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thoms it was considerably brackish, and continu- || pass; and after sounding from shore to shore in a transverse direction, the result was an average depth of sixty feet. With these data, the quantity of water moving to the sea in 24 hours, may be thus calculated:

ed to grow salter to the bottom. From these experiments it appears, that the river at the mouth Hows over an immoveable body of salt water, probably at different depths, according to the velocity of the current.

Now, as the water of the Mississippi is turbid, from its contents of clay, so soon as it flows over the quiet body of salt water below, the sediment must fall within it, and being there undisturbed by the motion of the current, it must settle to the bottom. When it has risen to a sufficient height, the logs which continually float down the river, together with whole trees, lodge on these banks of mud, and thus catch every succeeding floating body which happens to come in contact. More mud is added, until a surface is formed above the water, and then a growth of cane poles spring up, and render the mass of logs and mud firm. When these detached masses are numerous, and lay in the vicinity of each other, they soon connect themselves in the same manner, and thus the banks of the river have been formed for the dis-of tance of 110 miles, and probably much farther above the city. This process is still going on, and detached masses are now formed for five or six miles below the connected banks of the river.Some of these masses appear perfected by a growth of cane poles, others are covered with logs and drift wood, and many the most distant from the bar, are just emerging.


The water of this river is turbid, and has the appearance from deck of being very thick with yellow clay, but upon taking it up in a glass, it looks like a thin whitish fluid. To ascertain what proportion of the river water was clay, a barrel filled with it was allowed to remain till the sedi ment had precipitated itself. There was then found to be one cubic inch of clay, in a tenacious and impalpable powder. Now, as a gallon contains 282 cubic inches, and a barrel 32 gallons, there must be 282 X 32-9024 cubic inches in a barrel. Then, as there was one cubic inch of sediment in this bulk of water, the proportion which one bears to the other may be expressed by the fraction 1-9024, or in round numbers, about 1-10,000 part. But it contains a greater quantity of mud at some seasons of the year, and the author of the Mississippi navigator asserts that the proportion is as one to eight. This, however, appears incredible.


1760 X 1760-3,097,600 square yards, multiplied by 20 yards deep, gives 61,952,000 cubic yards of water moving to sea in an hour. Now, 27 feet is contained in a cubic yard, this multiplied by 61,952,000, gives 1,672,704,000 feet in the above column of water. This multiplied by 1728 inches in a foot, gives 2,890,432,512,000 cubic inches, which being divided by 9024 cubic inches in a barrel, gives 3,092,234,622 barrels. Now, as about 1-10,000 part of this quantity of w. ter is sediment, the last product divided by 10,000, gives the number of barrels of sediment conveyed to the sea, and deposited at the mouth of the river per hour. Then by multiplying this product by 24 hours in a day, we have 3,092,234 X 24-74,213,516 barrels of mud per day. What an amazing quantity must be carried out during the course a year, especially when we consider that the river flows with twice the velocity when it has risen to its height!


Of the island of Tristan D'Acunha, off which the action between the Hornet and Penguin was fought. By an officer of the Hornet.


The island of Tristan d'Acunha, in the South Atlantic ocean, lies in lat. 37. 6. S. and longitude 11, 42 west. It is inhabited by three men. Thomas Currie who has been on it the longest, that is to say about four years, claims the sovereignty, and is styled governor: the second is a Portuguese, has been there about a year; and the third, whose name is Johnson, is believed to be a German, and was left on the island about four months since, by the American privateer Young Wasp, of Philadelphia. They appear to be perfectly contented and happy in their situation, dreary and uncomfortable as it may seem. Their houses are entirely built of straw, and covered with sea elephant's skins, which renders them impervious to the rain.

To ascertain the quantity of mud deposited at the mouth of the river, it is necessary that we should make some estimate of the quantity of water flowing to the sea. At a certain pass of the width of one mile, the velocity of the current was ascertained thus. A patent revolving log was procured, and by means of a line with a heavy || weight attached, it was sunk at different depths at pleasure. Upon placing this log near the middle of the river, at the surface the velocity was found to be at the rate of two miles per hour; or in other words, three thousand five hundred and twenty yards. At the bottom of the river the velocity was found to be at the rate of one mile per hour; and at the middle depth, the mean of these two velocities, or one mile and a half per hour.Then, at different distances from the shore, the velocity was ascertained in the same manner; and the aggregate result was found to be about one mile per hour. It was next found necessary to estimate the average depth of the river at this

The soil of this island is of excellent quality, capable of producing vegetables of every kind in profusion. Governor Curric now raises potatoes, cabbages and carrots in abundance, and some turnips, sallads and beets. Of the three last he carefully préserves the seed The governor has also a stock of hogs, of a small breed, which he caught wild, and reduced under his government. The authority of Governor Currie, though founded on the title of preoccupancy, extends only to his hogs, as neither the German nor the Portuguese acknowledge his superiority. The most perfect system of equality prevails among the three; but it is feared that ambition will, one day or other, occasion a struggle for power that may possibly produce another triumvirate equal to Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus. There are an immense number of birds on the island, principally of two kinds, the largest of the size of a robin, the other not larger than the yellow bird, both of a dirty brown colour. When we first went on shore they were so very tame that we could knock them down with our hats; but they afterwards became more shy, owing to our killing a great

We may probably be wrong in our conjectures upon this subject, but it certainly appears to us, that any sound which could be conveyed over a space of six or seven hundred miles, must have pen-been insupportable at the distance of 35 paals from the Crater.

number of them for the use of the sick. We also killed several sea lions, with which the shore abounds, and whose tongues, hearts, and flippers are excellent eating. There are also, at certain seasons of the year, a number of seals and guins, particularly on the south side of the island. Tristan d'Acunha appears to be about fifteen miles in circumference. It is very high land, and, in clear weather, may be seen at the distance of twenty-five or thirty leagues. We made it at about 45 miles, owing to the weather being hazy. Part of the island, from the north, rises perpendicularly from the sea, apparently to the height of near one thousand feet: a level then commences, forming what is called table land, and extends towards the centre of the island, whence arises a conical mountain four thousand feet in height. The top of this mountain is almost constantly enveloped in clouds; and it was only when the weather was very clear, and the sun very bright, that we could see the summit, which is covered with perpetual snows.

The coast of Tristan d'Acunha is very bold, and appears to be clear of danger where there are breakers about two cables' length from the shore. The ship, while at anchor, was over- The morning was extremely dark and lowering, shawdowed by that part of the island under which particular to the Southward and S. W.; the wind she lay, which rises, like a moss-grown wall, from light and from the Eastward-Perceiving a large the bottom of the ocean. In other places the prow coming from the Southward, I sent a boat shore was covered with a kind of sea-weed called on board to get any intelligence she might have kelp, and by our sailors Cape Ann moorings. The to give, as she was coming from the quarter from landing place is perfectly safe for the smallest whence the firing had been heard. The prow was boats, except in heavy blowing weather. A stream from the island of Salayer.-A Dutchman who of water, which takes its origin in the monntain, commanded her stated that he heard the firing the empties itself on the beach, by a cataract about|| whole night, but had seen no vessels or boats-he 40 feet high, and may be seen at the distance of also stated that two days previous to his leaving 8 or 10 miles at sea, tumbling down the mountain Salayer, about the 4th or 5th, a heavy firing had as white at the snow on its summit. The water is been heard to the Southward of the Island; that very fine and pure, and the casks can be filled by the guns in the fort had been manned in consemeans of a hose of about one hundred feet long, quence, conceiving it to be an attack by the pirates without removing them from the boat. The an- on some part of the Island, but as no vessels or chorage is on the north side of the island; and boats had appeared, it was at length concluded to vessels wishing to make it for the purpose of pro-be an eruption from the Volcano on the Island of curing wood and water, should run in until the watering place bears south-west by south, about one mile distant, where they will get seventeen fathoms water, in a gravelly bottom mixed with pieces of shells. But it would be advisable not to come to anchor, owing to the steepness of the anchorage ground, and the frequency of sudden squalls from off the island.


Extract of a private letter.

On 5th April, 1815, a firing of cannon was heard at Macasser-the sound appeared to come from the southward, and continued at intervals all the afternoon.-Towards sunset the reports seemed to approach much nearer, and sounded like heavy guns, occasionally with slighter reports between. During the night of the 11th, the firing was again heard, but much louder, and towards morning the reports were in quick succession-sometimes like three or four guns fired together, and so heavy that they shook the ship as they did the houses in the Fort.-Some of the reports seemed so near that I sent people to the mast-head to look out for the flashes, and immediately as the day dawned, I weighed and stood to the Southward, with a view of ascertaining the cause.

In consequence of this information, and being of the same opinion, I anchored the ship abreast of Macasser, and went on shore to the resident with the intelligence.-I found that capt. Wood entertained the same opinion, as the house at Macasser had been shook by some of the reports.

Indeed, by this time, which was about 8, A. M. it was very apparent that some extraordinary occurrence had taken place.-The face of the Heavens to the southward and westward had assumed a most dismal and lowering aspect, and it was much darker than when the sun rose; at first it


ship Jacob Jones.

From the Java Government Gazette, received by the had the appearance of a very heavy squall or storm approaching; but as it came nearer it assumed a dusky, red appearance, and continued to spread very fast over the heavens. By 10 it was so dark could scarcely discern the ship from the shore, though not a mile distant. I then returned on board.

The distance of Batavia from the Tomboro mountain is between seven and eight hundred miles, which appears so enormous a space for sound to be conveyed over, that we cannot help supposing the Valcano on Sambawa is in some degree connected with other Volcanic mountains in this island.

*Sambawa is in lat. 8, 54, S. lon. 110, 47, E.

We are at length enabled to give the public a full and interesting account of the Volcanic erup-I tion that has recently taken place on the Island of Sambawa.

It was now evident that an eruption had taken place from some Volcano, and that the air was filled with ashes or Volcanic dust, which already began to fall on the decks-by 11 the whole of the Heavens were obscured, except a small space near the horizon to the eastward; the wind being from that quarter, prevented for a short time the approach of the ashes; it appeared like a streak of light at day break, the mountains of Celebes

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being clearly visible, while every other part of the
horizon was enveloped in darkness.-The ashes
now began to fall in showers, and the appearance
altogether was truly awful and alarming. By
noon, the light that had remained in the eastern
part of the horizon disappeared, and complete
darkness now covered the face of the day-our
decks were soon covered with falling matter-the
awnings were spread fore and aft, to prevent it as
much as possible from getting below, but it was
so light and subtile that it pervaded every part of
the ship.

upon several parts of it,concluding it to have been thrown up during the eruption-it proved to be a complete mass of pumice floating on the sea, some inches in depth, with great numbers of large trunks of trees and logs among it, that appeared to be burnt, shivered as if blasted by lightning The boat had much difficulty in pulling through it, and until we got into the entrance of Bima bay, the sea was litterally covered with shoals of pumice and floating timber.

On the 19th, arrived in Bima bay; in coming to anchor grounded on the bank off Bima town, shoalThe darkness was so profound during the re- ing suddenly from 3 fathoms; as the tide was rimainder of the day, that I never saw any thing sing, hove off again without any difficulty or daequal to it in the darkest night-it was impossi-mage. I imagine the anchorage at Bima must ble to see your hand when held up close to your || have altered considerably, as where we grounded, eyes the ashes continued to fall without inter- the Ternate Cruizer a few months since lay at mission through the night. At 6 the next morn-anchor in six fathoms. The shores of the bay had ing, when the sun ought to have been seen, it still a most dreary appearance, being entirely covered continued as dark as ever, but at half past seven, with ashes, even up to the summit of the mounI had the satisfaction to perceive that the dark-tains-the perpendicular depth of the ashes, as ness evidently decreased and by 8, I could faint-measured in the vicinity of Bima town, I found ly discern objects on deck-from this time, it three inches and three quarters. began to get lighter very fast, and by half past 9, the shore was distinguishable; the ashes falling in considerable quantities, though not so heavily as before. The appearance of the ship, when day-miles to the Westward of Bima. On the night of light returned, was most extraordinary, the masts, the 11th, the explosions he represents as most rigging, decks, and every part being covered with terrific, and compared them to a heavy mortar the falling matter; it had the appearance of cal-fired close to his ear. cined pumice stone nearly the color of wood ashes-it lay in heaps of a foot in depth in many parts of the deck, and I am convinced several tons weight were thrown overboard; for although a perfect impalpable powder or dust, when it fell, it was, when compressed of considerable weight, a pint measure filled with it, weighed 12 3-4 ounces-was perfectly tasteless, and did not affect the eyes with any painful sensation-had a faint burnt smell, but nothing like sulphur.

From the account given me by the Resident of Bima, it appears that the eruption proceeded from the Tomboro mountain, situated about 40

By noon, on the 12th, the sun again appeared,
but very faintly through the dusky atmostphere.
The air still being charged with the ashes, and
which continued to fall lightly all that day and the
succeeding one.

On going on shore at Moressa, I found the face
of the country completely covered to the depth
of an inch and a quarter-great fears were en-
tertained for the crop of paddy that was on the
ground; the young plants being completely beaten
down and covered by it-the fish in the ponds at
Marressa were killed and floating on the surface,
and many small birds lying dead on the ground.
It took several days to clear the ship of the ashes;
when mixed with water it formed a tenacious mud,
difficult to be washed off-my Chronometer stop-in
ped, owing I imagine, to some particles of dust
having penetrated into it.

From the 12th to the 15th the atmosphere still continued very thick and dusky, from the ashes that remained suspended; the rays of the sun scarce able to penetrate through it, with little or no wind the whole time.

The darkness commenced about seven in the morning and continued until the middle of the day, twelve hours longer than it did at Macasser. The fall of ashes was so heavy as to break the roof of the Residency house in many places, and rendered it uninhabitable, as well as many other houses in the town.

The wind was still during the whole time, but the sea uncommonly agitated; the waves rolled in upon the shore and filled the lower part of the houses a foot deep; every prow and boat was forced from the anchorage and driven on shore; several large prows are now laying a considerable distance above high water mark.


On the 22d the Dispatch country ship arrived in the bay from Amboyna-this vessel had mistaken a bay called Dampoor Sanjier bay, for Bima, and had gone into it; her boat was on shore at Sanjier, the Raja of which place informed the Officer that the greater part of the town and a number of people had been destroyed by the eruption; that the whole of his country was entirely desolate and the crops destroyed. The town of Sanjier is situ ate about 4 or 5 leagues to the S. E. of the Tomboro mountain; The Officer found great difficulty landing in the bay, a considerable distance from the shore being completely filled up with pumice stones, ashes and logs of timber; the houses appered beaten down and covered with ashes.

In passing Tomboro mountain, at the distance of about 6 miles, the summit was not visible, being enveloped in clouds of smoke and ashes, the sides smoking in several places, apparently from the

On the morning of the 15th, weighed from Ma-lava, which has flowed down, it not being cooled; casser with a very light wind, and on the 18th several streams have reached the sea, a very conmade the island Sambawa-on approaching the siderable one to N. N. W. of the mountain, the coast passed through great quantities of pumice course of which was plainly discernible both from stone floating on the sea, which at first had the the black colour of the lava contrasted with the appearance of shoals, so much so, that I hove to, ashes on each side of it, and the smoke which arose and sent a boat to examine one, which at the dis- from every past of it. The Tomboro mountain in tance of less than a mile I took for a dry sand bank, a direct line from Macasser is about 217 nautic upwards of three miles in length, with black rocks miles distant.

Communicated for the Alexandria Gazette.

had made overtures to a high character in France,
who, suspecting the feelings of M. de Richelieu
on that subject, ventured to confide to him the
communication he had received on that subject,
who replied, he was not surprised at such over-


Mr. Curtis, of Arlington, and a party of gentle. men, returning from Smith's Island, have visited Pope's Creek, in the county of Westmoreland, ever memorable, as the birth place of our Wash-tures, and added, you may be further consulted ington, and have placed a stone upon the remains on that subject; by which it would seem that M. of the old mansion-house, in which the hero first de Richelieu is not a stranger to the Russian plan, saw the light. The stone is a plain free-stone in favour of the young prince. It is thought that slab, and bears this simple inscription: he presides over France, under the immediate influence of Russian councils. It is reported that a treaty of alliance between the Emperor of Russia, his Majesty of Prussia, and the King of the Netherlands, had been signed, and that the object of the Duke of Wellington's visit to the Hague, (from whence he returned to Paris on the 22d of April) was to obtain an explanation from the King of the Netherlands of the specific object of the high contracting parties in the alliance. A conjecture is afloat, that this alliance will occasion a similar one between England, France, and Austria.

On the 11th of February, 1732,


The report of cannon from the vessel awakened the echoes of the place, and told, that Americans were paying affectionate tribute to the memory

of their Chief.

Westmoreland, 4th June, 1816.


Accounts from New-Orleans to the 21st ult. state that all hopes of stopping the breach in the crevasse were at an end, until the periodical fall of the water in the river. All further attempts to oppose this torrent of water was abandoned on the 16th. The width and depth of the stream rushing through the embankment of the river is variously represented: the greatest estimation we have seen is stated at 200 feet by 20. It is provide for its expenses. bable this is somewhat above reality. The water was still rising a little in the back part of the city, and in what is called the Fauxbourge, St. Mary's, and the low grounds. No apprehensions are entertained as to the safety of the merchandise deposited in the city. Some serious fears are entertained for the health of the inhabitants when the water subsides. A prevalence of a fever is expected to insue.

In the sitting of the CHAMBER OF PEERS of April 27, the report of the special committee of seven, appointed to examine the law project on the finances, was made by Count Garnier. It was divided into three heads:

1. The establishment of the budget of 1816; that is to say, the exposition of the ordinaries and extraordinaries of the army, and the ways and means to which the government may resort to pro

2. The discharge of the debt in arrear, and due on the 1st January, 1817, and the means adopted to provide therefor.

S. The payment of a loan of 100 millions raised in virtue of a Royal Ordinance, dated August 16th, 1815.

In considering these topics in succession, the committee discussed several important questions, particularly what is the competence of legislative chambers with respect to the public revenue, in a monarchy? The report concluded with recommending the adoption of the law, which the com


London dates to the 2d of May, and Paris tomittee thought could not be longer deferred withthe 27th of April, have been received at New-out occasioning irreparable prejudice to our fiYork. By the extracts of letters from Paris under nances.

date of the 24th and 25th April, to the editors of || Some debate arose on the question for printing the London Courier and Morning Chronicle, mat-the report; which was finally assented to. The ter for political speculation, and conjecture is af- Chamber then proceeded to ballot on the law proforded. It is stated that the aid de camp to theject; which received the sanction of 131 to 1, Emperor Alexander has arrived at Paris with and the President accordingly proclaimed its despatches, the object of one of which, is stated adoption. It was expected the Chambers would to be, to withdraw from the Duke of Wellington be prorogued about the 6th or 7th of May; that the command of the Russian army in France, the King would not go in person, but nominate a which he holds as generalissimo of the allied commissioner for that purpose, to be presided by forces. Differences are said to exist between the the Chancellor. Russian and British cabinets, and are supposed to relate to the settlement of a new order of things in France. The most prevalent opinion there, is that the differences arise principally from preten-London and Dresden The King of Saxony signs sions set up by Russia in favour of the young the marriage contract in quality of head of all the Prince of Orange, in the event of the Bourbons princes of the family of Saxony. Appropriations being removed from the throne, the expediency have been made for the amelioration of the conof which is understood to be sensibly felt by thedition of the French clergy. Great reduction of allies. An article had lately appeared in the Bel-naval establishments are taking place in Enggian Moniteur, eulogizing the young prince, and land. No new commissions will issue, and their remarked that he already justified a confidence in establishments in the Mediterranean, East and his abilities for the high destinies to which he West Indies, it is said, will be reduced. may be called. This is supposed to allude to the throne of France. The government of the lower countries, in conjunction with Russia, are represented as taking measures to that effect. They

Sir R. Wilson, Mr. Bruce, and Capt. Hutchinson have been found guilty, and sentenced to three months imprisonment-the slightest punishment the law allows.

The marriage of the Prince Cobourg to the Princess Charlottee is stated to have produced more intimate relations between the courts of


NO. 17. VOL. 1.]

Does it then become these men, by so pertina-
ciously adhering to a name, to forego all their
influence, and to fight with almost a certainty of
defeat. If by renouncing their distinctive appel-
lation, and burying in a generous oblivion the old
subjects of controversy, more benefit can be done
to their country-if they will have more influence,
more chance of obtaining good or of preventing
evil, are they not called upon, from motives of
the purest and most elevated patriotism, to make
such a sacrifice! Is it their indispensible duty to,
adopt their names, and by so doing to furnish
their opponents with a political instrument to de-


us sean py

The editor of the Delaware Gazette, after paying us a compliment which we do not deserve, proceeds to remark on the position which we have advanced, that our "political parties differ in nothing but in name;" that "there is no general plan, no outline of national policy in which they do not all heartily unite." The editor does not contradict this statement, but proceeds to show that a union is impracticable. All his arguments, however, turn upon one point, which is this, the Preservation of the memory of our old political animosities. This is the very point to which we have endeavoured to car the attention low citizens. We have endeavoured to consider the question at some length-whether this point was worthy an altercation about. If it cannot be proved (and the editor himself does not pretend to say that it can) that any one political object can be answered by such mutual charges and recriminations, the question then occurs, for what purpose are they made? We will not pretend to say, that it is the duty of one half of our fellow citizens to be set in hostile array against the other half, without some practical benefit is to result|lators, we hold them utterly beneath our notice

-- 2

and distinctly on this point, because it is one of the greatest importance, and on which we propose hereafter to enter at large. We will ask, then, whether the party called federal do not commit political suicide, merely for the pride of preserving their distinctive appellation. We speak to men who are acquainted with men and with things; to those who have noticed the course of our elections; for with regard to boy-theorists, college politicians, and Greece and Rome specu

at all. The proposition that the federal party should renounce their name, does indeed seem a bold one; but it is justified by the emergency of the case. On the ground which has been assumed by this party, they are called upon to make this

from such a contest. The editors of our public journals are not employed to call each other opprobrious names for the mere benefit resulting from such a controversy-this is done to keep their respective parties together; so that each may be brought to the polls on the day of elec-sacrifice, unless they are driven to contend this tion. But in the present instance there is nothing desperate point, that so much virtue and so much but the name to divide the parties now-and the talent which they boast of possessing ought to only question is, whether this name is of import- remain in the minority. They receive information of this fact through so many channels, that it canance enough to be continued. Now we do conceive this to be the most pernicious policy that not be doubted for a moment. If the members of can be devised for practical men. It deprives one this party struggled to preserve themselves in the portion of the community of all share in public minority, they would adopt the same measures which they now do, and preserve their party apbonoure and confidence-they do, by the adoption of such a name, pass an act of political outlawrypellation. Far different are the ideas which we upon themselves: they renounce by it their just entertain upon this interesting subject. And alinfluence in their country. We do not call upon lowing, for the sake of argument, that the measures of our administration have been wrong, gentlemen to renounce a single opinion, nor to what is the inference? Is it to be inferred from make a single sacrifice of probity or of honour. The only question is, how our country can reap hence, that our political destinies must remain the largest share of such qualities. Clearly, if in the hands of those who have done us so much the party denominated federal adhere with such injury? This will indubitably follow if the federal scrupulous sanctity to that name, their hopes are party do retain their name, as the recent elecgone. This experiment has been tried in every tions have abundantly testified. In fact, and we do not speak without book, our present adminisshape, and hard and obstinate has been the contest. The result we all know, and we can confi-tration preserve their hold on public confidence more by this cord than any other, which every dently predict what will be the result hereafter. S


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