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by the late Dr. Ruse, who used to call it his ve- || vilized, though feebler inhabitants of the coungetable antimonial.

tries situated towards the equator. As the TarAs I closed the foregoing remarks, your paper||tars have overrun China, so the Astecas subdued of Monday, brought to my view, another Virgi- Mexico. As the Huns and Alans desolated Italy, nia dissertation on this epidemic. I have nothing so the Chipewas and Iroquoise prostrated the poto remark on it, except that, in my mind, it de- pulous settlements on both banks of the Ohio. serves more attention than the former; the South- The surviving race in these terrible conflicts ampton practitioner gives his evidence against between the different nations of the ancient nableeding in it in the following words :-"In 1814, tive residents of North America, is evidently the cases which came under my notice would not that of the Tartars. This opinion is founded upbear the lancet, nor strong cathartics.” 'Tis true, on four considerations. that he subjoins, that “ the winter following, at 1. The similarity of physiognomy and features. the commencement of the disease, blood-letting His excellency M. Genet, late minister plenipoappeared to be the principal remedy, and the an- tentiary from France to the United States, is well chor of hope.” Here the different and opposite | acquainted with the faces, hues, and figures of effects of the same remedy ought to have made our Indians and of the Asiatic Tartars; and is the practitioner doubt of the identity of the two | perfectly satisfied of their mutual resemblance. diseases. If the same remedy was not always be- Mons. Cazeaux, consul of France to New York, neficial, in the same kind of disease, with some has drawn the same conclusion from a careful exmodification to be sure, to be left to the sagacity|amination of the native man of North America of the physician, what would become of the pro- and Northern Asia. fession, as an art? It is, then, presumable, that M. Smibert, who had been employed, as Josiah the Doctor, not attending to those distinctive|| Meigs, esq. now commissioner of the land office symptoms laid down by Huxham, mistook the in the United States, relates, in executing paintpneumonia exquisita, or infiammatory species of || ings of Tartar visages, for the grand duke of the winter, for the preceding epidemic ; and we Tuscany, was so struck with the similarity of have that learned author's authority, for the fa- | their features to those of the Naraganset Indiaris, cility of falling into such mistakes. This appears that he pronounces them members of the same the more likely, as the Southampton practitioner great family of mankind. The anecdote is presays, that the spring following, he had to lay served, with all its circumstances, in the fouraside the lancet again, except in a few cases.” | teenth volume of the Medical Repository. That is, on the recurrence of the epidemic, es- Within a few months I examined over and again cept in the few cases of genuine pneumonic that seven or eight Chinese sailors, who had assisted occurred.

M. D. in navigating a ship from Macoa to N. York. The

thinness of their beards, the bay complexion, the ZOOLOGICAL DISQUISITION.

black lank hair, the aspect of the eyes, the con

tour of the face, and in short the general external The original inhabitants of America shown to be character, induced every person who observed

of the same family and lineage with those of them, to remark, how nearly they resembled the Asia, by, a process of reasoning not hitherto Mohegans and Oneidas of New-York. advanced. By SAMUEL L. MITCHELL, M. D. Sidi Mellimelli, the Tunisian envoy to the U. Professor of Natural History in the University | States, in 1804, entertained the same opinion, on of New-York ; in a communication to De Witt beholding the Cherokees, Osages, and Miamies, CLINTON, esq. president of the New-York Phi- || assembled at the city of Washington, during his losophical Society, dated New-York, March residence there. Their tartar physiognomy struck 31, 1816.

him in a moment The view which I took of the varieties of the 2. The affinity of their languages. The late human race, in my course of Natural History, || learned and enterprising professor Barton, took delivered in the University of New York, differs the lead in this curious inquiry. He collected as in so many particulars from that entertained by many words as he could from the languages spothe great zoologists of the age, that I give you || ken in Asia and America, and he concluded, from for information, and without delay, a summary the numerous coincidences of sound and signifiufiny yesterday's lecture to my cláss.

cation, that there must have been a common ori... I denied, in the beginning, the assertion that gin, the American aborigines were of a peculiar con. 3. The existence of corresponding customs. stitution, of a race sui generis, and of a copper I mean to state at present that of shaving away color. All these notions were treated as fanciful the hair of the scalp, from the fore part and sides and visionary.

of the head, so that nothing is left but a tuft or The Indigenes of the two Americas appear to

lock on the crown. me, to be of the same stock and genealogy with The custom of smoking the pipe, on solemn octhe inhabitants of the northern and southern casions, to the four cardinal points of the compass, Asia. The northern tribes were probably more to the heavens and to the earth, is reported upon hardy, ferocious, and warlike, than those of the the most credible authority, to distinguish equally south. The tribes of the lower latitudes seem to the hordes of the Asiatic Tartars and the bands of have been greater proficients in the arts, parti

the American Siaux. cularly of making cloths, clearing the ground and 4. The kindred nature of the Indian dogs of erecting works of defence.

America, and the Siberian dogs of Asia. The parallel between the people of America The animal that lives with the natives of the and Asia, affords this important conclusion, that two continents, as a dog, is very different from on both continents, the hordes dwelling in the the tame and familiar creature of the same name higher latitudes have overp the more ci-l in Europe. He is either a different species, or a

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wide variety of the same species. But the iden. || face in the mummies correspond with those of tity of the American and Asiatic curs, is evinced the living Malays. by several considerations. Both are mostly white. I reject therefore the doctrine taught by the They have shaggy coats, sharp noses and erect European naturalists, that the man of Western ears. They are voracious, thievish, and to a con- | America differs in any material point from the siderable degree indomitable. They steal when. man of Eastern Asia. Had the Robertsons, the ever they can, and sometimes turn against their Buffons, the Raynals, the De Pauwys, and the masters. They are prone to snarl and grin, and other speculators upon the American character they have a howl instead of barking. They are and the vilifiers of the American name, procured employed in both hemispheres for labour; such the requisite information concerning the hemisas carrying burthens, drawing sleds over the || phere situated to the west of us, they would have snow, and the like; being yoked and harnessed discovered that the inhabitants of vast regions of for the purpose, like horses.

Asia, to the number of many millions, were of the This coincidence of our Indian dog with the same blood and lineage with the undervalued and Canis Sibericus, is a very important fact. The despised population of America.-The learned dog, the companion, the friend or the slave Dr. Williamson has discussed this point with great of man in all his fortunes and migrations, thus re- ability, flects great light upon the history of nations and I forebore to go further than to ascertain by the of their genealogy:

correspondences already stated, the identity of II. The exterminated race in the savage inter-origin and derivation to the American and Asiatic course between the nations of North America in | natives. I avoided the opportunity which this ancient days, appear clearly to have been that of grand conclusion afforded me, of stating, that the Malays.

America was the cradle of the human race; of The bodies and shrouds, and clothing of these tracing its colonies westward over the Pacific individuals, have within a few years been disco- || Ocean, and beyond the sea of Kamschatka, to new vered in the caverns of saltpetre and copperas settlements ; of following the emigrants by land within the states of Kentucky and Tennessee, and by water, until they reached Europe and Afritheir entire and exsiccated condition, has led in-ca; and lastly, of following adventurers from the telligent gentlemen who have seen them to call former of these sections of the globe, to the planthem mummies. They are some of the most me- tations and abodes which they found occupied in inorable of the antiquities that North America in America. I had no inclination to oppose the contains. The race or nation to which they be- current opinions relative to the place of man's longed is extinct; but in preceding ages, occu- creation and dispersion. I thought it was scarcepied the region situated between Lakes Ontario ly worth the while to inform an European, that and Erie on the north, and the Gulf of Mexico on coming to America, he had left the new world on the south, and bounded eastwardly by the Al- I behind him for the purpose of visiting the Old. leghany mountains, and westwardly by the Mis- it ought, nevertheless, to be remarked, that there sissippi river.

are many important advantages derived to our That they were similar in their origin and cha- | reasoning from the present manner of considering racter to the present inhabitants of the Pacific the subject. The principles being now establishislands and of Austral Asia, is argued from various ed, they will be supported by a further induction circumstances.

of facts and occurrences, to an extent and an a1. The sameness of texture in the plain cloth mount that it is imposible, at this moment, fairly or matting that enwraps the mummies, and that to estimate. And tlie conclusions of Jefferson, La which our navigators bring from Wakash, the fon, and others favourable to the greater antiquiSandwich Islands and the Fegees.

ty of American population, will be daily reinfor2. The close resemblance there is between the ced and confirined. feathery mantles brought now-a-days from the Having thus given the history of these races of islands of the South Sea, and those wrappersman, spreading so extensively over the globe, I which surround the mummies lately disinterred in considered the human family under three divithe western states. The plumes of birds are sions. twisted or tied to the treads, with peculiar skill, First, the Tawny man comprehending the and turn water like the back of a duck.

Tartars, Malays, Chinese, the American Indians • 3. Meshes of nets regulary knotted and tied, of every tribe, Lascars, and other people of the and formed of a strong and even twine.

same cast and breed. From these seemed to 4. Mockasons or coverings of the feet, manu- have proceeded two remarkable varieties ; to factured with remarkable ability, from the bark wit: or rind of plants, worked into a sort of stout mat. Secondly, the white man, inhabiting naturally

the countries in Asia and Europe situated north 5. Pieces of Antique -sculpture, especially of of the Mediterranean Sea; and, in the course human heads and of some other forms, found of his adventures, settling all over the world. where the exterminated tribes had dwelt, resem- || Among those I reckon the Greenlanders and Esbling the carving at Otaheite, New Zealand, and quimaux. other places.

Thirdly, the Black man whose proper resi6. Works of defence, or fortifications, over. || dence is in the regions south of the Mediterranean, spreading the fertile tract of country, formerly particularly toward the interior of Africa. The possessed by these people, who may be supposed people of Papua and Van Dieman's Land, seem capable of constructing works of much greater to be of this class. simplicity than the morais or burial places, and It is generally supposed, and by many able and the hippas or fighting stages of the Society Islands. ingenious men too, that external physical causes,

7. As far as observations have gone, a belief and the combination of circumstances which they that the shape of the skull and the angle of the || call climate, have wrought all these changes in



the human form. I do not, however, think them | the master, and entered in some proper book capable of explaining the differences which exist for a record or registry to be kept by the collecamong the nations. There is an internal physical | tor of the customs. A certificate of such regis. cause of the greatest moment, which has scarcely try is issued as evidence of ownership to accombeen mentioned. This is the generative influ- pany the vessel. In addition to the seal and sig. ence. If by the act of modelling the constitution nature of the register of the treasury of the Unitin the embryo and fætus, a predisposition to gout, led States, it is attested under the seal of the colmadness, scrofula and consumption, may be en- lector with his signature, and is countersigned gendered, we may rationally conclude, with the by the naval officer or surveyor where there is sagacious d’Azara, that the procreative power such an officer for the port to which the vessel may also shape the features, tinge the skin, and belongs. And a copy is transmitted to the regisgive other peculiarities to man.

ter of the treasury. Yours truly, SAMUEL L. MITCHILL, The certificate of registry for a vessel to be em

ployed in foreign voyages, may continue in force PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

so long as the ownership continues the same. On a change of property, if purchased by any citizen

of the United States, the vessel is registered aReport of the committee on foreign relations, | new. When the master is changed, the collector

accompanying a bill to establish a system of na- of the customs is authorized to endorse a memovigation for the United States.

randum of such change on the certificate of reMr. Bibb from the committee on foreign affairs, ||gistry. submitted to the Senate the following Report :- The requisites for this important document are

The attention of the committee has been drawn || prescribed in the act of the 31st of December, to the policy of confining the American naviga- | 1792, entitled, “ An act concerning the registertion to American seamen" by the message of the ing and recording of ships or vessels.". And ya. president of the United States. Two considera- rious provisions in the same act were adapted to tions, distinct in their character, are suggested in guard the interest of ship-builders and ship-ownbehalf of the measure-1st. As it might have a ers of the United States, against the intrusions conciliatory tendency towards foreign nations ; || or impositions of foreigners. and 2dly. As it would increase the independence

In relation to vessels of twenty tons or upof our navigation and the resources of our mari- wards which may be enrolled, the same qualificatime defence.

tions and requisites are prescribed, and similar “ An act for the regulat of seamen on board guards against abuses are provided in the act of the public and private vessels of the U. States,' the 18th February, 1793, entitled, “An act for passed the 3d day of March, 1813, prohibits the enrolling and licensing ships or vessels to be enn. employment, as seamen, of the subjects or citi-ployed in the coasting trade and fisheries, and zens of any foreign nation which shall prohibit || for regulating the same.” A certificate of enrollthe like employment of citizens of the U. States. ment, which is issued for a coasting or fishing ves. That act furnishes indisputable evidence of the sel of the United States, is strictly analogous to conciliatory spirit of the national councils ; and the certificate of registry for a merchant vessel. a corresponding disposition on the part of other The documents contain similar statements regovernments only is wanting to give it effect. | specting the vessels and the titles of the owners, The committee, however, deem it expedient to and are authenticated in the same manner. advance the independence of the navigation and

Vessels of less than twenty tons are licensed, resources of maritime defence of the V. States, without being enrolled, according to the act of and for that purpose submit a bill to the conside-the eighteenth of February, seventeen hundred ration of the Senate. That the nature and ex- and ninety-three. And the duty of tonnage on tent of its provisions may be the more readily an

a licensed vessel is payable once in a year. A liderstood, the following outline of the existing cense is issued from the office of the customs for regulations concerning commercial vessels, and the vessel to be employed in the coasting trade of the proposed modifications, is presented. or the whale fishery or cod fishery. It may be in

Commercial vessels which are registered or en- force for one year, and is given under the hand rolled according to the existing laws, are deno- and seal of the collector, who is required to make minated ships or vessels of the United States. For a record of such licenses and transmit copies to carrying on trade with foreign countries, they the register of the treasury. That the privileges are registered. For the coasting trade or fishe. appertaining to ships or vessels of the United ries of the United States, they are enrolled and States in the coasting trade or fisheries may be licensed.

fully enjoyed, the same law requires enrolled Ships or vessels built within the United States, vessels to have licenses. or captured and condernned as prize, or adjudg- As the act of the thirty-first of December, se ed forfeited for breach of law, and belonging venteen hundred and ninety-two, has provided wholly to citizens of the United States, may be that the privileges appertaining to registered ships registered or enrolled, if they are commanded or vessels of the United States shall not continue by citizens either native or naturalized. Such to be enjoyed longer than they continue to be vessels are regarded as belonging to the ports at commanded by citizens of the United States, it has or nearest to which the managing owners reside. in effect required every such vessel to have one And they are registered or enrolled in the offices citizen on board as master or commander. And of the customs for the districts which comprehend the same requisite is included in the act of the the respective ports.

eighteenth of February, seventeen hundred and When a vessel is registered, the ownership, ninety-three, for enrolling or licensing ships or pame, description and tonnage, being legally as- vessels. These acts contain the principal regule certained, are stated distinctly, with the name of|| lations for commercial shipping. There are no

as naturalized

laws in operation which require any more of the || For the year


3,668 citizens to be employed for navigating the vessels


4,828 in foreign trade or in the coasting trade or fish.


3,252 eries. There is no act of Congress which requires the subordinate officers or any part of the crew

Total 106,757 on board any vessel whatever to be citizens of the United States.

REMARKS—The report of the 19th of February, On examination it appears, that systematic regu. following remark :-" It may be proper to ob

1813, from the Secretary of State, contains the lations concerning the ownership of vessels were established by the registering act of December, || be reasonably inferred, that the number of sea

serve, that from the deficiency of returns it is to 1792, and the enrolling and licensing act of February 1793. But the United States have remain during the period embraced by this report, ex

men actually enregistered in the United States, ed to this day without a navigation act for each || ceeds that now stated by one third. branch of their commerce.

As it concerns the maritime interests of the Statement of the number of naturalized persons United States, therefore, it is of importance to es- | annually registered as American seamen, under the tablish a policy requiring the commercial vessels act of the 28th of May, 1796, according to a reof the United States to be navigated principally l port from the Secretary of State to the Senate, by mariners of the country. With this view, it is

dated the 6th of January, 1813. considered proper to allow the privileges of Ame. rican character to none but vessels navigated by

Number returned American mariners as the law may require; to For the three last provide for ascertaining who shall be regarded as such mariners; and to make it requisite for ves

quarters of the sels of the United States to have documents on



70 For the year


165 board as evidence of being so navigated.


111 That the policy may be carried into effect with


95 out inconvenience, various particulars in a system


54 of navigation must correspond to existing laws


48 respecting the collection of duties, the ownership


26 of vessels or the government of persons in the mer.


140 chant service or fisheries. Several regulations similar to those already in force are proposed to


124 1805

68 be incorporated. The documents for vessels sailing on foreign


70 1807

71 voyages may supersede the use of any other cer


55 tificates of citizenship for persons employed in


214 navigating them. And it is proposed to repeal

1810 the section of the act of May, 1796, which has

147 authorized the collectors to deliver certificates to


39 individual mariners. Abuses which are known to


33 have prevailed in relation to such certificates may

Total 1,530 be avoided by requiring proper documents to accompany the vessels.

REMARK-In relation to the returns of persons born in foreign countries who have been legally

naturalized in the United States and registered as Statement of the whole number of seamen an- American seamen, in the report of the 6th of Jan. nually registered as American, under the act of uary, 1813, it is observed :-“ Those for 1811 and the 28th of May, 1796; being an “abstract of 1812, above stated, are not complete." seamen registered in the several custom-houses of the United States, according to returns made to the Department of State," as contained in a re

'Treasury Department, 26th Jan. 1816. port made to the Senate, dated the 19th of Fe. Sir-Permit me to answer your inquiries relabruary, 1813.

tive to the amount of American tonnage, and the Whole number returned number of seamen, citizens and foreigners em

as registered. ployed in the merchant service, by communicatFor the three last

ing a copy of the letter which I have addressed quarters of the

to the chairman of the committee of foreign reyear



lations of the house of representatives, upon the 1797

9,021 same subject.

I have the honor to be, &c.

6,514 1800

A. J. DALLAS. 3,390 1801

6,917 The hon. W. William Bibb, 1802

891 chairman of the committee 1803

10,724 of foreign relations of the 1804

6,822 senate. 1805

10,722 1806

9,900 1807 7,937

Treasury Department, Jan. 26, 1816. 1808

1,121 SIR-I have the honor to acknowledge the re1809

9,170 ceipt of your letter, requesting, on behalf of the

For the year

committee of foreign relations, information upon , containing, as far as he can ascertain, the names, the following subjects :

places of birth and residence, and a description 1. The amount of American tonnage.

of the persons who compose his ship's company, 2. The number of seamen required for the na- for whom he is bound to account, upon his return vigation of American vessels.

to the United States. But experience has shown, 3. The number of American seamen, either || that neither the register, which only includes the native or naturalized.

names of citizens who themselves request to be 4. The number of foreign seamen now employ. || registered ; nor the crew-lists furnished by the

ed in the merchant service of the United masters of vessels employed in the foreign trade, States.

upon general information, afford a satisfactory test, 1. The annual statement of the amount of Ame- to distinguish the native from the naturalized searican tonnage, on the 31st of December, 1814, men, nor even to distinguish the citizen from the which was recently laid before Congress, exhi- | alien; and that neither can be relied on, to estabits an aggregate of 1,159,208 80-95 tons, as in-blish the aggregate number of seamen, employed cluded in the returns made to this department by in the merchant service. the collectors of the customs; but for the reasons In the year 1807, an attempt was made to esassigned in the letter of the register of the treasu- | timate the proportion of foreign to American seary, accompanying that statement, the actual a- men on board of American vessels; but the basis mount ought not to to be estimated, on the 30th of of the estimate was too unsettled and hypothetical, December, 1814, at more than 1,029,281 85-95 | to command confidence in the result. It was then tons.

supposed, that nearly one sixth of the whole By an estimate formed from the returns of the number of seamen, employed in navigating Amecollectors, to the 30th of September, 1815, therican vessels were foreign seamen, and, more aggregate amount of the tonnage, included in the particularly that of the number of seamen employreturns, will be 1,363,758 62-95 tons; but this ed in the foreign trade, at least one fourth were amount is liable to a deduction, similar to that foreigners. There are reasons to presume that above mentioned, and the tonnage of American the proportion of foreign to American seamen is vessels actually employed, at the last period, may || less at this time than it was in the year 1807, and be estimated at about 1,217,000 tons, divided in that it will become less still, as the nations of the following manner :

Europe, in consequence of the general peace, be. American tonnage, employed in foreign

come more and more the carriers of their own trade, about

840,000 || imports and exports. Do. in the coasting trade, about 350,000

I have the honor to be, &c. Do. in the fisheries, 27,000




Tons, 1,217,000

GENERAL STAFF OF THE ARMY. II. The number of seamen required for the na

Adj. and Insp. General's Office, vigation of American vessels, may be computed

May 3, 1816. from the crews, which they usually ship, including officers and boys, at an average of nearly six motions, have been made for organizing the Gene

The following appointments, transfers and profor every hundred tons, employed in the foreign || ral Staff of the army, in addition to existing ar; and coasting trade, and of about eight for cvery || rangements, and conformably to the act of April hundred tons employed in the fisheries. This

22, 1816. computation will place the whole number of seamen required for the navigation of American ves.

GENERAL ORDER. sels, at about 70,000.

III. and IV. The number of American seamen, Colonel Robert Butler native or naturalized citizens, and the number of Colonel Charles K. Gardner

5th March, 1814

12th April, 1814 foreign seamen, who are employed in the merchant service of the United States, cannot be ascertained from any documents in the treasury de- Colonel Arthur P. Hayne 12th April, 1814 partment. It is believed, indeed, that there does Colonel John E. Wool 29th April, 1816 not exist, any where, the means of classing the seamen according to that discrimination ; nor of ascertaining their number, except in the general Major Charles J. Nourse 14th Sept. 1814 mode of computation, which has been adopted Major I. T. B. Romayne 11th Feb. 1815 upon the present occasion. The acts for the re- Major Clinton Wright 29th April, 1816 lief and protection of American seamen, provide Major.R. M. Kirby

29th April, 1816 that the collector of every district shall keep a book, in which, at the request of any seaman, be. Major John M. Davis ing a citizen of the United States, and producing Major Francis F. Belton

1st October, 1814

18th Oct. 1814 proof of his citizenship authenticated in a manner Major Henry Lee, jun. which the act has omitted to define, he shall en. Major Wm. M ́Donald

29th April, 1816

29th April, 1816 ter the name of the applicant; and that each collector shall return a list of the seamen so regis.

TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS. tered, once every three months, to the Secretary Major John Anderson 12th April, 1813 of State, who is required to lay before Congress, Major Isaac Roberdeau 29th April, 1813 an annual statement of the returns. It is also Major John J. Abert

22d Nov. 1814 provided that before a clearance begranted to any Major James Kearney 29th April, 1816 vessel, bound on a foreign, voyage, the master Major Stephen H. Long 29th April, 1816 shall deliver to the collector of the customs a list | Major R. Wilson

29th April, 1816



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