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[The friends of learning in the general assemblyhensive as we would wish.
are respectfully presented with an opportunity
of perusing the following most able and valua-
ble letter on the subject of education, proceed-
ing from the pen of Mr. Jefferson. It presents
in a commanding light the great objects in the
view of those citizens who have sought the es-
tablishment of a seminary of learning in the
county of Albemarle, under the denominationing
of the Central College. Would not the general
assembly consult the best interests of the peo-
ple, in giving efficient support to the plans of
public instruction so liberal and expanded, by
an immediate appropriation to that object of a
portion of the debt due to this State from the
United States]?—[ Kichmond Enquirer.

we be enabled to render it in the end as compre


It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life The mass of our citizens may be divided into two classes, the laboring and the learned. The laborwill need the first grade of education to qualify them for their pursuits and duties; the learn

ed will need it as a foundation for further ac

MONTICELLO, SEPT. 7, 1814. Peter Carr, President of the Board of Trustees.



quirements. A plan was formerly proposed to the legislature of this State, for laying off every county into hundreds or wards of 5 or 6 miles square, within each of which should be a school, for the education of the children of the ward, wherein they should receive three years instruction gratis, in reading, writing, arithmetic as far as fractions, the roots and rations, and geography. The legislature at one time tried an ineffecDEAR SIR,-On the subject of the academy or tual expedient for introducing this plan, which college proposed to be established in our neigh-having failed, it is hoped they will some day rebourhood, I promised the trustees that I would sume it in a more promising form. prepare for them a plan, adapted, in the first instance, to our slender funds, but susceptible of At the discharge of the pupils from the elemenbeing enlarged, either by their own growth, or tary schools, the two classes separate; those des by accession from other quarters. I have longtined for labor will engage in the business of agrientertained the hope that this, our native State, culture, or enter into apprenticeships to such would take up the subject of education, and make handicraft art as may be their choice; their coman establishment, either with or without incorpo- panions destined to the pursuits of science, will ration, into that of William and Mary, where proceed to the COLLEGE, which will consist, 1st, of every branch of science deemed useful at this day, GENERAL Schools, and 2d, of PROFESSIONAL Schools. should be taught in its highest degree. With this The GENERAL Schools will constitute the 2d GRADE view, I have lost no occasion of making myself ac- of education. quainted with the organization of the best seminaries in other countries, and with the opinions of the most enlightened individuals on the subject of the sciences, worthy of a place in such an institution. In order to prepare what I had promised our trustees, I have lately revised these several plans with attention, and I am struck with the diversity of arrangement observable in them, no two being alike. Yet have no doubt that these several arrangements have been the subject of mature reflection, by wise and learned men, who, contemplating local circumstances, have adapted them to the condition of the section of society for which they have been framed. I am strengthened in this conclusion by an examination of each separately, and a conviction that no one of them, if adopted without change, would be suited to the circumstances and pursuits of our country. The example they have set, then, is authority for us to select from their different institutions the materials which are good for us, and with them to erect a structure, whose arrangement shall correspond I. Language. II. Mathematics. III. Philosophy. with our own social condition, and shall admit of I. LANGUAGE. In the first department, I would enlargement in proportion to the encouragements arrange, as distinct sciences, 1. Languages & Hisit may merit and receive. As 1 may not be able tory, ancient and modern : 2. Grammar: 3. Belles to attend the meetings of the trustees, I will make Lettres: 4. Rhetoric and Oratory: 5. A school you the depository of my ideas on the subject, for the deaf, dumb and blind. History is here aswhich may be corrected as you proceed, by the sociated with Languages, not as a kindred subject, better views of others, and adapted, from time to but on a principle of economy, because both may time, to the prospects which open upon us, and be attained by the same course of reading, if which cannot now be specifically seen and provi-books are selected with that view. ded for.


The learned class may still be subdivided into two sections: 1. Those who are destined for learned professions, as a means of livelihood; and 2. The wealthy who, possessing independent fortunes, may aspire to share in conducting the affairs of the nation, or to live with usefulness and respect in the private ranks of life. Both of these sections will require instruction in all the higher branches of science, the wealthy to qualify them for either public or private life; the professional section will need these branches, especially, which are the basis of their future profession, and a ge neral knowledge of the others, as auxiliary to that, and necessary to their standing, and associating with the scientific class. All the branches then of useful science ought to be taught in the General Schools, to a competent extent, in the first intstance. These sciences may be arranged into three departments, not rigorously scientific indeed, but sufficiently so for our purpose. These


II. MATHEMATIcs. In the department of Mathe

In the first place, we must ascertain with preci-matics, I should place distinctly, 1. Mathematics sion the object of our institution, by taking a sur- pure: 2. Physico-Mathematics: 3. Physics: 4. vey of the general field of science, and making out Chemistry: 5. Natural History, to wit, Mineralothe portion we mean to occupy at first, and thegy: 6. Botany: and 7. Zoology: 8. Anatomy: 9, ultimate attention of our views beyond that, should the Theory of Medicine.


III. PHILOSOPHY. In the Philosophical depart- And to that of Technical Philosophy will come ment, I should distinguish, 1. Ideology: 2. Ethics: the mariner, carpenter, ship-wright, plough. 3. the law of Nature and Nations: 4. Government: wright, wheel wright, mill wright, pump maker, 5. Political Economy. But, some of these terms clock-maker, machinist, optician, metallurgist, being used by different writers, in different de-founder, cutler, druggist, brewer, vintner, distilgrees of extention, I will define exactly what I ler, dyer, painter, bleacher, soap-maker, tanner, mean to comprehend in each of them. powder-maker, salt-maker, glass maker, to learn as much as shall be necessary to pursue their art understandingly, of the sciences of geometry, mechanics, statistics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, hydro

I. 3. Within the term of Belles Lettres, I include Poetry and Composition generally, and Criticism.

II. 1. I consider Pure Mathematics as the sci-dynamics, navigation, astronomy, geography, opence of 1. Numbers, and 2. Measure in the ab- tics, pneumatics, accoustics, physics, chemistry, stract: that of Numbers compehending Arithme-natural history, botany, mineralogy, and pharmacy. tic, Algebra and Fluxions; that of Measure, (un- The school of Technical Philosophy will differ der the general appellation of Geometry,) com- essentially in its functions from the other profesprehending Trigonometry, plane and spherical,sional schools. The others are instituted to ramify Conic sections, and transcendental curves. and dilate the particular sciences taught in the II. 2. PHYSICO MATHEMATICS treat of Physical schools of the 2d grade on a general scale only. subjects by the aid of Mathematical calculation. The Technical school is to abridge those which These are Mechanics, Statistics, Hydrostatics, Hy-were taught there too much in ixtenso for the lidraulics, Hydrodynamics, Navigation, Astronomy,mited wants of the artificer or practical man. These Geography, Optics, Pneumatics, Acoustics. artificers must be grouped together, according to the particular branch of science in which they need elementary and practical instruction, and a special lecture or lectures should be prepared for each group-and these lectures should be given in the evening, so as not to interrupt the labors of the day. This school particularly should be maintained wholly at the public expense, on the same principles with that of the ward schools. Through the whole of the Collegiate course, at the hours of recreation on certain days, all the students should be taught the manuel exercise, military evolutions and manœuvres, should be under a

H. 3. PHYSICS OR NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, [not entering the limits of Chemistry,] treat of natural substances, their properties mutual relations, and action. They particularly examine the subjects of motion, attraction, magnetism, electricity, galvanism, light, meteorology, with an &c. not easily enumerated. These definitions and specifications render immaterial the question whether I use the generic terms in the exact degree of comprehension in which others use them; to be understood is all that is necessary to the present object.


A tabular statement of this distribution of the sciences will place the system of instruction more particularly in view:


At the close of this course, the Students sepa-standing organization as a military corps and with rate, the wealthy retiring, with a sufficient stock proper officers to train and command them. of knowledge, to improve themselves to any degree to which their views may lead them, and the professional section to the PROFSSIONAL Schools, constituting the III GRADE of education, and teaching the particular sciences which the individuals of this section mean to pursue, with more minuteness and detail than was within the scope of the general school for the 2d grade of instruction. In these PROFESSIONAL, Schools, each science is to be taught in the highest degree it has yet attained. They are to be in the

1. Or Elementary Grade in the Ward Schools.
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography.
II. Or General Grade.

1. Language and History, ancient and modern.
2, Mathematics, viz.
Mathematics pure.

1st. Department, the Fine arts, to wit. Civil Architecture, Gardening, Painting, Sculpture, and the theory of Music. In the

2d. Department, Architecture, Military and Naval Projectiles, Rural Economy (comprehending Agriculture, Horticulture, and Veterinary.] Technical Philosophy,the practice of Medicine,Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Surgery. In the

3d. Department, Theology and Ecclesiastical History, Law, Municipal and Foreign.

To these professional schools will come those who separated at the close of their 1st Elementary course, to wit:

[blocks in formation]


Theory of Medicine,

3. Philosophy, viz.


Law of Nature and Nations.
Political Economy.

III. Or Professional Grade.
Theology and Ecclesiastical History.
Law, Municipal and Foreign.
Practice of Medicine.

Materia Medica and Pharmacy.

Architecture, Military and Naval, and Pro


Technical Philosophy.

Rural Economy.

Fine Arts.

On this survey of the field of science, I recur to the question what portion of it do we mark out

for the occupation of our institution? With the
first grade of education we shall have nothing to
do. The sciences of the second grade are our
first object; and to adapt them to our slender be-
ginnings, we must separate them into groups, com-
prehending many sciences each, and greatly more
in the first instance, than ought to be imposed on,
or can be competently conducted by a single pro-
fessor permanently. They must be subdivided
from time to time, as our means increase, until
each professor shall have no more under his care
than he can attend to with advantage to his pu-
pils and ease to himself. In the further advance
of our resources, the professional schools must be
introduced and professorships established for them
also. For the present, we may group the sciences
into professorships, as follows-subject, however,
to be changed according to the qualifications of
the persons we may be able to engage.
I-Professorship-Language and History, (an-
cient and modern,) Belles Lettres, Rhetoric and



ny, Mineralogy.

that this premature discovery will entirely obliterate all the manners and customs of this people. They will now be made acquainted with the manners of European civilized life. A hogshead of spirituous liquor will introduce amongst this people the germ of that depravity which characterizes the refinements of vice, in what is [falsely] called civilized society. Paternal and filial affection will be

weakened-husbands and wives will lose their fidelity-chastity its charms-industry its serenity honesty its proud and open independence, and religion its sincerity.

II.-Professorship-Mathematics pure, Mathematics, Physics, Anatomy, Medicine, Theo

It is well known that in the year 1789, his majesty's armed vessel the Bounty, while employed in conveying the bread-fruit tree from Otaheite to the British colonies in the West-Indies, was taken from her commander, Lieutenant William Bligh, by a part of the crew, who, headed by Fletcher Physico-Christian, a master's mate, mutinied off the Island of Tofoa, put the lieutenant, with the remainder of the crew, consisting of eighteen persons, into the launch, which after a passage of 1200 leagues providentially arrived at a Dutch settlement of the island of Timor. The mutineers, twenty-five in number, were supposed, from some expressions which escaped them when the launch was turned adrift, to have made sail towards Otaheite. As soon as this circumstance was made known to the Admiralty, Captain Edwards was ordered to pro

III.-Professorship-Chemistry, Zoology, Bota




The organization of the branch of the Institution which respects its government, police, and economy, depending on principles which have no affinity with those of its instruction, may be the subject of separate and subsequent consideration. With this tribute of duty to the Board of Trus-ceed in the Pandora to that island, and endeavor tees, accept the assurance of my great esteem and to discover and bring to England the Bounty, with such of the crew as he might be able to seconsideration. cure. On his arrival in March 1791, at Matavai Bay, in Otaheite, four of the mutineers came voluntarily on board the Pandora to surrender themselves ;a and from information given them ten We republish the following interesting narraothers,b (the whole number alive upon the island) tiye from the English Quarterly Review, and at were in the course of a few days taken; and, with the same time, we cannot but express our regret the exception of four, who perished in the wreck of the Pandora near Endeavor Strait,c conveyed to that these interesting strangers have come in conEngland for trial before a court-martial, which tact with civilized depravity. It would have pre-adjudged six of them to suffer death,d and acquitsented a curious subject of speculation to philoso-ted the other four.e From the accounts given by these men, as well phy, a century hence, to ascertain what would have been the modes of dress; what the code as from documents that were preserved, it appeared that as soon as Lieut. Bligh had been driven of crimes; what their religious rites; what the from the ship, the twenty-five mutineers proceedcustoms; what the manners; what the laws; whated with her to Toobouai, where they proposed to the mode of acquiring, of preserving and trans- settle; but the place being found to hold out little mitting property; what the circulating medium; encouragement, they returned to Otaheite, and what the amusements, and, in short, what would having there laid in a large supply of stock, they once more took their departure for Toobouai have been all the relations of social life in a peo-carrying with them eight men, nine women, and seven boys, natives of Otaheite. They commencple who had no intercourse with the civilized world. Such a state of existence has only hith-ed, on their second arrival, the building of a forte, but by divisions among themselves, and erto existed in the dreams of the Poet, and the reveries of the Philosopher. It would have put the reality of such speculations to the severities of experience. It would have thrown light upon speculations founded on the supposed primeval state of man, previous to any recognized system of government. In short, it may well be doubted | whether there is another people on the face of the earth, in the precise state of circumstances with those interesting strangers. But we can conceive

a Namely-Peter Heywood, midshipman; George Stewart, do.; Joseph Coleman, armourer; Richard Skinner, seaman.

b Namely-James Morrison, boatswain's mate; Charles Norman, carpenter's mate; Thomas M'Intosh, carpenter's crew; Thomas

on, Henry Hilbraut, Thomas Burkitt, John Millward, John Summer, Wm. Muspratt, and Michael Byrn, seamen.

e Drowned-George Stewart, Richard Skinner, Henry Hilbraut, John Summer.

Namely-Peter Heywood, James Morrison, Thomas Ellison, Thomas Burkitt, John Millward, William Muspratt

To the two first of these, his majesty's royal pardon was extended, at the earnest recommendation of the Court, and the last was respited, and afterwards pardoned.


e Namely-Charles Norman, Joseph Colman, Thomas M'Intosh, Michael Byrn.

quarrels among the natives, the design was aban- and informed me that they were, born on the doned. Christian, the leader, also very soon dis-island; and that their father was an Englishman, covered, that his authority over his accomplices who had sailed with Captain Bligh was at an end, he therefore proposed that they should return to Otaheite; that as many as chose it should be put on shore at that place, and that the rest should proceed in the ship to any other place they might think proper. Accordingly, they once more put to sea, and reached Matavai on the 20th September, 1789.

After discoursing with them a short time, I landed with them, and found an Englishman of the name of Alexander Smith, who informed me that he was one of the Bounty's crew, and that after putting Captain Bligh in the boat, with half the ship's company, they returned to Otaheite, where part of the crew.chose to tarry; but Mr. Christian with eight others, including himself, preferred

Here sixteen of the five and twenty desired to be landed-fourteen of whom, as already men-going to a more remote place: and after making tioned, were taken on board of the Pandora-of a short stay at Otaheite, where they took wives the other two, as reported by Coleman, the first and six men servants, proceeded to Pitcairn's who surrendered himself to captain Edwards, one island, where they destroyed the ship, after taking had been made a chief, killed his companion, and every thing out of her which they thought would was shortly afterwards murdered himself by the be useful to them. About six years after they natives. landed at this place, their servants attacked and killed all the English, excepting the informant, and he was severely wounded. The same night the Otaheitan widows arose and murdered all their countrymen, leaving Smith with the widows and children, where he has resided ever since without being resisted.

"I remained but a short time on the island, and on leaving it, Smith presented me a time-piece, and an azimuth compass, which he told me be longed to the Bounty. The time-keeper was taheken from me by the governor of the island of Juan Fernandez, after I had had it in my possession about six weeks. The compass I put in repair on board of my ship, and made use of it on my homeward passage, since which a new card has been put to it by an instrument maker in Boston. Inow forward it to your Lordships, thinking there will be a kind of satisfaction in receiving it, merely from the extraordinary circumstances attending it. Signed MAYHEW FOLGER." Nearly about the same time, a further account of these interesting people was received from Vice Admiral Dixon, in a letter addressed to him by Sir Thomas Staines, of his Majesty's ship Briton, of which the following is a copy:

"BRITON, VALPARAISO, 18th Oct. 1814.

Christian, with the remaining eight of the mutineers, having taken on board several of the natives of Otaheite, the greater part women, put to sea on the night between the 21st and 22d September, 1789. In the morning the ship was discovered from Point Venus, steering in a north westerly direction; and here terminate the accounts given by the mutineers who were either taken or surrendered themselves at Matavai Bay They stated, however, that Christian, on the night of his departure, was heard to declare that should seek for some uninhabited island, and having established his party, break up the ship; but all endeavors of Captain Edwards to gain intelligence either of the ship or her crew at any of the numerous islands visited by the Pandora, failed.

From this period, no information respecting Christian or his companions, reached England for twenty years; when about the beginning of the year 1809, Sir Sidney Smith, then commander in chief on the Brazil station, transmitted to the Admiralty a paper which he had received from Lieut. Fitzmaurice, purporting to be an extract from the log-book of Captain Folger, of the American ship Topaz, dated "Valparaiso, 10th October, 1808" This we partly verified in our Review of Dentre. casteaux's Voyage, by ascertaining that the Bounty had on board a chronometer made by Kendal, and that there was on board a man of the name of Alexander Smith, a native of London.

About the commencement of the present year, Rear-Admiral Hotham, when cruizing off NewLondon, received a letter addressed to the Lords of the Admiralty, of which the following is a copy, together with the azimuth compass to which it refers:

"NANTUCKET, 1st March, 1813.

"My Lords,

"The remarkable circumstance which took place on my last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, will, I trust, plead my apology for addressing your Lordships at this time. In February 1808, I touched at Pitcairn's Island, in latitude 25, 02, S. longitude 130, W. from Greenwich. My principal object was to procure Seal Skins for the China market; and from the account given of the island, in Captain Carteret's voyage, I supposed it was uninhabited; but on approaching the shore in my boat, I was met by three young men in a double canoe with a present, consisting of some fruit and a hog. They spoke to me in the English language,

* Churchill and Thompson


"I have the honor to inform you that on my passage from the Marqueasas Islands to this port, on the morning of the 17th September, I fell in with an island where none is laid down in the Ad

miralty or other charts, according to the several chronometers of the Briton and Tagus. I therefore hove to, until day-light, and then closed to ascertain whether it was inhabited, which I soon discovered it to be, and to my great astonishment found that every individual on the island, forty in number, spoke very good English. They prove to be the descendants of the deluded crew of the above mentioned island, where the ship was burnt. Bounty, which from Otaheite proceeded to the

"Christian appeared to have been the leader and sole cause of the mutiny in that ship. A vesurviving Englishman of those who last quitted nerable old man, named John Adams, is the only Otaheite in her, and whose exemplary conduct and fatherly care of the whole of the little colony, manner in which all those born on the island have could not but command admiration. The pious been reared, the correct sense of religion which have been instilled in their young minds by this old

There was no such name in the Bounty's crew; he must have assumed it in lieu of his real name, Alexander Smith.

man, has given him the pre-eminence over the | says Captain Pipon, "we were glad to trace in his whole of them, to whom they look up as the fa- benevolent countenance all the features of an hother of the whole, and one family. nest English face." "I must confess," he continues, "I could not survey this interesting person without feelings of tenderness and compassion," His companion was named George Young, a fine youth of 17 or 18 years of age.

"A son of Christian's was the first born on the island, now about twenty-five years of age, (named Thursday October Christian) the elder Christian fell a sacrifice to the jealousy of an Otaheitean man, within three or four years after their arrival on the island. They were accompanied thither by six Otaheitean men, and twelve women: the former were all swept away by desperate contentions between them and the Englishmen, and five of the latter have died at different periods, leaving at present only one man and seven women of the original settlers.

If the astonishment of the captains was great on hearing their first salutation in English, their surprise and interest were not a little increased on Sir Thomas Staines taken the youths below and setting before them something to eat, when one of them rose up and placing his hands in a pos ture of devotion, distinctly repeated, and in a pleasing tone and manner, For what we are go

The island must undoubtedly be that calleding Pitcairn's, although erroneously laid down in the charts. We had the meridian sun close to it, which gave us 25, 7, S. latitude, and 130, 25, W. longitude, by chronometers of the Briton and Tagus.

to receive, the Lord make us truly thankful.” They expressed great surprise on seeing a cow on board the Briton, and were in doubt whether she was a great goat, or a horned sow.

"It is abundant in yams, plantains, hogs, goats, and fowls, but afford no shelter for a ship or vessel of any description; neither could a ship ter there without great difficulty.

The two captains of his Majesty's ships accom. pained these young men on shore. With some difficulty and a good wetting, and with the assistance of their conductors, they accomplished a wa-landing through the surf, and were soon after met by John Adams, a man between fifty and sixty years of age, who conducted them to his house. His wife accompained him, a very old lady, blind with age. He was at first alarmed lest the visit was to apprehend him; but on being told that they were perfectly ignorant of his existence, he was relieved from his anxiety. Being once assur

"I cannot, however, refrain from offering my opinion, that it is well worthy the attention of our laudable religious societies, particularly that for propagating the Christian Religion, the whole of the inhabitants speaking the Otaheitean tongue as well as English. "During the whole of the time they have beened that this visit was of a peaceable nature, it is on the island, only one ship has ever communica-impossible to describe the joy these poor people ted with them, which took place about six years manifested on seeing those whom they were pleas since by an American ship called the Topaz, ofed to consider as their countrymen. Yams, coBoston, Mayhew Folger, master. coanuts, and other fruits, with fine fresh eggs, were laid before them; and the old man would have killed and dressed a hog for his visitors, but time would not allow them to partake of his intended feast.

"The island is completely iron-bound, with rocky shores, and landing in boats at all times difficult, although safe to approach within a short distance in a ship. "T. STAINES."



This interesting new colony, it seemed, now conWe have been favored with some further parti-sisted of about forty-six persons, mostly grown up culars on this singular society, which, we doubt young people, besides a number of infants. The not, will interest our readers as much as they have young men, all born on the island, were very athourselves. As the real position of the island was letic, and of the finest forms, their countenances ascertained to be so far distant from that in which open and pleasing, indicating much benevolence it is usually laid down in the charts, and as the and goodness of heart: but the young women are captains of the Briton and the Tagus seem to objects of particular admiration-tall, robust, and have still considered it as uninhabited, they were beautifully formed, their faces beaming with smiles not a little surprised, on approaching its shores, and unruffled good-humour, but wearing a degree to behold plantations regularly laid out, and huts of modesty and bashfulness that would do honour and houses more neatly constructed than those on to the most virtuous nation on earth: their teeth, the Marquesas islands. When about two miles like ivory, were regular and beautiful, without a from the above, some natives were observed bring- single exception; and all of them, both male and ing down their canoes on their shoulders, dashing || female, had the most marked English features. The through a heavy surf, and paddling off to the clothing of the young females consisted of a piece ships; but their astonishment was unbounded on of linen reaching from the waist to the knees, and hearing one of them, on approaching the ship, generally a sort of mantle thrown loosely over the call out in the English language-Won't you shoulders, and hanging as low as the ancles: but heave us a rope?" this covering appeared to be intended chiefly as a protection against the sun and the weather, as it was frequently laid aside-and then the upper part of the body was entirely exposed, and it is not possible to conceive more beautiful forms than they exhibited. They sometimes wreath caps or bonnets for the head in the most tasty manner, to protect the face from the rays of the sun; and though, as Capt. Pipon observes, they have only had the instruction of their Otaheitean mothers, "our dress-makers in London would be delighted with the simplicity, and yet elegant taste, of these untaught females."


The first man who got on board the Briton soon proved who they were. His name, he said, was Thursday October Christian, the first born on the island. He was then about five and twenty years age, and is described as a fine young man about six feet high; his hair deep black; his countenance open and interesting; of a brownish cast, but free from that mixture of a reddish tint which prevails on the Pacific Islands; his dress was a piece of cloth round his loins, and a straw hat ornamented with the black feathers of the domestic fowl. "With a great share of good humour,"

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