysm of coughing. The quantity expectorated at one time was from about four ounces to two pounds in the space of from fifteen minutes to two hours. In one of these cases, it recurred periodically with nice precision, at the same hour and almost

In very many pneumonic cases a pain remained on the seat of the inflammation during the whole time of convalescence. This pain, from the cir cumstance of its being so suddenly variable, some. times better and sometimes worse in the course of a few minutes, and seldom giving any uneasiness. except by an expansion of the thorax or some exertion of the muscles about the part, was most probably of a rheumatic nature. In one case they seemed to occupy every intercostal muscle,

giving considerable pain upon every expansion of the chest, as by deep inspirations, &c. but occasioning little or none of uneasiness when these muscles were relaxed or only in their ordinary state of exertion. Although these pains were evidently seated in the intercostal muscles, yet there was an evident connexion between them and the state of the lungs, insomuch that a few coughs and even small expectorations would occasion a mitigation of them for some time.

found nothing in it of that precise and determinature, which alone, in this day of severe test for medical disquisitions, can give them the slightest currency.

I was in hopes, that we were now to learn something more, than what popular rumor wafted to us; as I make no doubt, that our epidemic is of the same nature with that which raged in Virginia last year. I was in hopes that some light would be thrown on the nature of the disease; and that, at least, its general mode of treatment would be fixed on some solid foundation; but I must acknowledge my disappoint

The first thing that I did expect was such a description of the disease, as would shew us whether it be of the typhoid, or inflammatory

I have given the principal peculiarities and anomalies that have attracted my attention, and beg leave to close this communication with a notice of some popular notions with regard to the pre-ment. vention of this formidable disease. I am informed that the inhabitants of Williamsburgh district, where it has made great ravages, believe that the progress of the disease has been completely stop-kind; whether we should look to the antiphloped by burning their woods, and it is said that gistic or tonic plan, for a successful issue; or, several circumstances afford considerable grounds shortly, whether we were to expect it from the for their opinion. I am also informed that a gen- use of the lancet, and other evacuants, or from tleman in the town of Granby, where the morta- the bark, and a cordial regimen. Our essayist, lity has been almost unparalleled, had an early it is true, pronounces the disease to be of an inrecourse to burning tar in his yard and about his flammatory nature; but gives us no criterion to doors. His family escaped the disease. Another judge by; for if we test his opiniou by the mode gentleman of Camden, whose negroes were situ-of treatment which he pursued, he leaves us perated on his plantation nor far from another where | fectly bewildered. He says, that "the type of the negroes had experienced uncommon morta- the fever was inflammatory, or mixed;" that is, lity, upon perceiving that the disease had made that it was either purely inflammatory, or half its appearance in one of his kitchens, had recourse inflammatory; synocha, or synochus. He says, to the same expedient, and the disease progress-that "his treatment of the epidemic was regulated no farther. In Fairfield district a notion has ed by the type of the fever which attended, prevailed that those who were employed in clear-which in that place, in a large proportion of the ing lands where great quantities of brush and cases, was inflammatory, or mixed. I saw not wood have been necessarily burned, have been (he says) a case of typhus, and yet it was called exempted from the disease. Is it impossible so generally; but was made so by the stimulating that these notions should have some founda-practice, which occasioned that prostration of tion in truth? The products of the combus-the system, consequent to (on) a state of indirect tion of various kinds of vegetable matter, may debility." A most serious charge this, by the by, contain some active and potent agents. It is against his fellow practitioners of Richmond; known to chymists that the combustion of several amounting in fact to this, that they had stimulatsubstances, and especially the resinous wood of ed or inflamed their patients, already laboring pine, produces carburetted hydrogen-gass in very under an inflammatory disease, into the jaws of great abundance. This gass from its affinities death; for indirect debility is the next step to it, with some other species of matter is capable by and so far, it seems, did his fears extend, of pacombinations of totally changing their proper-tients in this epidemic being wound up to this ties-Is it then impossible that this substance point, that he takes upon him to instruct his corshould combine with the latent remote cause of respondent how to obviate or reduce it; "by the the epidemic in the atmosphere and destroy its vi- gradual abstraction of stimuli," which is now rulence? Or is it impossible that carburetted hy- well known to be one of the elements in the aldrogen gas should so influence the animal system phabet of medicine. as to destroy its susceptibilities to the impressi ne of the more cause! nese ideas are altogether hypothetical, but perhaps not too absurd to demand some attention; nor to forbid a further inquiry into the effects of combustion in arresting or destroying this all devouring monster. JAMES DAVIS.

The Doctor says, that "he pursued the antiphlogistic course of practice throughout the fever. Blood-letting was used, at the beginning, according to the state of the pulse, and the preceding health of the patient. In a majority of cases (he says) I did not bleed at all; and yet I bled in this disease more copiously than I ever had done before." The Doctor appears to me, here, obscure, or rather unintelligible. To pursue the antiphlogistic plan in the general treatment of an epidemic, and yet not to bleed at all, in a majo

Columbia, S. C. April 5, 1816.


Mr. Editor,-On taking up your paper of Sa-rity of its cases, as here avowed, is to me an abturday evening last, I was highly gratified to find, surdity: it involves a direct contradiction; nor as I fondly anticipated from the manner the es- is this remedied by his saying, "yet I bled in say was ushered in, that some light was to be this disease more copiously than I had ever done thrown on the nature of the wide devastating ma- before;" for, if he means any thing by this, after lady, that swept off so many of our citizens, in what he has previously said, it can only be, that, certain sections of this and our neighbouring in the few cases he did bleed in, he bled copi states; but I assure you, that this gratification ously; for, from many, whose brain or lungs were did not outlast the reading of the piece; for I threatened, he took, with the most happy effect,



from 25 to 50 ounces of blood at once, and some- He tells us that "in the month of Nov. 1745, times repeated the detraction (the Doctor's a catarrhal fever, affecting the head and breast, phrase) to nearly the same quantity. The Doc- made its appearance: that in the next month, tor says further, that "the most common form of this was succeeded by very dangerous and morthe disease, was a congestion of the lungs; that tal epidemic peripneumonia fevers: in these, he where the brain or lungs were threatened with found great oppression, and weight at the breast, congestion, he bled copiously;" but that, in a ma- with only a slight and obtuse sense of pain, to dejority of cases, which confessedly constituted the note greater danger, than where the pain was very common form of the disease, and which he express- acute; and he also found, that though bleeding had ly says, was a congestion of the lungs, he did not a good effect in the latter cases, that a repetition bleed at all. Here again, Edipo conjectore opus of it was exceedingly detrimental in the former; est, our essayist has left us in the lurch. He fur- (which appears to have been the epidemic)—it ther informs his friend, that a cold skin, and con- brought on, he says, great debility, a suppression tracted pulse, were generally treated by potations of expectoration, the greatest anxiety, want of of warm brandy or wine, which powerfully aided sleep, delirium, tremor, cold sweats, and death: the disease in disorganizing the brain, throat, or the blood first drawn, in these cases, appeared lungs. This is another instance of the loose and lax in its texture, though florid; and continued incorrect manner of the Doctor's expressing him-long without a separation of its serum; the crasself-for my part, I am yet to learn what can be samentum, or island of the second blood, which meant by a disorganization of these parts, while was drawn, was livid, and slightly coherent, swimlife yet remains. ming in a large quantity of yellow, turbid, and Having no experience in this particular Epide greenish serum: the 3d was almost black, sanious, mic, I am entitled to offer nothing from myself, and scarce coagulating, while the blood of those on the subject, farther than what the established laboring under the sporadic genuine pneumonia, principles of art, can bear me out in: I believe, was of its usual thick, coherent, and tuffy appear. ance; and was taken from them, with manifest that every professional man, will admit it, as a canon of his art, that few or no Epidemics occur, advantage." Our author says, that "it is of the which are not of the typhoid type, or have an utmost consequence to rightly distinguish these immediate tendency thereto: To this, then, in the two species of pneumonia, from each other, in the present doubtful state of the question, I appeal, onset, as the epidemic did not admit one-fourth of for the propriety of the tonic, and cordial plan, in the bleeding found necessary, in the genuinely the treatment of this disease, till it be fixed on a inflammatory species, though a great oppression better foundation. As far as my own experience at the breast, difficulty of breathing, high fever, goes, I can say, that I have seen more than one and violent cough, equally accompanied both, and instance, of pneumonic epidemics; and that I seemed equally to indicate blood-letting." Our sagahave always found repeated blood-letting, pro- cious author then gives the following distinctive cure in them, the most fatal effects; and that a marks, as a guide in these cases: "If the pulse be single false step, with respect to this, in the very quick, small, contracted, or soft, unequal and onset, was never to be recovered: a fatal effusion unsteady, if the breathing be laborious, with frein the lungs, being the consequence. Far be itquent sighing, rather than with a fervid panting; from me, to say, that bleeding, at this early peri-if there should be rather a sense of weight, than od of the disease, may not be advantageous, in of pain, at the breast; if cold, partial sweats many instances: I have so great faith in the dis- should break out; if there should be a great lan turbance this Herculean remedy gives to the guor and trembling of the hands, he advises the morbid intestion, just conceived by the system, in greatest caution in bleeding; nay, seems doubtvigorous habits; and in the relaxation; or, as the ful if it be allowable at all in such cases;" but, if French physicians call it, detante, that it produces ventured on, and that the blood should exhibit,, which instantaneously, that, at this stage of an acute on cooling, the characteristic appearances disease, be its future character what it may, 1 he has described it to have had, in the epidemic, would not hesitate in bleeding my patient, if I he desires to immediately forbear, unless you know him to be, previously, of a vigorous habit; would kill the patient. "Ne jugulare vis ægre but, unfortunately, the physician is seldom called sufficiently early, to fulfil this intention; and in organic affections, not till the fluxion be fairly fixed; and a state of debility at hand, It is at that moment, in such circumstances, that the mind of the practitioner is suspended in doubtful balance; and that his sagacity is put to the test: he finds himself in the situation of a General, in that moment of a battle, in which a single rapid glance, or coup d'auil, is to decide the fate of the day.



That this epidemic casts lus influence vir other organs than the lungs, I am aware; though I firmly believe, that the latter are never entirely free in it: this, however, cannot vary the caution necessary in bleeding; nay, when it happens, I think it an additional motive for it; for, if bleeding can ever be necessary in this epidemic, it must be, principally, when it assumes the form of pneumonia.

As this Epidemic has excited so general an interest; and as nothing definite, and satisfactory, has been yet offered on the subject; and that, perhaps, we, unfortunately, may have a nearer acquaintance with it; I presume, that it would not be unacceptable, to re-publish the opinion and practice of Dr. HUXHAM, one of the best phy-prize question, seeking the best remedy for the sicians England ever produced, respecting an cynanche trachealis, being determined in favor, epidemic, of a similar nature. In the Diary which principally, of the candidate who proposed the he published, of the air and epidemics of his time; Seneka, to say nothing of its antiperipneumonic and which I never met translated from the Latin. virtues, and of the high estimation it was held in

As one of its most dangerous determinations is said to be on the larinx, I am astonished that the Seneka snake root has not been resorted to in that form of the disease, after the evidence furnished us by Dr. ARCHER, of Maryland, of its specific influence on that organ; and after Bonaparte's

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