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informed whether the bug is their original form || thrown to the ground by great rains and other
inclemency of the weather, and thoroughly soaked with wet, they crept along in quest of holes We received the above communication from a in the earth, dung, and straw; where, being shelcorrespondent at Northumberland C. H. but not tered from the rains, they laid a vast number of being acquainted with the natural history of this eggs, which stuck together by a viscid juice, and famous insect ourselves, we extract the following were longer and smaller than what is commonly account of them from Rees's Cyclopædia, which called an ant's egg, or very like grains of oats. may be found under the word Gryllus. As many The females, having laid their eggs, die, like the of our readers may not have an opportunity to silk-worm. When they entered the fields of examine that work, this extract, we hope, in the Transylvania, they did not seem to intend represent dearth of news will not be unacceptable. maining there, but were thrown to the ground by "The migratory locust is a native of Tartary, the force of the wind, and there laid their eggs, from the eastern parts of which it sometimes a vast number of which being turned up and emigrates over the adjacent countries in such im- crushed by the plough in the beginning of the mense legions, as to occasion the most incredible ensuing spring, yielded a yellowish juice. In the mischief. These hosts of depredators are often- spring of 1748, certain little blackish worms were times so numerous as to darken the air at noon- seen lying in the fields, and among the bushes, day in their flights. Wherever they settle, the sticking together and collected in clusters, not most fertile regions are, in a few days, rendered unlike the hillocks of moles or ants. As nobody desolate; and the very putrefaction arising from knew what they were, so there was little or no the number of their dead becomes the source of notice taken of them, and in May they were copestilence to man and animals. It is seldom, ex- vered by the shooting of the corn sown in winter; cept in eastern countries, that these calamities but the subsequent June discovered what these are experienced to such a dreadful extent, though worms were; for then, as the corn sown in spring they sometimes are, as the visitation of the locust was pretty high, these creatures began to spread in Europe, about the middle of the eighteenth over the fields, and became destructive to the century, very clearly proves. The ravages com- vegetables by their numbers. Then, at length, mitted by locusts in the south of Europe, about the country people, who had slighted the warnthe period last mentioned, are described at greating given to them, began to repent of their negli length by Roesel, from which the more material gence; for as these insects were now dispersed part of the curious information on that subject, all over the fields, they could not be extirpated detailed in the 46th volume of the Transactions without injuring the corn. At that time they dif of the Royal Society, seems to be selected. This fered very little from our common grasshoppers, account relates to the myriads of locusts that having their heads, sides, and back of a dark overran Walachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, Hun- colour, with a yellow belly, and the rest of a gary and Poland, in 1747 and 1748, and which, reddish hue. About the middle of June they being recorded by an eye witness of unquestiona- were generally a finger's length; but their shape ble accuracy, explains the history of that destruc- and colour continued as before. Towards the tive creature in a satisfactory manner: the follow-end of June they cast off their outward covering, ing is the substance of the observations alluded and then it plainly appeared they had wings, but as yet unripe and unexpanded, the body being "The first swarms of the locusts entered Tran- also tender and of a yellowish green; then, in sylvania in August, 1747: these were succeeded order to render themselves fit for flying, they by others, which were so surprisingly numerous, gradually unfolded their wings with their hinder that when they reached the fortification called the feet, and as soon as any of them found themRed Tower they were full four hours in their selves able to use their wings, they soared up, and passage over that place; and they flew so close, by flying round the others, enticed them to do that they made a sort of noise in the air by the the same; and thus their numbers increased daily : beating of their wings against one another. The they took flights in a circular manner, of twenty width of the swarm was some hundreds of fathoms, or thirty yards square, until they were joined by and its height or density so considerable as to the rest; and after miserably laying waste their hide the sun, and darken the sky to that de-native fields, they proceeded elsewhere in large gree, when they flew low, that people could not troops. Wherever these bodies of locusts hapknow one another at the distance of twenty paces. pened to pitch they spared no sort of vegetables; Arriving at the river that runs through the vallies they eat up the young corn, and the very grass: of the Red Tower, they could neither find resting but nothing was more dismal than to behold the place nor food, and being at length tired of their lands in which they were hatched; for they so Hight, one part of them settled on the unripe greedily devoured every trace of herbage before corn on the hither side of the Red Tower, such they could fly, that they left the ground quite as the millet and Turkish wheat, &c. and the bare. other pitched on a low wood, where, having miserably wasted the produce of the land, they continued their journey, as if a signal had actually been given for a march.
"The guards of the Red Tower attempted to stop their irruption into Transylvania, by firing at them; and, indeed, where the balls and shot swept through the swarm they gave way and divided; but having filled up their ranks in a moment, they proceeded on their journey. In the month of September some troops of them were
"The devastations of locusts in various parts of the world, at different periods, are recorded by many writers, some examples of which are very remarkable. Thus in the year 593 of the Christian era, after a great drought, these animals appeared in such vast legions as to cause a famine in many countries. In 677 Syria and Mesopotamia were overrun by them. In 852 immense swarms took their flight from the eastern regions into the west, flying with such a sound that they might have been mistaken for birds; they destroyed all
vegetables, not sparing even the bark of trees || the most honorable character, composed of the and the thatch of houses; and devouring the corn highest grade of officers in the navy; their imso rapidly as to destroy, on computation, a hun-partiality, candor and deliberate decision, have dred and forty acres in a day; their daily marches sanctioned the correctness of the charges against or distances of flight, were computed at twenty you, so far as the intention of violating the law; miles; and these were regulated by leaders or and for this offence, highly derogatory in its nakings, who flew first, and settled on the spot which ture to the reputation of our navy, they have prowas to be visited at the same hour the next day |nounced the mild sentence of an official reprimand by the whole legion: the marches were always un- from the Secretary of the Navy, as the organ of dertaken at sun-rise. These locusts were at length the President of the United States. driven by the force of the winds into the Belgic ocean, and being thrown back by the tide and left on the shore, caused a dreadful pestilence by their smell. In 1271 all the corn fields of Milan were destroyed; and in 1339 all those of Lombardy. In 1541 incredible hosts afflicted Poland, Walachia, and all the adjoining territories, darkening the sun with their numbers, and spreading desolation throughout the land."
It is my incumbent duty to censure your conduct, in the transaction alluded to, and to warn you against a recurrence to any similar attempt, by which you will forfeit the commission you hold, and be at the same time, publicly degraded. You will now consider yourself subject to the orders of this department for duty; and, I trust, in the future exercise of your prudence and discretion, you may avoid reproach, and merit the approba tion of your government.
A naval court-martial, consisting of five post-article inserted in your paper from the National You are requested to correct an error in the captains, was recently held, by order of the Secre- Intelligencer, of June 5. The trial of Mr. Thorn tary of the Navy, at this port, on board the United States ship Franklin, for the trial of Herman Thorn, took place, not on the complaint of Com. Decatur, Esq. a purser in the navy, upon a complaint by tations. It occurred too during the absence of but at his own request, and after repeated solici Commodore Stephen Decatur, the commander of the United States late squadron in the Mediterra- Captain Gordon, his commander, in the Mediternean, "for violating the 23d article of the act of ranean, and most of those whose evidence could Congress, entitled, "An act for the better govern could be brought to bear against his character was have exculpated him, while all the testimony that ment of the navy of the United States, passed 23d April, 1800;" which article is in the following to the reprimand of the Hon, the Secretary of the admitted: The weight that ought to be attached Navy, (independently of the respect due his informity to a decision in which Mr. Thorn is found dividual worth) will be determined by its conspecifically guiltless of any conduct unbecoming an officer, while he is simply found to have attempted a sale, which was proved, on the trial, to have been done without any improper design, and which he never denied.
"If any commander, or other officer, shall receive, or permit to be received on board his vessel, any goods or merchandize, other than for the sole use of his vessel, except gold, silver, or jewels, and except the goods or merchandize of vessels which may be in distress or ship-wrecked, or in imminent danger of being ship-wrecked, in order to preserve them for their owner, without orders from the President of the United States, or the Navy Department, he shall, on conviction thereof, be cashiered, and be incapacitated forever afterwards, for any place or office in the Navy."
Upon which the court pronounced the said purser Thorn "not guilty of selling, and guilty of attempting to sell, and of authorising to be sold," and sentenced the accused to be reprimanded by the Secretary of the Navy."
The sentence of the court, after mature considesation, having been regularly approved, the following letter of reprimand was addressed to the said Herman Thorn:
B. W. CROWINSHIELD. To the Editor of the New-York Evening Post. Sin,
NAVY DEPARTMENT, MAY 9, 1816. Herman Thorn, Esq.
Purser U. S. Navy, New-York.
Second regiment of infantry.-Captain Van Beuren; 1st Lieutenant Nourse.
In the course of my official functions, unpleasant duties inevitably occur. Among these, is the task of reprimanding officers of the United States Navy for misconduct, and carrying into execu-Sangster, tion the decisions of courts martial, affecting the character of officers, who, by their grade and responsible stations, ought to be peculiarly exempt from charges of violating the establislied rules and regulations of the naval service, enacted by the high authority of our national legislature. The court lately convened for your trial was of||
Third regiment of infantry.-Major Gardner; Captains Stockton and M'Donald.
Fourth regiment of infantry.-Captains Barnard, Madison; 1st Lieutenant Belton; 2d Lieutenants Lissenhoff and Wright.
Fifth regiment of infantry.-2d Lieutenants Keeler, Craig, Blake.
Sixth regiment of infantry.—Major Wool; and 1st Lieutenant Tappan.
Seventh regiment of infantry.-2d Lieutenant Bridges.
Captain Brooks, of the corps of artillery, is transferred to the light artillery.
First lieutenant N. Clark, of the corps of artillery, is transferred to the light artillery.
First lieutenant H. Saunders, of the first infantry, is transferred to the light artillery.
Captain Stockton, of the sixth infantry, is transferred to the corps of artillery.
First lieutenant Ross, of light artillery, is transferred to the first infantry.
Second lieutenant S. Keeler, jun, of the third, is transferred to the sixth infantry.
First lieutenant King, of the corps of artillery, is transferred to the eighth infantry.
Second lieutenant Eneas M'Kay, of the ordnance, is transferred to the corps of artillery, to rank March 12, 1813.
First lieutenant Whistler, of the first, is transferred to the eighth infantry.
First lieutenant Clark, of the fifth, is tranferred to the sixth infantry.
First lieutenant M'Kenzie, of the fourth, is transferred to the corps of artillery.
First lieutenant Frazer, of the eighth, is transferred to the corps of artillery.
Second lieutenant Hindman, of the first, is transferred to the eighth infantry.
Second lieutenant Cobbs, of the eighth, is transferred to the first infantry.
Second lieutenant Hyde, of the first, is transferred to the eighth infantry.
Second lieutenant Rogers, of the eighth, is transferred to the first infantry.
First lieutenant Mountjoy, of the third, is transferred to the eighth infantry.
First lieutenant Culbertson, of the eighth, is transferred to the third infantry.
The president of the United States has directed the following selection of officers to fill vacancies, and to complete, as far as practicable, the organization of the army of the peace establishment.
For the General Staff.
Maj. J. N. Barker, assist. adjt. gen. 8th April, 1814; Maj. G. H. Manigault, assist. inspect. gen. 9th Sept. 1814.
For the Regiment of Light Artillery.
First Lieutenant.-John A. Shaw, 21st Feb. 1814.
Captains.-B. D. Herriot, 31st Dec. 1813; Matt.
Post Surgeons.-S. Walsh, 9th August, 1813; German Senter, 9th July, 1814.
H. S. Mate.-B. Delevan, 15th April, 1814.
For the Ordnance Department.
First Lieutenants.-Jos. S. Nelson, 30th April, 1813, capt. brevet, 30th April, 1813; William S. Radcliff, 3d August, 1813, capt. brevet, 3d August, 1813; William Anderson, 1st Oct. 1814.
Third Lieutenant.-Charles Ward, 17th May,
First Lieutenants.-Samuel Armstrong, 9th of March, 1814; Robert M'Clelland, 1st May, 1814; W. L. Robeson, 2d May, 1814.
Second Lieutenants.-George D. Snyder, 1st Sept. 1812; 1st lieut. brevet, 25th June, 1814; William Coffie, 13th March, 1813; 1st lieut. brevet, 21st Sept. 1814; Thomas W. Denton, 13th May, 1813; 1st lieut. brevet, 30th June, 1814; Joseph Taylor, 1st August, 1813; 1st lieut. brevet, 15th July, 1814.
Second Lieutenants.-John W. Thompson, 6th
Second Lieutenants.-John Mitchell, 16th Nov. 1813; Erastus Roberts, 2d June, 1814; Hugh K. Meade, 16th Sept. 1814; H. M. Simons, 16th Sept 1814.
Third Lieutenants.-Jesse M'Ilvaine, 15th June, 1814, P. Dearing, 12th Dec. 1814.
For the first Regiment of Infantry. Captain.-Joseph J. Miles, 11th March, 1814. First Lieutenants.-Wm. C. Beard, 27th Sept. 1812; capt. brevet, 20th August, 1814; William Sumpter, 27th May, 1813.
Second Lieutenants.-James Smith, 19th Nov. 1812; 1st lieut. brevet, 15th April, 1814; W. K. Pulling, 20th June, 1814.
Surgeon.-B. F. Harney, 17th Aug. 1814. For the second Regiment of Infantry Captain.-George G. Steele, 6th July, 1812, Major brevet, 4th Sept. 1814.
First Lieutenant.-James Bailey, 3d Jan. 1812, capt. brevet, 27th March, 1814.
For the third Regiment of Infantry. Major.-Z. Taylor, 15th May, 1814, brevet, 5th Sept. 1812.
Captains.-Benjamin Desha, 17th March, 1814; George Gray, 17th Sept. 1814. Second Lieutenant.-Andrew Lewis, 2d May, 1814.
For the fourth Regiment of Infantry. Captains.-J. N. M'Intosh, 1st May, 1811; C. Crawford, 6th July, 1812; George W. Melvin, 24th Aug. 1812.
First Lieutenants.-Thomas Kearney, 6th July, 1812, capt. brevet, 13th May, 1813; Lewis Yancey, 24th March, 1814.
Second Lieutenants.-Geo. B. M'Claskey, 1st May, 1814; John L. Elbert, 18th July, 1814. For the fifth Regiment of Infantry.
First Lieutenants.-Wm. B. Adams, 6th July, 1812, capt. brevet, 13th May, 1813.
Second Lieutenants.-Robert A. M'Cabe, 31st Dec. 1812, 1st lieut. brevet, 1st May, 1814; O. Martin, 8th Feb. 1814, 1st lieut. brevet, 25th Sept. 1814; R. H. Hammon, 1st Oct. 1814.
For the sixth Regiment of Infantry. Major-James V. Ball, 16th Sept. 1812, lieut. col. brevet, 18th Dec. 1812.
The light artillery, Newport, R. I. 1st infantry, Pasa, Christianna, Louisiana. 2d infantry, Sackett's Harbour, N. Y. 3d infantry, Detroit, Michigan. 4th infantry, Fort Hawkins, Georgia. 5th infantry, Detroit, Michigan. 6th infantry, Plattsburg, N. Y. 7th infantry, Fort Hawkins, Georgia. 8th infantry, St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Rifle regiment, St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Officers of the staff, engineers, ordnance, and of the corps of artillery, will be disposed of in separate orders. Commanding officers will report the names of all who do not forthwith repair to their stations.-The army is too small to tolerate idlers, and they will be dismissed the service. By order of the Secretary of War.
Report of Henry Rutgers, Samuel L. Mitchell, and Thomas Morris, the commissioners superintending || the construction of a steam vessel of war, (at NewYork) to the Secretary of the Navy.
NEW-YORK, Dec. 28, 1815. SIR,-The war which was terminated by the treaty of Ghent afforded, during its short conti. nuance, a glorious display of the valour of the U. States by land and by sea-it made them better known to foreign nations, and, what is of much greater importance, it contributed to make them better acquainted with themselves-it excited new enterprises-it induced latent talents-it stimulated to exertions unknown to our people before.
It was conceived, by a most ingenious and enterprising citizen, that the power of steam could be employed to propel a floating battery, carrying heavy guns, to the destruction of any hostile force
that should hover on the shores, or enter the ports of our Atlantic frontier. The perfect and admirable success of his project for moving boats containing travellers and baggage by the same elastic agent, opened the way to its employment for carrying warriors and apparatus for fighting.
The plan was submitted to the consideration of the executive of an enlightened government. Congress, influenced by the most liberal and patriotic spirit, appropriated money for the experiment, and the navy department, then conducted by hon. William Jones, appointed commissioners to superintend the construction of a convenient vessel under the direction of Robert Fulton, Esq. the inventor, as engineer, and Messrs. Adam and Noah Brown as naval constructors. The enter
prise, from its commencement, and during a considerable part of its preparatory operations, was aided by the zealous co-operation of Major General Dearborn, then holding his head-quarters at the city of New-York, as the officer commanding the third military district. The loss of his valuable counsel in conducting a work which he had maturely considered, and which he strongly recommended, was the consequence of his removal to another section of the Union, where his professional talents were specially required.
The keels of this steam frigate were laid on the 20th day of June, 1814. The strictest blockade the enemy could enforce interrupted the coasting trade, and greatly enhanced the price of timber. The vigilance with which he guarded our coast against intercourse with foreign nations rendered difficult the importation of copper and iron. The same impediment attended the supplies of coal heretofore brought to New-York from Richmond and Liverpool. Lead, in like manner, was procured under additional disadvantages. These attempts of the enemy to frustrate the design were vain and impotent. All the obstacles were surmounted. Scarcity of the necessary woods and metals was overcome by strenuous exertions; and all the blockading squadron could achieve was not a disappointment in the undertaking, but merely an increase of the expense.
So, in respect to tradesmen and labourers, there was an extraordinary difficulty. Shipwrights had repaired to the lakes for repelling the enemy, in such numbers, that, comparatively speaking, few were left on the sea-board. A large portion of the men who had been engaged in daily work had enlisted as soldiers, and had marched under the banners of the nation to the defence of its rights- yet, amidst the scarcity of hands, a suffi cient number were procured for the purpose which the commissioners had in charge. An increase of wages was the chief impediment, and this they were enabled practically to overcome.
By the exemplary combination of diligence and skill, on the part of the engineer, and the constructors, the business was so accelerated that the vessel was launched on the 29th day of October, amidst the plaudits of an unusual number of citizens.
A long extent of coast was exposed to an enemy, powerful above every other on the ocean. His commanders threatened to lay waste our country with fire and sword, and actually, in various instances, carried their menaces into execution. It became necessary, for our defence, to resist, by every practicable method, such a formi-her equipment; the boiler, the engine, and the dable foc. machinery were put on board with all possible ex
Measures were immediately taken to complete
At length all matters were ready for a trial of the machinery to urge such a bulky vessel through the This essay was on the 1st day of June, 1815. She proved herself capable of opposing the wind, and of stemming the tide, of crossing currents, and of being steered among vessels riding at anchor, though the weather was boisterous and the water rough. Her performance demonstrated, that the project was successful-no doubt remained that a floating battery, composed of heavy artille. ry, could be moved by steam. The commissioners returned from the exercise of the day, satisfied that the vessel would answer the intended purpose, and effi-consoled themselves that their care had been bestowed upon a worthy object.
pedition. Their weight and size far surpassed
But it was discovered, that various alterations were necessary. Guided by the light of experience, they caused some errors to be corrected, and some defects to be supplied. She was prepared for a second voyage with all practicable speed.
On the 4th day of July she was again put in ac
About this time, an officer pre-eminent for bravery and discipline, was commissioned by the government to her command. Prior to this event. It had been intended by the commissioners to finish her conformably to the plan originally submitted to the executive. She was a structure resting upon two boats, and keels separated from end totion. She performed a trip to the ocean, eastward end by a canal 15 feet wide, and 156 long. One of Sandy Hook, and back again, a distance of 53boat contained the cauldrons of copper to prepare miles, in eight hours and twenty minutes. A part the steam. The vast cylinder of iron, with its of this time she had the tide against her, and had pisto, lever and wheels, occupied a part of its fel- no assistance whatever from sails. Of the gentlelow; the great water-wheel revolved in the space men who formed the company invited to witness between them; the main or gun deck supported the experiment, not one entertained a doubt of her her armament, and was protected by a bulwark of fitness for the intended purpose. 4 feet 10 inches thick, of solid timber. This was pierced by 30 port holes, to enable as many 32 pounders to fire red hot balls; her upper or spar deck was plain, and she was to be propelled by her enginery alone.
Additional expedients were, notwithstanding, necessary to be sought for quickening and directing her motion. These were devised and executed with all possible care.
It was the opinion of Captain Porter and Mr. Fulton, that the upper deck ought to be surround-of ed with a bulwark and stanchions-that two stout || masts should be erected to support latteen sailsthat there should be bowsprits for jibs, and that she should be rigged in a corresponding style. Under authorities so great, and with the expectation of being able to raise the blockade of New London, by destroying, taking or routing the enemy's ships, all these additions were adopted and incorporated with the vessel.
Suitable arrangements having been made, a third trial of her powers was attempted on the 11th day September with the weight of 26 of her long ponderous guns, and a considerable quantity of her ammunition and stores on board; her draft of water was short of 11 feet. She changed her course by inverting the motion of the wheels without the necessity of putting about. She fired salutes as she passed the forts, and she overcome the wind and tide in her progress down the bay. She performed beautiful maneuvres around the United States frigate Java, then at anchor near the light house. She moved with remarkable celerity, and she was perfectly obedient to her double helm. It was observed that the explosions of powder produced very little concussion.
It must here be observed, that during the ex. hausted state of the treasury, and the temporary depression of public credit, the commissioners were exceedingly embarrassed-their payments were made in treasury notes, which they were positively instructed to negociate at par. On several occasions even these were so long withheld, that the persons who had advanced materials and labour, were importunate for payment, or silently discontented. To a certain extent, the commissioners pledged their private credit. Notwith. standing all this, the men at one time actually broke off. The work was retarded, and her completion unavoidably deferred, to the great disap-table company who attended, beyond their utmost pointment of the commissioners, until winter ren- expectations. It was universally agreed, that we now possessed a new auxiliary against every maridered it impossible for her to act. time invader. The city of New York, exposed as it is, was considered as heaving the means of rendering itself invulnerable.-The Delaware, the Chesapeake, Long Island Sound, and every other bay and harbour in the nation may be protected by the same tremendous power.
The machinery was not affected by it in the smallest degree. Her progress, during the firing, was steady and uninterrupted. On the most accu rate calculations, derived from heaving the log, her average velocity was 53 miles per hour. Notwithstanding the resistance of currents, she was found to make headway at the rate of 2 miles an hour against the ebb of the East river, running 34 knots. The day's exercise was satisfactory to the respec
Under all this pressure, they nevertheless persevered in the important object confided to them. But their exertions were further retarded by the premature and unexpected death of the engineer. The world was deprived of his invaluable labors before he had completed this favorite undertaking. We will not inquire wherefore, in the dispensations of Divine Providence, he was not permitted to re-experiment, was the heat endured by the men who alize his grand conception. His discoveries, how-attended the fires. To enable a correct judgment to be formed on this point, one of the Commissioners ever, survive for the benefit of mankind, and will (Dr. Mitchill) descended and examined, by a therextend to unborn generations.
Among the inconveniences observable during the