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TO BE CAPTAINS.
TO BE LIEUTENANTS.
risk, is the only good evidence of price and pay
Washington, May 31, ment; and in the opinion of the committee, ought NAVY OF THE UNITED STATES. in all ordinary cases to be required as evidence of Promotions in the United States' Navy, on the 27th disbursemeut.
Melancthon T. Woolsey, and executive of this state was received yesterday,
John Orde Creighton.
TO BE MASTERS COMMANDANT. by express Creek Agency, 10th Jay, 1816.
Nathaniel Harraden, I have received two communications from Lieut.
Samuel Woodhouse, Col. Clinch, who commands at Fort Gaines, on
Charles C. B. Thompson, Chattohochee, (about 65 miles below Fort Mitch
Alexander 6. Wadsworth, ell,) of the 3d and 7th. The first to inform me,
George W. Rodgers, “the Indians surprised and took two soldiers George C. Rcad, who had charge of thirty head of cattle near the
Henry E. Ballard, fort, and drove off the cattle. They were pur
Thomas Gamble, and sued forty-five miles on the trail which leads
William Carter, jun. to St. Marks. I have demanded the soldiers, their horses, cattle, and party of Indians of their
John Hill, jun.
No. 1 chiefs.” On the 7th, “the spy I sent after the
3 party reported, they had crossed Flint river
John Smoot, near Burgess's old place; they had not killed
Robert B. Randolph,
4 the two men; but understood they intended to
William Berry, do so, if they became too much fatigued to travel.
Samuel L. Breese, That the Simenoles and all the towns near the
John Evans, confluence of Flint and Chattolochee were pre.
8 paring for war; they had been drinking their war Benjamin Page,
9 physic and dancing for several days. It was un
John T. Ritchie,
10 derstood they were to divide themselves in two
John A. Wish,
11 parties, one to go against Hartford, the other to
12 attack fort Gaines.” This report is confirmed by
William A. Weaver,
13 an Indian arrived last night direct from the hos
Thomas W. Wyman,
14 tiles: three white men, you well know, came this
James L. Morris,
15 morning to inform me they were of opinion the
John A, Belsches,
16 Simenoles and adherents are preparing to strike
17 a blow some where; and that all the towns who
18 wish to remain friendly are preparing to remove
William M. Caldwell,
19 above the line."_That the Simenoles and lower
John K. Carter,
20 Indians are determined on a war I have not the Joseph Cross,
21 smallest doubt.
Abraham S. Ten Eick,
22 “I feel it my duty to communicate to you, and
23 through you to my fellow citizens on the frontiers John White,
24 of Georgia, the rumours that are in circulation,
Wm. M. Robins,
25 as a little vigilance on their part may save the
26 lives of many helpless women and children.”
27 I deem it my duty to make this communication
28 to you, to give the publicity its importance re
Jonathan D. Williamson, 29 quires, in conformity with the desire of the Charles L. Springer, and Colonel, and am, very respectfully,
William A. Lee,
Wm. C. Whittelsey,
John Young, and A detachment of 300 men of the United States
Charles M. Reese. army under the immediate command of Capt. Cumming,) attached to the regiment of Col. King,)
James R. Boyce. began a forced march this morning for Fort Hawkins. We understand this movement to be in con
AGRICULTURAL. sequence of an express received from Col. M‘Donald, of the 7th infantry, from the Creek agency, stating that the Upper Creeks and Simenoles had
Ertract of a Letter from Joshua Deluplane. formed a junction, and had already commenced The information you ask on the use of Plaister hostilities. Their purpose was to attack Col. || of Paris ; the best method of improving exhaustClinch, on the Chattohochee, and to murder and ed lands; the best mode of making manure, of depredate along the frontiers of Georgia. preserving stock throughout the winter, as well
We see no remedy for these evils, and the se. as the best ploughs, shall be carefully given ac, curity of the defenceless inhabitants of the west, cording to my experience. Your first inquiry re. but the utter extermination of these misled and || lates to the best mode of using plaister : I would savage marauders.
(Charleston Paper. Il recommend it in all cases to be scattered and har.
TO BE SURGEOXS.
TO BE SURGEONS MATE.
rowed in with the grain of all kinds ; this is more ten years ago would not produce more than ten absolutely necessary when the land is exhausted, bushels of corn per acre.' I ploughed it up and as it aids and nourishes the sprout immediately sowed it with rye and one bushel of plaister per on its coming up, when it stands most in need; acre; in February 1 sowed it with clover seed some roll their grain in plaister; my plan has and one bushet of plaister ; at harvest I cut 16 been, for one hand to sow the grain, while another bushels of rye per acre; the spring following ! follows to scatter the plaister, at the rate of one sowed it again with one bushel of plaister, and bushel to the acre ; where there are two or three | mowed that season two tons of hay to the acre, harrows it requires two hands, but with one har- and made 33 busbels of clover seed from the serow a single person is sufficient for both opera-cond crop ; the spring following 1 sowed it again, tions, as he would first sow the grain and then the with plaister as before, and cut that year two and plaister. On winter grain I would repeat another an half tons of hay-I then ploughed up the se. bushel per acre, the last of February or the first cond crop and sowed it with wheat, which proof March : this would not be necessary after the duced 21 bushels per acre. I then ploughed up first year, or after your lands were once plaister the wheat stubble and sowed with rye, which proed, then only sow plaister with the grain. 1 || duced me 25 and an half bushels per acre; the would recommend harrowing in every kind of spring following I gave it a dressing of manure, grain, and be sure to have your lands harrowed ploughied it up and planted it in corn, first roll. the first time, the way it was ploughed. This ing the seed in plaister, and when it got up about will level your ploughing, whereas if you harrow six inches high, I sowed it broadcast with plaiscross ways it turns up your furrows. It is not ne. ter at the rate of one bushel per acre, off of which cessary to put grain in deep, as a proof, put in I gathered 323 barrels of corn, (equal to 30 bushsome grain six inches deep, it will come up after els per acre) the next spring 1 sowed it with two or three weeks, examire and you will find spring barley, (oats would equally prosper) which the main root from which it took its growth gone, yielded 32 bushels per acre, which I sold in and new roots near the surface of the earth suc- | Georgetown at 1 dollar 50 cents per bushel; afceed-it only requires to be covered. Rye is the ter cutting the barley I ploughed down the stubbest crop to improve land and at the same time to ble and sowed it with wheat at the rate of one raise clover, clover seed ought to be sowed on and an half bushels per acre; and one bushel of the rye in February. Rye is the most valuable to plaister. This crop yielded me 33 and an half raise on exhausted land ; its growth is rapid in bushels per acre ; I then ploughed down my stub. the spring, secures the clover from the scorching ble and sowed down in rye, which I cut last sumsun, shades the earth, and acts, so as to nourish mer and is now in the straw, and from which I and replenish the land; it is the most certain think I shall get at least 30 bushels per acre ; I crop, and as it makes more straw than any other sowed it last February with clover seed and igrain, the farmer is enabled to make more and tend mowing it the ensuing season. I have made the best manure; by proper management this this statement to prove that the only sure mode grain can be used in every shape, by having it of improving land is by a regular routine of cropproperly ground and the best flour separated, it ping. You will observe I did not sow this field will make good bread, and the balance will make every year with plaister, nor is it necessary; lands good feed for any kind of stock. It is the best once well plaistered do not need it, as its virtue grain for work horses, and is valuable to fatten will not be lost in less than seven years; owing hogs, but upon this suggestion I expect a host of to the scarcity and high price of plaister, for the prejudices against me, experience however, has last two years I may say I have used none, and I taught me not to give way. For example, say do not believe I suffered for the want of it. Corn you have a pen of hogs with water running through cropping ought to be avoided as much as possible it, to which you give every day one barrel of upon exhausted lands, unless they become soddy, corn ; in this pen you will lose all the manure, as then they may be tended with advantage, both to it will be carried off by every rain ; you have an- the soil and cultivator. other pen upon dry land, well littered with long Plough up the sod completely in April, barrow rye straw; after every rain the logs will cut it it well the same way that it is plougued, then up short and make their beds neat, if you have not || furrow it quite shallow, barely to make a firstraw, leaves will be an excellent substitute; let row to plant your corn, be sure not to disturb the the number of hogs be equal in both pens; to bottom of your sod, when the corn gets up about those in the second pen feed only half a barrel of || six inches, harrow it well and plough quite shalcorn and two bushels of chopt rye; have two low;
; your corn will not look so promising at first, hogsheads near your pen, into which put every || until the roots penetrate the sod, it will then day the two bushels of chopt rye and have them grow rapidly and will not suffer froin drought; as filled up with water and stirred, let it stand twen- the sod if left down will retain its moisture : all ty-four hours before used, give this to the hog's the work given corn should be before harvest and instead of water; by having two hogsheads, by in no case should corn be followed with winter the time one is used the other will be fit; keep || grain ; if you can give your corn ground a dressup the hogs in both pens the same time, and when || ing of manure, I would sow it with oats, then killed you will find those in the dry pen will plough up the oats and sow wheat, plough down weigh ten per cent. heavier, and if I had my the stubble, then sow rye, then clover seed, let choice of the pork I should prefer it; besides the the clover remain two years, which would be makmanure will be valuable the ensuing year. You | ing four crops in six years. If you have not macan safely winter your sheep upon your rye fields nure to dress your corn ground, fallow it the next without the least injury to it and with the great- year for wheat, plough down the stubble, sow rye, est advantage to your sheep-1 generally let my then clover seed; be sure never to plough your sheep run on my rye fields until the last of March. stubble but once, leaving all covered you possibly I have a field which contains twenty acres, which I can, harrow in all your grain as I bave before ob
AGRICULTURAL AND COMMERCIAL.
served; when you plough down clover for wheat j clover seed per acre, which ought to be done on be sure to do it'as neatly as possible, the seed rye in February-one and a halt bushels of wheat, turned inder will lie the first year without sprout the last week in September or the first week in ing--this ought to be done between the middle of October-one bushel of rye the second or third August and September ; after harvest plough down' week in September-tuo bushels of barley or oats your wheat stubble, sow rye, and the clover seed as soon as the spring will adinit. I have been thus turned under the year before by being brought to full in giving my opinion; you can adopt as you the surf ce, will come up so thick as to need lit- may think adviseable; should any thing I have tle seed it any at all. In short when the ground said prove of advantage, I shall feel myself well is well set with clover you'll scarcely ever be rewarded. compelled to sow more seed; my plan has been to raise a crop of wheat and rye, then let it lie From the Richmoud Daily Cómpiler: one year in clover, then wheat and rye again, that is to make two crops every two years on the same tand, except when I put corn and manure, then I
Exports-of Staples. generally take four or five crops running before I Mr. Gallatin, while he was at the head of the give it rest—and would in no case advise land to Treasury, classed the erports of domestic growth, he in clover more than one or two years. The produce, and manufacture, into four divisionsbest mode of saving manure when it is scarce and 1št. The produce of the sea. can only be applied to the corn hill, is to keep it 20. The produce of the forest. in a close heap, to become well rotted; but if 3d. The produce of agriculture. you can save enough to give the ground a top- 4th. Manufactures, and those which are uncerdressing, I would prefer hauling it out in the raw tain. state, and let it pass through putrefaction where With the latter we have as yet nothing to do, it is to act; in this way your land will receive the as we have confined our views, for the present, to whole benefit; if it is left in the barn yard every the staple articles of the country; the products of rain will wash away the best of the substance. the soil, or the water.
I have for some years given my fields a top- Mr. Pitkin, in his “ statistical view of the com. dressing in the poorest places, whenever the merce of the United States of America, in con. grounds were sufficiently frozen to go on them nection with agriculture and manufactures," has without injury.
adopted the same analytical divisions; which are Manure may be called the farmers gold mine, useful, not only for the arrangement of our own and ought to be saved in every shape and manner. ideas, but as they give us a birds-eye view of the To increase the quantity, your stables should be various pursuits and callings of our fellow citizens. kept well littered with straw; to have stables for
1st. The Products of the Sea. your stock is equally important to preserve them At the very first mention of the name, we are during the winter and to accumulate manure ; with carried back to New-England. The sea is a sort such protection good hay will keep them in good of classic ground on which the fisherman of the order. A farmer should always proportion his north delights to rove. We feel at once that we stock to his means for substituting them, and ne. are descanting on one of the staples of the northver overstock himself as one horse well fed will ern States, do more work than two badly fed ; one cow well The principal products of the sea are drawn fed will give more inilk than two badly fed, and from the fisheries of the cod and the whole-the one good sheep more wool than two bad ones-In river fisheries, as those of the herring, the shad, fine, nothing which a farmer keeps upon his farm, the salmon, mackarel, &c. though very useful from his horse to his dog, should suffer for food || here and there, (as, for instance, the shad from to make his farm profitable he should make a lit- || the bosom of the James River,) are not large tle of every thing to sell; he should not fix his enough to enter into any general view of our commind upon one object of profit alone-Corn or hay | mercial exports. I would not attempt to make for sale upon ex- The Cod.fishery—from the very cradle, has been hausted lands; after they are restored you may of great interest to the supply of Massachusetts add the sale of corn and hay to a small extent. Á and New Hampshire. Situated more in the proxfariner should be certain to have his work done in || imity of the shoals of cod, which swarm along the a proper mariner, bis ploughing finished and grain | banks of Newfoundland, they have turned their sowed in due time and season. When a farmer ) attention to this source of subsistence and wealth gets his lands in proper cultivation he ouglit tol —the ship builder has been encouraged in his make 1000 bushels of grain to the hand, taking into | art; thousands of hardy seamen have been reared calculation every kind he raises; in harvest and in this nursery of his profession. hay making he will be compelled to hire hands to Mr. John Adams, whose heart, amidst all its save the crop. During the last seven years I have || foibles, has beat high for the interests and glory worked five hands the year round, and my crops (in- of his country, was so aware of the importance of cluding every kind of grain) have averaged five the cod-fishery, that he refused to sign the treaty thousand bushels ; this may be doubted; the rea- of '83 until the right was expressly reserved to der may judge as he pleases, but I am bound to the people of the United States “ to take fish of state the truth-our land holders who have most every kind, on the Grand Bank, and on all the other in their power trust too much to others, they | banks of Newfoundland ; also in the Gulph of St. should trust to their own judgment, and see that Lawrence, and at all other places in the sea, where their plans are properly executed. The best the inhabitants of both countries used at any time ploughs for land clear of stone are made by Che. to fish;” with the liberty, also, of fishing on such noweth of Baltimore, if the land is stoney and | part of the coast of Newfoundland, as British fish. rough I would recommend Ogle's. On lands that ermen used; and also on the coasts, bays, and have not been clovered I would sow one gallon of ll.creeks of all the other parts of the Britishi dominions, but not to dry or cure the fish on the island No particular reports, for the latter years, have of Newfoundland-nor on any of the bays or har- come down to us; but froin 1787 to 1789 ninetybours elsewhere, except so long as they remained one vessels, of 5,820 tons, were annually employed unsettled.
in the northern fishery, and 31 yessels, of 4,390 The cod-fishery did not thrive consideraly for tons, in the southern, with 1,611 seamen-most of several years—until a representation was made to them belonging to Nantucket, Boston, Dartmouth, Congress by the legislature of Massachusetts in and other ports of Massachusetts. "For many 1790, and a luminous report was penned by Mr. years past this fishery has been carried on from Jefferson, then secretary of state. A law was then Nantucket and from New Bedford, a large com. passed for giving a bounty on the exportation of mercial and flourishing town on the coast, in its salted fish, as a drawback of the duty imposed on neighbourliood, and has employed from 15 to 18 imported salt--which was followed up by a cer- thousand tons of shipping, principally in the south tain compensation to such vessels as were engaged ern Seas." for a certain number of months in the cod-fishery. The following is the value of spermaceti and
Massachusetts owns most of the vessels employ- common whale oil, whale bone, and spermaceti ed--though New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Con- candles, exported, for the years stated : viz. necticut, and New York, participate in the busi- 1803, S455,000; 1804, $380,000; 1805, $478,000; ness.
1806, S600,000; 1807, S506,000; 1808, $121,000; In the year 1807 was the greatest amount of || 1809, $ 305,000; 1810, $ 354,000; since which petonnage ever employed; being 70,306 tons; of | riod, the exports have been diminished. which 62,213 belonged to Massachusetts. The secretary of the treasury estimated the number of
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS. seamen, on an average of ten years, from 1791 to
i 1800, at 5,000, and the average tonnage at 33,000.
RICHMOND, Jan. 13, 1816. From 1801 to 1807 the ayerage of the tonnage
Doar Sir-Your late novel, hazardous, and pub, was about 44,000; of seamen, about 7,000. lic spirited undertaking of the descent of the
The value of the dried and the pickled fish ex. Roanoke, the passage of the Albemarle Sound, ported since 1802, is estimated, according to the the Dismal Swamp Canal, and finally reaching the treasury reports, as follows:
port of Norfolk in an open boat, has excited much Cod or dried fish. Pickled fish.
wonder and delight. 1803 $ 1,620,000
$ 560,000 Among the many important effects prochaced by 2,400,000
640,000 this bold experiment, that of removing the falla5 2,058,000
cious idea hitherto entertained, that no profitable 6 2,150,000
trade with those waters could be carried on with-
302,000 out the further aid of canals, is not the least.
98,000 An assurance on our part, that the commerce
282,000 and trade thus proposed, may be greatly facilitat10 913,000
ed by the useful hints which you can offer on the 11 757,000
best plan of conducting it, has induced the liberty 592,000
146,000 of troubling you on this subject. The fear of 13 210,000
81,000 omitting, in a detailed enquiry, something which 14 128,000
50,000 might be important to the attainment of the obThe principal markets for our fish have been joct of the company, impels us rather to ask of the West-Indies and the southern parts of Eu- you, sir, in a general way, all the important inrope--there is much demand in the latter, prin- formation relative to the Roanoke river, its capacipally on account of the lent days of the Roman bility of navigation, and the most eligible mode Catholic Church; a season when the use of flesh of transporting the marketable productions of the iš forbidden by the rituals of their religion. country watered by this river, and its tributary
Since the late war, instructions have been issued streams, to Norfolk. to deny us all the liburty, which had been reserved The earliest possible answer to this letter, withby the treaty of '83 of fishing and curing on the out neglecting your public engagements, will concoaşt-but still respecting our right of fishing in
fer a favor on your friends, the open sea.
M. COOKE, This is not the only case in which one is aston
MILES KING. ished at the perseverance of the eastern States in
Col. W. J. Lewis. refusing to support the interests of their own country (which were more emphatically their own
RICHMOND, Jan. 15, 1816. interests.) Nor is one at any loss to guess, that Gentlemen have received your polite, and I centuries will not elapse before the competition of may say, Aattering letter, in which you request interests, of trade and of the fisheries, will make me " to give a general description of Roanoke ri. Vew England a decided opponent of Old England. ver; its capability of navigation, and the most eli
The Whale fishery, says Mr. Pitkin, (from whose gible mode of transporting the marketable provaluable production most of these statements are ductions of this river, and its tributary streams to compiled) “first attracted the attention of the Norfolk." Americans in 1690, and originated at the island of The Roanoke heads in the Allegany mountains, Nantucket, in boats from the shore. In 1715 six opposite, and at a small distance from, Little ri. sloops, of 38 tons burden each, were employed in ver, a branch of the Great Kenhawa. It bears this fishery, from that Island. For many years the name of Roanoke until it descends through their adventures were confined to the American | the South Mountains, or Blue Ridge, when it ob. coast, but as whales grew scarce here, they were tains the name of Staunton The Upper Roanoke extended to the western islands, and to the Bra- | has a sufficient quantity of water for useful navi. zils, and at length to the North and South Seas.” Igation at all seasons with judicious management,
and within a few miles of the Allegany Mountains. || Great Falls? It would be but 8 miles, over a fine This part of the river, in low water, has a gentle soil for a good road, and the carriage of produce current, except on the shoals, which abound in by land at that place, would be little more than Upper Roanoke ; though none of them present the tollage on canal navigation, where the water any serious obstructions to improvement.
must be let down 100 feet by locks.-If trading From the Eastern side of the Blue Ridge to the houses were established at that place, and the pro. Seren Islands, near the mouth of the Great Falling duce of the upper country could be sold there at River, the Staunton presents a bolder aspect in a fair price, it would be immediately carried that the number and difficulty of its falls and shoals, || far, but no farther. The highland boats will not some of which, in low water, cannot now be pas- | navigate Lower Roanoke to the Sound, owing to sed by loaded boats with safety, and one is entirely the distance being too great for such unceasing impassable; but a small addition to the amount al bodily exertions—the sickliness of that climate, ready expended in its improvement, would render and an unskilfulness in propelling boats with oarsit perfectly safe at all times, whether the river tide if they were willing to extend their voyage, their was high or low.
boats are not of the proper structure; being open, The Staunton, after passing the Seven Islands, they would not, when loaded, live on rough water. having received a considerable accession of water. You have a more useful boat now navigating that from its northern and southern sides, becomes river from the foot of the Great Falls to Albedeeper, more gentle in its current, and has fewer marle Sound, and thence through the Dismal shpals -none, even at low water, to obstruct the Swamp Canal to Norfolk; their burthen is from passage of boats with five tons weight, to its junc- | 25 to 30 tons, which is all they can bear on the tion with Dan river. After the union of the Stawn- Canal in its present shape-But if that Canal was ton and Dan, the name “Roanoke” is resumed, deepened, their burthen might be doubled withand the connection produces one of the most beau- | out much increase of bulk, and still not draw too tiful and noble rivers on the east of the Allegany || great a depth of water for Lower Roanoke. Mountains, until it precipitates itself with awful It might here be observed, that Norfolk presents grandeur down the Great Falls into the plains be- to the high land agriculturist bordering on the low. Here its beauty and “the sound of its many | Roanoke and its tributary streams a brighter proswaters" are lost. It creeps on sluggishly in a nar-| pect for its marketable produce, than any searow, crooked channel, through cypress swamps, | port we have, or perhaps can have, on tide water. to the distance of 100 miles, where it suddenly | From Albemarle Sound there can be four great spreads itself again into a broad and beautiful river, avenues for transportation to Norfolk, besides the to meet the Chowan, forming together the head | great contemplated canal from the falls of Roan. of Albemarle Sound.
oke to Meherrin, Bennett's Creek, Lake Drum. This is but a general and imperfect description mond and the Dismal Swamp canal, which route of this beautiful river; from its source to its mouth, || does not touch the sound. being little short of 300 miles in length, and wa. First-A middle route up the Pasquotank, the tering with its tributary streams, at least fifteen Dismal Swamp canal, and down the Elizabeth millions of acres of as fertile land as any on the river, already in use. Second-from Albemarle Atlantic waters.
Sound, through Currituck Sound, the North River, The principal obstacle to the navigation of this and down Elizabeth river. On this route a canal river is the Great Falls in the state of North Caro- ll of only 8 miles in length* will have to be cut lina. They are 12 tniles from head to foot, and in between the navigable waters on each side, through that distance descend 100 feet, which is 8 feet 4 a fine plain, not exceeding four feet in its greatinches to the mile. On the south side of the river, l est elevation. Third from Albemarle Sound up the distance by land would be 8 miles, with a de. the Chowan River, Bennett's Creek, Lake Drumscent of 12 feet 6 inches per mile.
mond, and the Dismal Swamp canal. On this There are two or three ways of rendering the route only a short canal will be required in addifalls navigable ; by canals and locks, or by adher. ||tion to the present one. Fourth from the Chow. ing to the bed of the river.-Canals, when made, an, a communication may be had also with Nanseare preferable, because they can be navigated at || mond River, and thence to Norfolk. all times without danger or difficulty--but the ex- Where so many good communications are prepense of making canals in some places would be sented for selection, it is difficult for the mind to greater than what the tollage ought to justify; and give a preference; it must not confine itself to the i am led to believe that a canal round these falls || present state of the Roanoke and the Sound, nor would not, in many years, reimburse, by model that of the extensive country watered by their tri. rate tollage, the expense of constructing it.- The || butary streams; but it must look forward to that cheapest and most expeditious plan would be to || period, when the whole of these waters shall beadhere to the bed of the river, a considerable por- come navigable, and when that new spring to in. tion of which consisting of still sheets of water, or || dustry. shall excite in the human heart an addi. having a gentle current, is already navigable. tional thirst for gain, exhibited in a more general This mode would reduce the actual distance to be and ingenious cultivation of the soil, the manageimproved to only a small portion of the 12 miles.- ment of fisheries, of tar, of turpentine, and lumThe rapid part of the falls should have straight ber of all descriptions. Of these articles you export sluices for descending boats, and for those ascend from the Sound annually to the amount of 2,500,ing, diagonal sluices crossing from the bottom to 000 dollars; but what will be the exports when the top of the falls, which would lessen their de- | that fine country shall have arrived at its greatest clivity, and thereby greatly facilitate the passage population—when improvements in agriculture of ascending boats.
when the very hills and mountains shall be einAs an immediate trade down the Roanoke is so bowelled, and their metals and minerals are nuinmuch wished for by the high land people, why not, for the present, have a land carriage at the
From North Landing to Kempsville.