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Majors Belton and Romayne will repair to De

troit, and report to General Macomb. Colonel James R. Mullany, Q. M. Gen.

29th April, 1816

Majors Davis and Wright will repair to Fort

Hawkins, and report to Gen. Gaines.
Colonel George Gibson, Q. M.

29th April, 1816

Majors Nourse and Lee are arranged to the

staff of General Scott. Capt. C. Vandeventer, Assistant D. Q. M. G.

26th March, 1813

Majors M‘Donald and Kirby will repair to Bos.

ton, and report to General Ripley. Captain Benjamin Gardner, As

Doctor Mann will report to Major General sistant D. Q. M. G.

19th May, 1813

Brown for orders.
Captain Milo Mason, Assist. D.
Q. M. G.

29th April, 1816

Doctor Bell will repair to Fort Hawkins and re.

port to General Gaines. Capt. Mark Hardin, Assistant D. Q. M. G.

29th April, 1816

Doctor Catlett is assigned to the post at Pits

burg and will report to the commanding officer MEDICAL DEPARTAMENT.

at that place. James Mann, Hospital Surgeon 9th April, 1812

Doctors Wheaton and Blood will repair to St. E. H. Bell, Hospital Surgeon 29th April, 1816

Louis and report to Brigadier General Smith. Hanson Catlett, Post Surgeon 18th Feb. 1813

Doctors Mercer and Monroe will report to this W. V. Wheaton, Post Surgeon 28th March, 1813

office for orders, Hosea Blood, Post Surgeon 5th May, 1813

Judge Advocate Winter will report to Major W. N. Mercer, Post Surgeon 220 Nov. 1814

General Brown. T. I. C. Monroe, Post Surgeon 29th April, 1816 Judge Advocate Duval will repair to Detroit

and report to General Macomb. JUDGE ADVOCATES.

Judge Advocate Winston will report to Major R. H. Winder

9th July, 1814 General Jackson. W. O. Winston

29th April, 1816 Judge Advocate Hanson will repair to St. Louis Thomas Hanson

29th April, 1816 and report to Brigadier General Smith. E. B. Duval

29th April, 1816 Chaplains Booge and Jones will report to Ma.

jor General Brown. A. I. Booge

Chaplain M'Calla will report to Major General 16th June, 1816

Jackson. Cave Jones

29th April, 1816 W. L. M‘Calla

29th April, 1816

Quarter masters, Topographical Engineers, and

Paymasters will report to the War Department
BATTALION AND DISTRICT PAYMASTERS. for instructions, preparatory to entering on their
Saterlee Clark

respective duties.
A. H. Sheed

By order,
Joseph Woodruff

David Gwynne

Adjutant & Inspector General.
D. S. Townsend
Thomas Montgomery
W. D. Lawrence

Leroy Opie.


-Alas! rude fragments now Major George Bomford of the corps of engineers,

Lie scatter'd where the shapely column stood; and brevet It. colonel, to be lt. colonel of ordnance,

Her palaces are dust!9th Feb. 1815.

Captain A. R. Woolley to be major, 9th Feb « Rome, June 10, 1813.- I was at Rome in the 1815.

year 1791 ; the city then contained 160,000 inha. Captain James Dalaby to be major, 9th Februa- bitants, the luxury' in equipages and liveries was

considerable: in many of the great houses the foCaptain I. D. Hayden, late of the 15th infantry, Il reigner met with a hospital reception; and in every to be captain, 9th February, 1815.

thing indicated a great and opulent capital. I enter. First Lt. William Wade, to be captain, 9th Feb. I ed the city this time by the same road, and instead 1815.

of carriages, was met by droves of oxen, goats, and Capt. M. I. Magee, late of the 4th rifle regiment, half wild horses, driven along by black-eyed herdsto be captain, 10th Feb. 1815.

men, armed with long pikes, and muffled up in

their cloaks; they looked like Tartars. The dust By order of the Secretary of War,


raised by the cattle filled the air. These herds-
Adjutant and Inspector General.

men, with their charge, seek every evening, within
the walls, a refuge from the pestiferous atmosphere

of the environs. They take possession of the quarAdjutant and Inspector General: Office, ters and palaces which are abandoned to them by

May 3, 1816. the population, in proportion as it diminishes, and GENERAL ORDER.

is crowded together by the unwholesome air into

the centre of the city. The Porta Populi, the Colonels Gardner and Wool will repair to the Transtiberine quarter, and those of the Quirinal head quarters of Major General Brown, and report and the Mountain of the Trinity, are already de.


ry, 1815.

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serted by their inhabitants, and country people Colonels Butler and Hayne are arranged to the have settled in them. The population of Rome is staff of Major General Jackson, and will repair to reduced to 100,000 souls, and this number includes

more than 40,000 vine dressers, herdsmen, and

for duty.

his head quarters.

gardeners. Extensive districts of the city are its walls. It already relates the glory and magnifi.
transformed into villages, and are occupied by cence of past ages, and prepares to proclaim to fu-
rustics, driven by the insalubrity of the atmosphere ture generations, the genius and the piety of the
from their former dwellings. Such a prodigious times in which it was founded.
depopulation in the short space of twenty-two
years is almost unprecedented. The political
events of that period have doubtless contributed
much to its diminution; but the principal cause

must be sought in the general relations of Rome,
and in the effects of its noxious atmosphere. This
scourge is every year making fresh encroachments; served by the citizens of this place; and by the

On the 30th ult. spots on the sun's disk were obevery year it overspreads streets, places, and quar: public journals it appears they were also observters, and every year its baneful influence musted in most parts of the United States about the augment, because it augments in an inverse ratio

same time. to the assistance opposed by the population. The fewer the inhabitants the greater the number of vic-having been observed at intervals for some cen

This phenomenon is not new to astronomers, tims; and every funeral is the avant courier of many turies, but has excited much curiosity and specumore. That period, therefore, is probably not far lation, by the circumstance of the visibility of distant when this queen of cities will be

completely these spots to the naked eye. shorn of her splendour, and nothing be left of her but that glorious name, which time cannot destroy. || many of the newspapers of the day, a few of

Paragraphs noticing them have appeared in The traveller will then find at Rome, as he now does at Volterra, nought but a vast collection of || readers. The following is from the New-York

which, we extract for the entertainment of our monuments, palaces, and ruins of every age. The

MERCANTILE ADVERTISER : marks of near approaching destruction are impressed upon every part of Rome. As there are many Sol, the sun, the most splendid of the celesmore houses than inhabitants, no person thinks of|tial globes, diffuses light and heat through the répairing his own-if it becomes ruinous, he seeks whole planetary system. Many authors have another elsewhere; to mend a door, &c. would be written upon his nature and constitution. A ca. deemed labour thrown away; they tumble down, talogue of these heliægraphic books was publishand as they fall are left lying. In this manner, num.

ed at Heimstadt, in Germany, during 1753, by bers of convents are now transformed into ruinous Nichols Frobesius; but in 1768, Mich. Chr. Ha. shells; many places are become uninhabited, and | novius attempted, in a formal dissertation, to deno one takes the trouble even to secure their doors. | monstrate that the sun was not a body of fire. This abandonment, this Tartar population filling Astronomers, on beholding this grand luminathe streets with their cattle, already present strik- | ry, are satisfied that he is not equally radiant in ing characteristics of decay and ruin.

every part. His surface is occasionally beset with “ Amid this neglect of the private buildings, a spots or clouds, of which the famous professor strong anxiety for the preservation of such remains || Weidler, of Wirtemburg, has exhibited an able of antiquity as time has spared is observable. The summary. The usual facts and appearances of government are carrying on works upon an exten- solar maculæ are these, viz. sive plan, according to which, all those which are 1. Occasionally on the disk of the sun are seen partly covered with rubbish are to be cleared, and blackish spaces, of a round, oval or irregular fi. to be comected and grouped, that these precious | gure. They often have a dark nucleus, whose relics shall present a view at once picturesque and circumference is tinged with a red and blue coagreeable.

lour. They are called maculæ or spots. All the environs of the Vatican, with the excep- 2. Frequently, as the French astronomers retion of the main street conducting to it, are like marked during the seventeenth century, there wise abandoned to herdsmen. I was particularly | were none to be seen for days, months, and even struck with their desolate appearance, early one years in succession. Picard, Hevelius Mairian morning, when I set out to visit St. Peter's. The distinguished themselves by the assiduity with sun had just risen when I reached the great square, || which they pursued their investigation upon this the doors of the cathedral were still shut; profound subject. silence every where prevailed, except that at a dis- 3. The number visible at a time, in the sun, vatance I heard the bells of the cattle returning to ries; for sometimes there is but a single one, and their pasture. Not a creature was to be seen, and then again ten, twenty, thirty, or more, have been I arrived in the fore-court without having met with distinguished. Scheiner discovered, on a certain one single human being. The coolness of the morn- occasion, fifty spots in sight at a time on the sun's ing, and the tints of the dawn, diffused an inex. ||disk. pressible charm over the enchanting solitude, I be- 4. Their apparent magnitude varies; they ocheld the temple, its colonades, and the sky before || cupying, at different times, the hundredth, fifti. me, and never had my mind so deeply felt the sub- | eth, thirtieth, twentieth, and even a greater porlime magnificence of nature, at the moment of se. tion of the sun's diameter. paration between day and night.

5. They usually make their appearance first "At length the doors of the church opened, and I near the easternmost margin of the sun, whence its bells announced the opening day, but in vaindid they pass in a curved line to the westernmost their sound summon the christians to their devo- edge, and disappear.- Near the summer and wintions. Not a soul came to implore the blessing of ter solstices their line of motion is straight. Heaven. This temple, the most splendid monu- 6. Near the extremities of the disk they move ment that the world ever raised to the divinitymore slow; towards the centre their progress is this temple already stands in a desert; the grass | faster. grows in its fore-courts, and moss springs up on 7. Seen near the margin they seem smaller:

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while beheld in the middle of the disk they look seen by the naked eye. The spot passed near the larger.

centre of the disk, and is now approaching to. 8. Sometimes a single spot will divide into se- wards the limb. This motion arises from the sun's veral; and then again several will coalesce into | rotation on its axis, which will cause it to disap

pear behind the sun in a few days. It may possi9. Yet spots have been observed to show them- || bly reappear in the latter part of the present relves first in the middle of the sun, and there month, as some spots have continued 70 or 80 gradually to vanish or go out of sight.

days, but in general the duration is much shorter. 10. The motion of the maculæ on the hemis- || The cause of these spots has not been determined phere of the sun, which is turned toward our by astronomers. The opinion of Wilson, La Lande planet, the earth, lasts about fourteen days, and and Herschell, may be seen in Ray's Cyclopædia, continues about as long on the opposite side. The article Macula) where may be found a particular period of their revolution, according to Du Ha- account of them. The present spot subtends an mel, is twenty-seven days, or thereabouts ; some angle of about one minute, and covers a surface of them have returned again and again ; others, whose greatest length is twenty-five or thirty however, do not present themselves a second thousand miles, being four times as great as the time, but melt away or are dissipated while they | earth's diameter. are going round on the opposite hemisphere. De la Lande calculates the period of the sun's revolution on its own axis, to be twenty-five days and From the Freeman's Journal of May 1. ten hours. 11. Spots which have been seen from remote has appeared on the disk of the sun, for the last

The Sun.-A spot of considerable magnitude regions of the earth, have been referred to the same point of the sun's disk.

two days, which has given rise to many conjec.

tures. From these facts it may fairly be inferred that solar spots are opaque masses impenetrable by ty remarks, as only a few minutes were afforded

The public will pardon the following very hasthe sun's rays. Their position between the sun and us withholds a portion of his light; and dur

to prepare them. ing their continuance the earth receives a dimi.

In the first place, we say the spot is not a trannished slare of its radiance. This diminution of sit of Venus or Mercury, for neither of them, at solar influence must have an effect upon our pla- present, is in the same part of the heavens with net and its atmosphere, rendering them both cool- the sun, and a transit of those planets is always er than they otherwise would have been. Our effected in 6 or 8 hours; nor can it be a comet, spring has been exceedingly backward and chil- || for its velocity, for the most part, is superior to ly; and is nearly six weeks less forward than com

those planets. mon. Dr. Mitchell has shown, by several-collec

The spot is situated nearly north of the sun's tions of facts, from year to year, the sensible ope- || from the north limb. It appears stationary, as

centre about one and a half digits, or 12m 16s ration that the vast masses of ice working to the observations were accurately taken, and no appasouthward, in the Atlantic ocean from Greenland, as far as the latitude of 43, have upon the atmos.

rent change discovered after about five hours. phere and temperature of the north eastern sec

Through a telescope it appears somewhat like tion of America. This very spring of 1816, as

a spider, having parts extending from the main that gentleman observed, brings further confir- body, and its magnitude cannot be less than two mation of the doctrine, that the chilliness of April, minutes, as it is very visible to the naked eye. May and June, may be owing, in a great degree,

It is more than probable that this spot is in the to the presence of such extensive fields and islands | surface of the sum, in which case, its surface would of ice on the Newfoundland station. We now

prove to be about 36 times that of the earth. endure the double operation of solar spots and|tion about its axis, it will be seen gradually to ad

If this conjecture be true, by the sun's revolu. Greenland cold. Spots, in the sun, were observed in the

vance to the circumference of the sun, and disap

year 1611, by Fabricius in East Friesland, Sheiner at pear in about 8 or 10 days. Ingoldstadt, in Germany, and Galileo in Italy; into the sun. The apparent shape of the spot,

It is probable that this spot is a comet fallen described by later astronomers. Those which helps to confirm this conjecture, as it is of an elipa obscured the disk of the sun in 1806, were care

tical form, somewhat pointed at, one end, which fully watched by the Rev. David Wiley of George || when falling obliquely upon a plane.

is the shape into which globular bodies are thrown town, (D. C.) and their description recorded in the 10th vol. of the New-York Medical Reposi- || Newton computes, that a comet in 1680 ap

This idea is not altogether new, for Sir Isaac tory, p. 80, and seq.

The method of observing them in the best man. I proached towards the sun's surface, within less ner, has been stated by Weidler, in his Heliascapia moving with an immense velocity in that nearness,

than a sixth part of the sun's diameter; and by emendata et illustrata, to which the curious are referred.

he concludes that it must have been retarded by the resistance of the sun's atmosphere, and con-'.

sequently must approach nearer and nearer after The following is from the Salem Gazette, and every revolution till at last it falls into the sun. is supposed to be from the pen of Mr. Bow- Galileo who made the first discovery of spots ditch :

in the sun, observed one in 1612, which was so A large spot has been seen upon the sun's disk | large as to be plainly visible to the naked eye. for several days past. This is by no means an un- Should a comet travel immediately to or from usual phenomenon, but it has attracted considera- | the sun, it might in that case appear stationary, ble attention from the circumstance of having been | But this we have no reason to expect.

Nothing further can be said until further ob

DROUGHT. servations be obtained.

A letter from Charleston to a gentleman in NewDAVID M' CLURE, York, states, that an unusual drought has parched Nautical and Mathematical Academy. the ground, withered foliage and vegetation of all Tuesday evening, April 30.

sorts, and dried up springs and brooks. For up

wards of three months there had not fallen a dmp From the Carlisle Herald, May 2.

of rain. Remaining casks of fresh water taken

from New-York and the North, were eagerly bought ASTRONOMICAL NOTICE,

at a high price, and reckoned a very valuable arSeveral spots have been observed for some days | ticle of merchandize ! past in the sun's disk. They may be distinctly

This drought does not appear to be confined to seen on a clear day, on his N. W. limb, through the southern, but pervades the Atlantic states geany telescope ; they may be even perceived thro'nerally, if we judge from the many fires that have a common spectacle glass, coloured, on his ris happened in the forests and mountains. In this ing or setting

city there has been no rain of consequence for Through a small glass it has the appearance of about four weeks; a circumstance very unusual at but one spot; but through the three feet reflec- this season of the year.

N. Reg. tor of Dickinson college, three large spots may be distinctly seen contiguous to each other, with

From the Albany Advertiser of May 1. several small ones, surrounded by an umbra of Fire in the woods.- Our city was yesterlay filled considerable extent.

with smoke and cinders from the woods which The motion of the spots are from east to west, were on fire between Albany and Schenectady. and will not be seen for more than seven or eight | The fire commenced on Sunday afternoon, and, days.

we understand, has extended its ravages over a It is by observing the motion of these spots, the distance of five or six miles. Reports state, that time of the sun's revolution on his axis, has been two or three houses on the turnpike have been conascertained. From repeated observations, these sumed, and that some fears were entertained for spots have been seen to appear on the eastern the powder-house in the vicinity. Engines left the margin of the sun, to cross his surface, to disap- city yesterday afternoon to arrest its progress pear and to reappear again, in twenty-seven days when we take into consideration the high price of and seven hours, from whence astronomers have fuel in our market, this fire will be considered a calculated, allowing for the motion of the earth; | serious calamity. Whether it was the effect of ac. that the sun revolves on his axis in 25 days and cident or design, we have not ascertained. 9 hours.

Easton, (Penn.) May 3. These spots have been seen, by attentive obser

Fire on the mountains.-For several days, the vers, to change their shape-to separate into dif-surrounding country has been darkened by clouds ferent parts—the nucleus to encroach on the um- of smoke, which have evidently proceeded from bra, and even to disappear entirely. It has fre- the blue mountains, the brushes and trees on which quently been observed, that that part of the sun have been on fire for upwards of a week. The fire where the spots have appeared, has been much (we are told) first commenced in the vicinity of the brightest.

Ross-common, about 14 miles from this place, and The Rev. Mr. Wolaston states, that he saw a advanced rapidly with the wind, which blew from spot burst to pieces, while looking at the sun that quarter towards the upper parts of the moun. through a twelve inch reflector; the appearance tains, extending itself over the country about 20 was to him as if a piece of ice when dashed on a

or 30 miles, consuming property to a considerable frozen pond, breaks to pieces.

amount. The fire is not yet extinguished, but No astronomer has ventured to account, with | rages in some parts of the mountains with the greatany certainty, for these appearances in the sun. est fury. The great Herschel has given us his conjectures

Boston, May 4. on the subject.

Destructive Fire.-On Monday last, a person in He supposes, in his paper, in the Philosophi. the northerly part of Dartmouth, (Mass.) set fire cal Transactions of 1795, that the sun is surround. I to a pile of brush, which in a few hours spread ed by a luminous atmosphere, which, when in over several miles, destroying fences, standing terrupted, gives a transient glimpse of the body | trees, &c. The damage done is said to be incalcu. of the sun—That it is a world inhabited like our || lable--some have estimated it at 20,000 dollars. own, that the heat of the sun is accounted for on

Savannah, April 30. the principle, "that heat is produced by the sun's A Launch.-The steam boat Union, intended to rays only when they act on a calorifick medium.”||ply as a ferry boat between this city and S. Caro

Others have supposed, that they are burning | lina, was launched yesterday; and, it is expected, mountains of immense size, and that when the will be ready in about five weeks to go into opecruption is nearly ended and the smoke (which ration. She is sixty feet in length and twenty in parily occasions the dark-spots) dispersed, the breadth, and without her machinery draws 13 Aames appear as luminous spots.

inches of water. Mr. N. Bosworth is the builder. Uthers have imagined (but which appears so

Quebec, April 18. improbable as to merit prompt rejection) that The Season-On Friday last the 12th inst. there they are bodies revolving round the sun, as the was a heavy fall of snow nearly to the depth of moon about the earth.

one foot, and every day since more or less snow The largest of the spots seen in 1779 has been has fallen. The country has all the appearance supposed to be greater in breadth than six times of the middle of winter ; the depth of snow being the diameter of the earth. The nucleus alone of ställ between 3 and 4 feet. We understand that those now visible, are probably much larger than in many parishes the cattle are already suffering the whole continent of America.

from a scarcity of forage.



market. The captain deviated from his course, SAMUEL DEXTER.

and procured seal skins, which he sold on his Withott intermeddling with the political opi- own account. The question on this plain state. nions of the late Samuel Dexter, we may be allow.ment of facts was, what should be the amount of ed sincerely to lament the loss which his country the damages ; and we presume that no lawyer will has sustained in his death. Mr. Dexter was not a deny, that judgment should be rendered for all the deep read lawyer ; he paid but very little attention profit made by the sale of the skins. Dexter was to his books, and usually imposed on the subordi for the defendant; the plaintiff's counsel very pronate counsel the drudgery of exploring his library perly compared the case to that of a man who should for cases in point. But to compensate for this de- plough, and sow his field in his absence; when fect, he possessed a sort of intuitive analysis, by he entered upon his land, he contended, that he which he could, without the least appearance of was erititled to the whole profits of the crop. Mr. labour or exertion, unravel the thread of the most Dexter denied that this was a parallel case. Supterugikog argument; it was simplified, explained, pose, said he, that iny client steals a plough, and and rendered intelligible to the meanest capacity, ploughs a public common, is the owner of the in a manner so perfectly free and familiar, that the plough entitled to the crop! This is precisely the jury were persuaded he told them nothing new : case on trial; the ship is the plough, and the ocean they saw the things so distinctly, that they mis. is the common. The satires of Dexter were not took the ideas of Dexter for their own. If a case the sallies of a light and sportive fancy: he selwas produced by the opposing counsel, point blank | dom struck; but when he did, the sting was against his construction of the law, it was distin. deep, terrible, corrosive, and always rememguished from the one on trial, with such superla- | bered afterwards. He was once counsel in a case,

tive ingenuity, that the jury have often been made in which the editor of a public paper, not reale to adopt his construction, to prevent that very law | markable for his engaging physiognomy, was in

from being violated. His enemies at the bar have terested. Mr. D. in stating an imaginary case, often thus found their batteries so completely turn. I supposed that a man should be found, whose caed against themselves, that they were apprehen- lumnies were as notorious as his face. In discuss. sive of producing the most favourable precedents. |ing before a populous assembly, the constitationWe have known this gentleman to thank the coun. || ality of a particular law, to which he was oppossel opposed to him for the production of such au- ||ed, the opinion of a certain judge was cited in thorities : he had been on the hunt for them him. opposition to his construction. At the close of a self; but had not the good fortune to find them in clear, cogent and convincing argument, in which the reporter, notwithstanding the most painful re- he carried with him a vast majority of his audisearch. A deep and thorough acquaintance with ence, he at length noticed the opinion of the his case in all its bearings, enabled him to become | judge. What is said in opposition to all this, (conan absolute master of all its strong points, and his tinued the orator) why we have the opinion of the intuitive power of luminous analysis, rendered a judge. He paused for a moment; and then, with resort to a law book almost unnecessary. It was most expressive features of contempt, repeated dangerous to interrupt this brilliant debater, for the name of the judge. When I cast my eyes, the purpose of correcting his statement. What- | continued he, on this immense congregation ever was then advanced, was taken by Dexter as around me-when I survey this slope of human concession from the opposite counsel; and it was || faces from the floor, to the ceiling, there is not turned to so new, so extraordinary, and so dan- | one countenance which I can recognize, but what gerous a use, that we have often seen the lawyer | possesses more intellect than that magistrate. His compelled to take his seat, and to bite bis lips | enunciation was clear, deliberate, and distinct, from vexation. Probably, a single fact may do which gave him an entire control over his lanmore to illustrate the peculiar character of Mr. | guage: not a word was lost or misapplied; it fell Dexter's mode of argument, than the most labour- || directly in the place designed by the speaker. ed analysis. A merchant, in one of the New-Eng-Studied gesture, violent emphasis, theatrical conland states, fitted out a ship for a voyage to Can- | tortions, unnatural warmth—those stale tricks of ton. She was to stop at the island of Tristam de secondary minds, he merely regarded as beneath Cuna, and procure seal skins for an East-India || his notice. His evolutions were essy, natural and VOL. I.


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